The Non-Disclosed Extreme Arctic Methane Threat.
The 2013 Australian above - average temperatures set a record of 0.22oC higher than 12 month period prior to 2013 and confirm a mid-21st century atmospheric methane-induced global deglaciation and major extinction event.
By Malcolm P.R. Light
22nd December, 2013
Pre-industrial levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide never exceeded 275 ppm during all of human existence but now exceeds 400 ppm (Gleick, 2013). Prof. Jennifer Frances of Rutgers University (2013) shows proof that fossil fuel carbon dioxide pollution has caused a massive atmospheric temperature rise since 1960. Furthermore this carbon dioxide build up has a delayed temperature anomaly of more than 12oC and is causing an increase in the severity of storm systems as the evaporation puts more energy into the atmosphere. There is uncertainty about when this sudden delayed temperature anomaly will occur in the future but an earlier anomaly was delayed by some 1000 years, 17,500 years ago (Shakun et al. 2012).
In the last 200 years the methane concentration in the atmosphere as increased by three times and at a much faster rate than the carbon dioxide to which it oxidises to in over 10 to 30 years (Shakova 2013). Furthermore over periods of a few months to a few years methane has a global warming potential from 1000 to 100 times that of carbon dioxide (Carana, 2013; Light 2013). IPCC estimate that all global methane emissions and natural sources are some 548 million tonnes/year with some estimates as high as 852 million tonnes/year while hydroxyl breaks down about 540 million tonnes of this methane per year (Carana, 2013). The IPCC has decided not to warn people about the danger that these large methane emissions will lead to abrupt climate change within decades (Carana, 2013).
Australia has experienced a set of above average temperatures for a period of 15 successive months months since August 2012 which set a new record temperature anomaly of 0.22oC above that of the 12 month period up to 2013 (NOAA, 2013). This temperature anomaly combined with the mean temperature gradient determined by the difference between the modelled estimates of, and the actual rate of floating Arctic ice cap melting has been combined with other data to define a more accurate global atmospheric temperature gradient caused by the fast increasing emission of Arctic atmospheric methane from global warming destabilization of the Arctic subsea methane hydrates.
The best estimate of the time that methane eruption in the Arctic will produce a mean atmospheric temperature of 8oC leading to total global deglaciation and the major extinction of all life on Earth (IPCC, 2007) is 2050.6 +- 3.4 (N=8) with a total range from 2042.2 to 2052.8 (Figures 1 and 2, Tables 1a - 1d, Table 2).
The lowest range extinction date of 2042.2 is 2.6 years later than to the previous best estimate for the extinction of 3/4 of the Earth's surface (2039.6) using aerial growth and methane GWP methods (Light, 2012 Figure 3) and is close to Carana's (2012) best estimate from runaway global warming (Figure 4). The mean time of extinction of the Northern Hemisphere was previously fixed between 2024 and 2039 (Light, 2012). The best estimate of final extinction (2050.6) is 3 years later than the mean estimate for the Southern Hemisphere of 2047.6 (Range 2038 to 2057)(Figure 3). Carana and Light's extinction estimates are more than an order more accurate than the 50 year error that has been determined between International global atmospheric modelling estimates of and the actual rate of Arctic floating ice cap decline (see Figure 5, thinkprogress.org, 2012).
In the Angels Proposal (see; Arctic-news.blogspot.com) subsea Arctic methane is extracted, stored and sold as LNG for distribution as fuel, but permanent storage underground is more preferable (Carana, 2013). Methane can be permanently removed from the atmosphere, oceans and subsea permafrost and stored in ocean basins at near ambient temperatures and pressures in propane and ethane hydrates (Carana, 2013).
Two symbiotic methane eating microbes in cold ocean waters excrete carbon dioxide and need an enzyme that requires tungsten to operate (Glass, 2013). The carbon dioxide released by the bacteria reacts with minerals in the water to form calcium carbonate (Glass 2013). If these bacteria and enzymes were introduced in great quantities into the Arctic Ocean they could eleminate the methane plumes before they entered the atmosphere.
