Aquatic Science

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(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to: (A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations, including chemical, electrical, and fire safety, and safe handling of live and preserved organisms; and
(B) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

Interactive Student
(B) Recycle City  read the instructions to see how trash can be used
(B) Dumptown Game

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(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to: (A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;
(B) know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;
(C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;
(D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;
(E) plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting, handling, and maintaining appropriate equipment and technology;
(F) collect data individually or collaboratively, make measurements with precision and accuracy, record values using appropriate units, and calculate statistically relevant quantities to describe data, including mean, median, and range;
(G) demonstrate the use of course apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures;
(H) organize, analyze, evaluate, build models, make inferences, and predict trends from data;
(I) perform calculations using dimensional analysis, significant digits, and scientific notation; and
(J) communicate valid conclusions using essential vocabulary and multiple modes of expression such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

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(A-D) APO Island
(A-D) Trace the Gray Whale Migration

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(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to: (A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;
(B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials;
(C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;
(D) evaluate the impact of research and technology on scientific thought, society, and the environment;
(E) describe the connection between aquatic science and future careers; and
(F) research and describe the history of aquatic science and contributions of scientists.

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(4) Science concepts. Students know that aquatic environments are the product of Earth systems interactions. The student is expected to: (A) identify key features and characteristics of atmospheric, geological, hydrological, and biological systems as they relate to aquatic environments;
(B) apply systems thinking to the examination of aquatic environments, including positive and negative feedback cycles; and
(C) collect and evaluate global environmental data using technology such as maps, visualizations, satellite data, Global Positioning System (GPS), Geographic Information System (GIS), weather balloons, buoys, etc.

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(5) Science concepts. The student conducts long-term studies on local aquatic environments. Local natural environments are to be preferred over artificial or virtual environments. The student is expected to: (A) evaluate data over a period of time from an established aquatic environment documenting seasonal changes and the behavior of organisms;
(B) collect baseline quantitative data, including pH, salinity, temperature, mineral content, nitrogen compounds, and turbidity from an aquatic environment;
(C) analyze interrelationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in a local aquatic ecosystem; and
(D) identify the interdependence of organisms in an aquatic environment such as in a pond, river, lake, ocean, or aquifer and the biosphere.
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(A, D) California Coast
(D) On the Edge
(D) Journey to the Deep
(D) Water Life
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(6) Science concepts. The student knows the role of cycles in an aquatic environment. The student is expected to: (A) identify the role of carbon, nitrogen, water, and nutrient cycles in an aquatic environment, including upwellings and turnovers; and
(B) examine the interrelationships between aquatic systems and climate and weather, including El Niño and La Niña, currents, and hurricanes.

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(7) Science concepts. The student knows the origin and use of water in a watershed. The student is expected to: (A) identify sources and determine the amounts of water in a watershed, including rainfall, groundwater, and surface water;
(B) identify factors that contribute to how water flows through a watershed; and
(C) identify water quantity and quality in a local watershed.

 Interactive Student
(A,B,C) Virtual River, River Discharge
(A,B,C) Virtual River, Flooding

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(8) Science concepts. The student knows that geological phenomena and fluid dynamics affect aquatic systems. The student is expected to: (A) demonstrate basic principles of fluid dynamics, including hydrostatic pressure, density, salinity, and buoyancy;
(B) identify interrelationships between ocean currents, climates, and geologic features; and
(C) describe and explain fluid dynamics in an upwelling and lake turnover.

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(9) Science concepts. The student knows the types and components of aquatic ecosystems. The student is expected to: (A) differentiate among freshwater, brackish, and saltwater ecosystems;
(B) identify the major properties and components of different marine and freshwater life zones; and
(C) identify biological, chemical, geological, and physical components of an aquatic life zone as they relate to the organisms in it.

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(10) Science concepts. The student knows environmental adaptations of aquatic organisms. The student is expected to: (A) classify different aquatic organisms using tools such as dichotomous keys;
(B) compare and describe how adaptations allow an organism to exist within an aquatic environment; and
(C) compare differences in adaptations of aquatic organisms to fresh water and marine environments.

 Interactive Student
(B) Investigation: Seahorses

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(11) Science concepts. The student knows about the interdependence and interactions that occur in aquatic environments. The student is expected to: (A) identify how energy flows and matter cycles through both fresh water and salt water aquatic systems, including food webs, chains, and pyramids; and
(B) evaluate the factors affecting aquatic population cycles.

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(12) Science concepts. The student understands how human activities impact aquatic environments. The student is expected to: (A) predict effects of chemical, organic, physical, and thermal changes from humans on the living and nonliving components of an aquatic ecosystem;
(B) analyze the cumulative impact of human population growth on an aquatic system;
(C) investigate the role of humans in unbalanced systems such as invasive species, fish farming, cultural eutrophication, or red tides;
(D) analyze and discuss how human activities such as fishing, transportation, dams, and recreation influence aquatic environments; and
(E) understand the impact of various laws and policies such as The Endangered Species Act, right of capture laws, or Clean Water Act on aquatic systems.

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