ABSTRACTS

Edward Lipiński

(Brussels, Belgium)

MEDIAN *GANZA- AS LOANWORD  

Keywords:

ganzā/ginzā, ganzabāra, gizbār, upa-ganzabāra, gənīz, genizah, gänzäb, gəmğa, gizza.

Abstract:

The Iranian word *ganza-, ‘store, treasure’, and some of its derivatives have been adopted at the time of the Persian Achaemenid Empire by several Semitic languages, especially by Aramaic and then by Ethio-Semitic and the Greek idiom spoken in the Middle East. The article offers an overview of these loanwords and their variants, sometimes implying linguistic changes caused by the assimilation nz > zz, a partial assimilation of the short a to the plural ending -ē of the Aramaic and Hebrew construct state or the palatalization of z in Amharic. The word Ginza designates the main Mandaean holy book and ‘genizah’ became the name of the storage place of sacred books and other writings in Jewish tradition. The word ginzē has sometimes been confused with gizzē, dissimilated into ginzē ‘wool coats’, especially in the Book of Ezekiel 27:23, referring to Phoenician trade in wool fabrics from 7th-century Assyria and Shubria.

 

Bogdan Burliga

(Gdańsk, Poland)

ἀλγηδόνες ὀμμάτων

Keywords:

Persia, women, beauty, cultural stereotype, gaze, Orient

Abstract:

The subject-matter of the of the article are the opinions the ancient Greeks held of Persian women. The starting point is the well-known episode from  ‘The Life of Alexander’ by Plutarch in which the Boeotian biographer
quotes a famous remark of the Macedonian king that refers to an exceptional beauty of the royal Persian women. Based on other sources of the classical era (especially Xenophon) and later times I try to show that
Greek writers created the stereotype of ‘Oriental woman’: not only an entity of incredible beauty but of independent mind and - thanks to the high social status and influences on the Great King’s court - dangerous.
This stereotype was a part of a broader phenomenon which was Greek fascination with Oriental Achaemenid monarchy. To be sure the Persians aroused in the Greeks fear but in many ways the vast, powerful monarchy and Oriental institutions (including harem) had in themselves a lot of charm in the eyes of the Greek immigrants.

 

Sabine Müller

(Innsbruck, Austria)

Alexanders indischer Schnee, achaimenidische Wassersouvenirs

und mental mind mapping 

Keywords:

Alexander III of Macedonia; Indian Campaign; Chares of Mytilene; Dinon of Colophon; Achaemenid Empire

Abstract:

A quote from Chares' Histories of Alexander tells us that Alexander took snow from an Indian city to cool his wine or perhaps to mix his wine. This use of the snow might have been primarily symbolic as a demonstration of conquest and victory. Alexander had taken possession of the region, thus of their natural resources. A similar idea is expressed by the contemporary Greek historiographer Dinon. According to him, the Persian kings stored water from the Nile and the Danube among their treasures as a sort of confirmation of the greatness of their empire. The historicity of this tradition is in debate. In any case, this idea will have been familiar to Alexander and his Macedonians and thus formed the ideological background of his use of Indian snow.

 

Víctor Alonso Troncoso

(La Coruña, Spain)

THE ZOOLOGY OF KINGSHIP:

FROM ALEXANDER THE GREAT TO THE EPIGONI (336 - C. 250 BC)

Keywords:

Zoology, kingship, Alexander the Great, Diadochi, Epigoni.

Abstract:

Traditionally, kingship has established a strong bond with the forces of nature, animals amongst them. The issue this paper seeks to address is how this connection worked during the foundational period of the Hellenistic dynasties, from Alexander the Great (336 - 323) to the Successors (323 - 281) and the next generation of the Epigoni (281 - c. 250). To what degree, for instance, would we be entitled to speak of an animalization of the kingly idea and image? Did the essentially charismatic nature - in Weberian terms - of the new basileia favour this trend? Was zoology likely to have played a role in the process of constructing the king’s identity and public persona, in his self-fashioning? Above all, horses, lions and eagles were chosen by the kings of that period to show their real and symbolic connections with the animal world - or animal society. This paper focuses on them.



Leonardo Gregoratti

(Durham, UK)

THE MARDIANS: A NOTE 

Keywords:

Mardians, Caucasus, Armenia, Alexander, Rome in the East 

Abstract:

The Mardians were an Iranian mountain tribe which inhabited many different regions of the Near East. Despite the fact that they are frequently present in the narratives of both  Greek and Roman historians, they never aroused much interest among scholars. This contribution remains the only attempt to put together all the references concerning the Mardians, providing at the same time some general hypothesis about their apparent geographical diffusion. It cannot be excluded that the Roman authors who introduced the Mardians among the enemies the imperial armies had to face in their eastern campaigns, wanted to establish an historical link between the current events and Alexander’s campaigns


Martin Schottky

(Pretzfeld, Germany)

 

VORARBEITEN ZU EINER KÖNIGSLISTE KAUKASISCH-IBERIENS. 3.

PHARASMANES II. UND XEPHARNUG

 

Keywords:

Arsacids, Caucasian history, Georgia (Caucasus), Iberia (Caucasus), Pharnabazids


Abstract:

Prolegomena to a King List of Caucasian Iberia 3. Pharasmanes II and Xepharnug

Pharasmanes II was son (not younger brother) of Mithradates III and so great-grandson of Pharasmanes I. He was king of Iberia in 129 AD at the latest. His reign was determined by quarrels with the Caucasian Albanians' king for the sake of the „Caspian Gates“, the pass of Derbend. Like his forefather he incited the Alans to a raid into some Caspian and Caucasian countries. Having won the pass in this way, he was forced by Arrian, Roman governor of Cappadocia, to restore the Gates to his Albanian neighbor. Pharasmanes, who had avoided a meeting with Hadrian, visited Antoninus Pius in Rome with his queen and his heir apparent. This crown prince was very likely Xepharnug, who is mentioned in an Armazian inscription as (Iberian) king reigning after Pharasmanes. Georgian historical tradition paints a quite different picture of Iberian kingship in the first and second centuries. Following the death of „Aderki“, we have five generations of split reigns. Memories of Pharasmanes II survive in the dyarch Parsman the Magnanimous and his grandson Parsman, second ruler of a re-united Kartli. That is why some scholars number Pius´ contemporary king of Iberia „Pharasmanes III“.