The Lucy and Alamo (HAARP) projects were designed to break down atmospheric methane using radio - laser transmissions (Light and Carana 2013). In a new modified version of the Lucy Project, hydroxyls will be generated by a polarized 13.56 MHZ beam intersecting the sea surface over the region where a massive methane torch (plume) is entering the atmosphere so that the additional hydroxl will react with the rising methane breaking a large part of it down. The polarized 13.56 MHZ radio waves will decompose atmospheric humidity, mist, fog, ocean spray, and the surface of the waves themselves in the Arctic Ocean into nascent hydrogen and hydroxyl (Figure 6).
The newly determined atmospheric temperature gradient indicates that the mean global atmospheric temperature will reach 1.5oC in 15 years (2028.5) and 2oC in 20 years (2033.4). Consequently we only have 15 years to get an efficient methane destruction radio - laser system designed, tested and installed (Lucy and Alamo (HAARP) Projects, Figure 7) before the accelerating methane eruptions take us into uncontrollable runaway global warming. This will give a leeway of 5 years before the critical 2oC temperature anomaly will have been exceeded and we will be looking at catastrophic storm systems, a fast rate of sea level rise and coastal zone flooding with its extremely deleterious effects on world populations and global stability (ICCP, 2013).
Intelligent survivors of extremely perilous circumstances plan for the worst case scenario taking Murphy's law as the given truth - "If anything can go wrong, it will go wrong". This paper further explores and shows new proof that Humanity is facing an Arctic methane induced firestorm by the middle of this Century. Emission of methane from Arctic subsea methane hydrates is now out of control and is caused by fossil fuel driven global warming of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans mostly in the North Atlantic - Gulf Stream area (Figure 8).
The recent deteriorating weather activity has shown the following to be true:
The cause of the sudden temperature increase in Australia this year can be traced to the fast building pall of methane in the Northern Hemisphere caused by global warming of the Arctic methane hydrate permafrosts and destabilization of the subsea methane hydrates (Figure 9). At the moment, the entire Arctic is covered by a widespread methane cloud but it is very concentrated (> 1950 ppb) over the Eurasian Basin and Laptev Sea where the subsea methane hydrates are being destabilized at increasing rates by heated Atlantic (Gulf Stream) waters (Figure 10 and 11). The area of the Eurasian Basin is similar to that of the East Siberian Shelf where Shakova et al. (1999) indicate that some 50 billion tons of methane could be released at any moment over the next 50 years from destabilization of subsea methane hydrates, producing catastrophic consequences for the global climate system. Consequently global warming is probably now also destabilizing methane hydrates in the Eurasian Basin, (Figures 10 and 11) starting the release of an additional 50 billion tons of methane which will further compound the catastrophe represented by the destabilization of methane hydrates on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (Shakova et al. 1999). Essentially we have passed the methane hydrate tipping point and are now accelerating into extinction as the methane hydrate "Clathrate Gun" has begun firing volleys of methane into the Arctic atmosphere (Figure 13).
Ice - Core Temperature Methane Correlation
Arctic surface temperature data with anomalies greater than 20oC above normal (Yurganov 2012) indicate that the massive Arctic methane enhanced heating threat is spreading and is now being seen as increased dryness, droughts and wildfire problems and extreme weather events in Russia, Europe, the United States, Australia, the Phillipines and elsewhere (Light 2012a,b, Light 2011b, Light and Carana 2011, Light and Solana 2002 a,b; Carana 2013). Giant methane rich clouds with temperature anomalies greater than 20oC began to circulate in the Arctic during the 2012-2013 winter indicating that the Arctic methane emission rate is now growing substantially and is probably out of our present control (Figure 14; Yurganov 2013 in Carana 2013). The problem is that the anomalously hot (20oC) circulating Arctic methane clouds are going to grow and spread out at an alarming rate (Figure 14,15 and 16).
The mean speed of horizontal displacement of the stratosphere around the Earth is about 120 km/hr from the Krakatoa eruption in 1883 (Heicklen, 1976). Mean wind velocities in the region between 36 km and 91 km height are some 48 metres/second during the day and 56 metres/second at night (Olivier, 1942, 1948). Shuttle launches have shown that shuttle exhaust gases form noctilucent clouds which are transferred at high velocities from equatorial regions to the north pole in a few days (Figure 17; NASA 2007). It will therefore be only in the wink of an eye from a geological standpoint that the 20oC anomaly methane clouds will spread over the entire surface of the Earth. As the 20oC temperature anomaly methane rich Arctic clouds expand into the atmosphere they will trap the sun's heat beneath them and heat up the Arctic ocean causing an increase in Arctic sea ice melting and widespread destabilization of the subsea shelf/slope methane hydrates. These 20oC methane rich clouds will also rise as they are blown by Arctic vortices into the stratosphere where they will increase the concentration of the methane in the Equatorial stratosphere which is already above 1.8 ppm/v (Figure 16; NOAA, NASA, 2012) equivalent to a delayed temperature anomaly of some 20oC from the polar ice core methane - temperature relation (Figure 18; Morrison, 2012)
The methane concentration - temperature correlation from polar ice core data is graphically illustrated in Figures 18 and 19 modified from Morrison (2012). This correlation which goes back to 420,000 years ago shows that when the mean methane content of the atmosphere hit 1.79 ppm/v (1790 ppb) that it would produce a methane eruption induced temperature anomaly of some 20oC (Figure 19). This is precisely the temperature of the giant methane rich clouds that are now circulating the Arctic in 2012 - 2013 (Figure 14; Yurganov, 2013; Carana 2012, 2013) indicating that here, the delayed methane temperature anomaly has already caught up with the Arctic mean atmospheric concentrations because of the extreme methane emissions from the subsea destabilizing methane hydrates (Figure 10).
Such a huge Arctic temperature anomaly can only be produced by methane with an apparent Methane Global Warming Potential of about 1850 times that of carbon dioxide. It is clear however that the atmospheric methane is only partly responsible for this high global warming potential because of massive feedbacks due to the summer loss of the floating ice cap and solar heating of the now exposed dark ocean surface. This results in further heating of the Arctic ocean currents and more detabilization of the shelf and slope methane hydrates adding increased quantities of methane to the Arctic Atmosphere and causes increased surface evaporation adding water and energy to the atmosphere thus increasing the ferocity of storm systems, snowfall and rain (See Francis, 2012 for CO2). In the Autumn and Winter, the hot Arctic Ocean steams off, feeding heat and moisture directly into the already overcharged atmosphere which all combined generate this extremely high "Combined Global Warming Potential (CGWP) of 1850, that the methane emitted into the atmosphere shows.
From the polar ice cap methane - temperature correlation (Morrison 2012), it is possible to calculate when the mean temperature anomaly of the Earth's atmosphere will reach 8oC at which time total deglaciation is expected with a 68.3 m sea level rise (Wales, 2012). To achieve and 8oC temperature increase in the atmosphere we need only raise the atmospheric temperature by 7.2oC as the present atmosphere has already been heated by 0.8oC by global warming (Wales, 2012). On the polar ice core methane temperature correlation chart (Figure 19 and 20; Morrison, 2012) the atmosphere was 7.2oC cooler in 1971.29 some 40.71 years before 2012. If we assume a linear relation applies, it will therefore take about 40.71 years to increase the mean atmospheric temperature to 7.2oC, i.e by 2052.71 at which time total global deglaciation and widespread extinction will occur. This is almost identical to the time defined by the latent heat of ice - melting curve for an 8oC temperature rise (2051.3; Figure 3 and Table 2). and is similar to the melt back time of glaciers (2052) and the new mean of 2050.6 determined in this paper (Figures 21 a,b,c).
A concentration of 1250 ppb methane in the atmosphere will make an atmospheric temperature anomaly of 11 to 12oC, leading to total deglaciation and extinction (Figures 18, 19 and Table 3). The polar ice core delayed methane temperature anomaly at 1000 ppb methane is 8oC, at 727 ppb methane, it is 2oC and 673 ppb methane it is 1oC (Table 3). We clearly have to destroy more than 62% to 64 % of the present methane content of the atmosphere before the Earth will have a livable atmosphere (Table 3). This also means stopping all the Arctic methane eruptions by depressurizing the methane under the subsea methane hydrates to stabilize the methane content of the atmosphere (Angels Project; Arctic-news.blogspot.com). This methane could be used as a fuel but is better sequestered in stable propane hydrates on the ocean shelves (Figures 22a,b,c,d Carana, 2013).