 

Ehsan Shavarebi

(Tehran, Iran)

 

HISTORICAL ASPECTS, ICONOGRAPHICAL FACTORS, NUMISMATIC ISSUES, TECHNICAL ELEMENTS:

HOW TO OBTAIN A CONVINCING CHRONOLOGY FOR THE ROCK RELIEFS OF ARDASHĪR I


Keywords:

Ardashīr I, Sasanian rock reliefs, chronology, iconography, numismatics, stone working

Abstract:

Five surviving rock reliefs are known in Iran from the reign of Ardashīr I, four of which are located in Persis/Fārs region. This paper aims to examine four different approaches which are so far used to date these reliefs, i.e. historical facts, iconographical and numismatic elements, and techniques of stoneworking, in order to respond the following question: How can we date the rock reliefs of Ardashīr more precisely and obtain a convincing chronology of them?

 

 

Ahmadali Asadi  

Seyed  Mehdi Mousavi Kouhpar  

Javad  Neyestani  

Alireza Hojabri Nobari

(Iran)

A RECENT LATE SASANIAN DISCOVERY NORTH OF THE PERSIAN GULF.

A REPORT ON THE FIRST SEASON OF EXCAVATIONS AT TOMB-E PARGAN IN HORMOZGAN, IRAN 

Keywords:

Tomb-e Pargan, Fars, Sasanian period, Sasanian pottery,

Abstract:

The results of the first season of the excavation at Tomb-e Pargan (carried out in April 2012) confirmed the initial dating of the site to the Sasanian period, and have revealed an interesting circular structure from Late Sasanian times. Apart of the coins, fragments of stone vessels and a few glass and metal objects, pottery is the most important find. Since the discovered coins have fairly securely dated the mound of Tomb-e Pargan, it can therefore serve as a chronological point of reference for other Late Sasanian ceramics found in the northern areas of the Persian Gulf basin.

 

Hamidreza Pashazanous, Ehsan Afkande

(Tehran, Iran)

THE LAST SASANIANS IN EASTERN IRAN AND CHINA

Keywords:

Sasanians, China, Yazdegerd , Pērōz, Wahrām

Abstract:

Following the devastating defeat at Nihawand, the last Sasanian emperor, Yazdegerd III (632-651) sought refuge in the eastern Iranian plateau, although he continued to return to his country to exert influence over the Persian nobility until his death. His sons, Pērōz and Wahrām, along with a few Persian nobles took refuge in the Tang court of imperial China. They constantly tried to regain “Ēranšahr” (Persia) from the Arabs with the assistance of the Chinese, Sogdians, and the inhabitants of Tocharistan, but all their attempts were in vain. Information about Yazdegerd and his sons and the time they spent in Central Asia and at the Tang court is recorded in the works of Muslim authors, in later Middle Persian literature, and in Chinese sources. In what follows, we will offer some fresh insights about these accounts as they relate to the final years of the Sasanian empire and afterwards.


Habib Borjian

(New York, USA)

A PERSIAN VIEW OF THE STEPPE IRANIANS

Keywords:

Eurasian Steppes, Scythians, Sarmatians, Alans, Persian Empire, Iranian national traditions, Avesta, Shahnama

Abstract:

The intention of this paper is to give a broad outline of the persistent presence of the Steppe Iranians in the Persian history and culture, by bringing together two fields that have often been treated independently. After an overview of the history of interactions between Persia and the Iranian-speaking Steppe nomads, we will extend our attention to the Iranian national history to offer some insights on myths and legends of the Shahnama that have been originated from or influenced by the mutual relations between the Steppe nomads and the dynasties who ruled on the Iranian Plateau.


Marek Jan Olbrycht

(Rzeszów, Poland)

The Diadem in the Achaemenid and Hellenistic Periods

Keywords:

diadem, Achaemenid iconography, Hellenistic royalty, Alexander III, royal attributes

Abstract:

The article is a review of the book Das Diadem der hellenistischen Herrscher, Bonn 2012, being a reference framework for a scrutiny of issues related to the origins of the royal diadem of post-Achaemenid (Hellenistic) kings. Addressed are terminological issues relating to diadems and functionally and/or formally analogous headbands. The designation ʻdiademʼ did not come into widespread use to denote headbands treated as an attribute of royal power until the Hellenistic period. The article addresses an issue which is crucial for the understanding of the Achaemenid and Hellenistic periods – attributes of royal power, the Achaemenid, Macedonian and Greek legacy, and the nature of royal power in antiquity.

 

Jadwiga Pstrusińska

(Warsaw, Poland)

ON THE ORIGIN OF IRANIAN-SPEAKING NOMADS

OF THE EURASIAN STEPPES

IN THE LIGHT OF HUMAN POPULATION GENETICS

Keywords:

Nomads of the Eurasian Steppes, history and geography of human genes, genetics

Abstract:

We learn from the history and geography of human genes regarding the origin of the so-called Iranian people, the Iranian-speaking Nomads of the Eurasian Steppes inclusive, among whom scholars traditionally include Scythians, Sarmatians and Alans, that they cannot necessarily be treated as belonging in the past to an Indo-Iranian community speaking an Indo-Iranian language.





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