The atmosphere contains about 5 billion tons of methane, but about half of the present global warming is caused by some 3 billion tonnes of methane that have been added to the atmosphere since the concentration reached 1750 ppb (Carana 2013). Shakova et al 2010a estimate that some 50 billion tonnes of methane could erupt at any moment on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS), where some 1700 billion tonnes of methane could be held in the form of free gas and methane hydrates. This will cause a worldwide temperature anomaly of more than 10oC above the present atmospheric mean and as the methane spreads around the world's atmosphere will lead to our certain extinction in the next 20 to 40 years (Light 2012a,b; Light 2011b). The polar ice core atmospheric methane-temperature correlation (Figure 18 and 19) indicates however that an atmospheric methane concentration of 1790 ppb to 1850 ppb will produce a delayed mean atmospheric temperature anomaly of 20oC totally eclipsing the Major Permian Extinction Event by some 14oC (Figure 3). Furthermore Prof. Jennifer Francis has shown that the present CO2 content of the atmosphere has a delayed temperature anomaly more than 12oC (Figures 23 a,b) which is higher than the Major Permian Extinction Event (Wignall, 2009) so we will be facing total extinction unless we sharply reduce our carbon dioxide emissions by a large amount (more than 90%) and the existing methane content of the atmosphere by more than 60%.
Gulf Stream Destabilizing Arctic Methane Hydrates
The hot Atlantic water destabilizing the methane hydrates in the Eurasian Basin, Laptev Sea and the rest of the Arctic Ocean has its origin in the Gulf Stream, which is heated by pollution clouds pouring eastwards off the coasts of Canada and the United States, the main pollution culprits which produce the largest and most intense region of oceanic evaporation on Earth (Figure 8). Although the mean speed of the Gulf Stream is 6.4 km/hour (1.78 metres/second), the much wider North Atlantic Drift, which is its NE extension, flows at about 0.51 metres/second (3.5 times slower) while the West Spitzbergen (Svalbard) (Gulf Stream Branch) current flows at about 0.35 metres/second (5 times slower)(Figures 24 and 25) (Boyd and Dasaro, 1994; Aagaard et al.1987, Light and Solana 2002 a,b).
The West Spitzbergen Current has a total depth range of 5 to 500 metres and the hot (> 2oC) core region of this current at 300 metres depth moves along the entire continental slope region of the Eurasian Basin formed of unstable methane hydrates (Figure 26 and 27). This hot current then runs aground at the junction of the Eurasian Basin and the Laptev Sea in a region where there is a large zone of methane hydrate accumulations destabilizing them (Figure 26, Light and Solana 2002; Light 2011, 2012). The methane hydrates occur at the point where the shelf edge swings westward and is intersected by the Gakkel Ridge (Figure 28). The eastern shallower (300 metres deep) Yermack branch of the Gulf Stream flows into the Baltic Sea and then makes its way to the Laptev Sea flowing above the West Spitzbergen Current there to form an extensive zone of shallower methane hydrate destabilization there (Figure 25)(Bourke et al 1988; Manley 1995). Consequently it will take some time (2 to 6 months) for the summer - heated Gulf Stream waters to reach the Laptev Sea. In addition, because the Gulf Stream does a closed circuit in the Tropical Atlantic passing close to West Africa (Canary Current) and returning back to the Gulf along the hurricane tracks, it is able to continuously feed hot water into the North Atlantic Drift over a very long time period (Figure 24). This explains why methane has been continuously boiling off the subsea methane hydrates from the Eurasian Basin and Laptev Sea during September to November this year and will continue to be emitted past January 2014 (Figures 10 and 11).
What we have got to do is eliminate as much of the atmospheric methane by whatever means we are able to devise, to bring its concentration down to about 700 ppb (Table 3) . This level will eliminate much of the methane delayed temperature anomaly and give the massive industrial nations a little leaway to get their houses in order. All the scientific expenditure and ingenuity of the major industrial nations should be engaged in developing methods of breaking down atmospheric methane without burning it. Methods of increasing the tropospheric and stratospheric hydroxyl concentrations and using radio - laser systems such as the Alamo - Lucy projects and their applications to HAARP must be developed and tested with the utmost urgency, as should local methods of converting carbon dioxide and methane via catalysts into other products (See Sam Carana's Arctic-news blog and the Alamo and Lucy projects). We have to get rid of this methane monster before it devours us all. If we fail to reduce the fast growing methane content of the atmosphere in the next few decades we are going to go the same way as the dinosaurs.
Modified Lucy Project to Generate Hydroxyls at the Sea Surface Using Beams of Polarized 13.56 MHZ Radio Transmissions
The Lucy and Alamo (HAARP) projects were designed to break down atmospheric methane using radio - laser transmissions (Light and Carana 2013).
A modified version of the Lucy Project is illustrated in Figure 6. In this system three additional transmitters on three separate ships will have their antenna placed slightly lower than the main 13.56 MHZ methane destruction antennae. Recent experiments have shown that when a test tube of seawater was illuminated by a polarized 13.56 MHZ radio beam, that flammable gases (nascent hydrogen and hydroxyls) were released at the top of the tube (iopscience.iop.org, 2013;
www.i-sis.org.uk/canWaterBurn.php, 2013). In the modified version of the Lucy Project, hydroxyls will be generated by a polarized 13.56 MHZ beam intersecting the sea surface over the region where a massive methane torch (plume) is entering the atmosphere in order that the additional hydroxyl produced will react with the rising methane breaking a large part of it down. In the Arctic Ocean, the polarized 13.56 MHZ radio waves will decompose atmospheric humidity, mist, fog, ocean spray and the surface of the waves themselves into nascent hydrogen and hydroxyl.
The distance to the edges of the methane torch on the surface of the Arctic Ocean X in km will depend on the height h in metres that the polarized 13.56 MHZ transmitting antenna is set at on the ship and Table 5 shows the relationship between antenna height and distance to horizon at sea (Table 4). The formula linking the two is:-
X = Square root ((R+(h/1000))^2 - R^2)
Where: X = distance to edge of methane torch in km
h = height of polarized 13.56 MHZ antenna in metres
R = Polar radius of the Earth (6356.755 km)
R = Mean radius of the Earth (6371 km)
R = Equatorial radius of the Earth (6378.14 km)
(Lide and Frederickse, 1995)
The angle Phi in degrees subtended by the polarized 13.56 MHZ beam needed to intersect the entire diameter of the methane torch at the sea surface is a function of the distance of the antenna from the edge of the methane torch in km and the diameter of the methane torch in km . The formula relating the two is:-
Theta = 2Arcsin (d/(2*X))
Where: X = distance to edge of methane torch in km
d = diameter of the methane eruption torch in km
New safe thorium energy generators have been invented that can replace normal nuclear stations and can be made small enough to run a car for 100 years without refueling (industrytap.com, 2013; peswiki.com, 2013). This clean energy source can supply the electricity to run the Lucy and HAARP transmission systems (Figures 6 and 7).
A newly determined global atmospheric temperature gradient (Figure 1 and Table 5) indicates that the mean global atmospheric temperature anomaly will reach 1.5oC in 15 years (2028.5) and 2oC in 20 years (2033.4). Consequently we only have 15 years to get an efficient methane destruction radio - laser system designed, tested and installed (Lucy and Alamo (HAARP) Projects) before the accelerating methane eruptions take us into uncontrollable runaway global warming. This will give a leeway of 5 years before the critical 2oC temperature anomaly will have been exceeded (Table 5) and we will be looking at catastrophic storm systems, a fast rate of sea level rise and coastal zone flooding with its disastrous effects on world populations and global stability. An anomalous temperature of 4oC will be reached by the atmosphere around 2043 which will end the vegetation carbon sink, preventing plants from helping balance carbon dioxide exhalation and this will further accelerate climatic change (Table 5)(Friend, 2013).
Methane is rising into the stratosphere and mesosphere where some of it is being oxidised to produce larger quantities of noctilucent clouds between 76 and 85 km altitude (Figures 15 -17). Noctilucent clouds were originally confined to the southern polar regions, were then seen north of Norway and are now occuring at much lower latitudes over Colorado. Prof. James Russel of Hampton University argues that the build up of methane in the atmosphere is the reason for the increase in noctilucent clouds. Prof Russel says: "When methane makes its way into the upper atmosphere it is oxidised by a complex series of reactions to form water vapour. This extra water vapour is then available to grow ice crystals for noctilucent clouds".
If we succeed in breaking down the methane in the stratosphere and mesosphere with the HAARP-IRIS (Ionospheric Research Instrument) using the 13.56 MHZ methane destruction frequency, it could lead to an increase in noctilucent cloud formation in a circular zone directly above the HAARP transmitters which could be detected by optical cameras or radar (Figure 7). Besides the elimination of the high global warming potential methane, noctilucent clouds formed from methane water condensing on meteorite dust and nano diamonds will reflect the suns radiation back into space and this will also help to counteract global warming. The HAARP-IRIS transmitters normal frequency range is from 2.8 MHZ to 10 MHZ. If for example a 10 MHZ carrier wave is modulated by a 3.56 MHZ signal, it will produce and Upper Side frequency of 13.56 MHZ, the necessary methane destruction frequency and a Lower Side Frequency of 6.44 MHZ (Penguin Dictionary of Physics, 2000).
The HAARP tests should be conducted in the summer when the stratospheric temperatures are at the lowest in Alaska (140oK to 160oK) increasing the chances of noctilucent cloud formation from the radio frequency oxidised methane.
Arctic Methane Permanent Storage
In the Angels Proposal (see; Arctic-news.blogspot.com) subsea Arctic methane is extracted, stored and sold as LNG for distribution as fuel, but permanent storage underground is more preferable (Figure 22, Carana, 2013).
Prof. Kenneth Yanda at the University of California - Irvine has shown that methane can be stored in propane - methane hydrates that are stable at temperatures of ca 15oC and low pressure (25 pounds per square inch - 1.66 atmospheres) very close to the ambient temperature and pressure conditions (Figure 22). Hydrates can be produced that contain larger cages for other gases and smaller cages for methane (Figures 22a - 22b, Carana, 2013). Methane can be converted into propane and other gases with UV light and the final goal would be long term storage of these gases in the form of hydrates in deep waters such as those north of Alaska (Carana, 2013). Carbon dioxide can also then be sequestered in the hydrates to remove it from the atmosphere as the volume of carbon stored in worldwide hydrates is huge (Figure 22c, Carana, 2013).
Unlike carbon dioxide, methane is completely non-polar and reacts very weakly with most materials. Three zeolite types (SBN, ZON and FER) have been found to absorbe methane at high to moderate rates (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory(LLNL) and UC Berkley, 2013) and may be used in treating coal-mine ventilation air (see arctic-news.blogspot.com.es)(Figure 22d, Carana 2013).
Symbiotic Bacteria Destroying Methane in the Arctic Ocean
Two symbiotic methane eating microbes in cold ocean waters excrete carbon dioxide and need an enzyme that requires tungsten to operate (Glass, 2013). They are a sulfate utilizing deltaproteobacteria and an anaerobic methanotrophic archea (Glass, 2013) The carbon dioxide released by the bacteria reacts with minerals in the water to form calcium carbonate (Glass 2013). If these bacteria and tungsten enzymes were introduced in great quantities into the Arctic Ocean they could eliminate the methane plumes before they entered the atmosphere giving humanity time to destroy the existing atmospheric methane accumulations.
The Earth is a giant convecting planet, the underlying molten magma being heated by deep seated radioactivity and the oceans and atmosphere are its cooling radiator which allows the Earth the facility to vent this heat into open space (Windley, 1984; Allen and Allen, 1990). Mother Earth has carefully held the atmospheric temperature within a stable range necessary for oceans to exist for at least 4 billion years and nurtured the earliest bacteria to evolve into today's space faring humans (Calder, 1983).
The fouling up of the Earth's cooling radiator from Human emissions of greenhouse gases derived from fossil fuels will be counteracted by Mother Earth in her characteristic fashion by emitting vast volumes of deadly methane into the atmosphere from the Arctic regions. This will lead to the total extermination of all harmful biological species that produce greenhouse gases in the same way that Mother Earth did during the Permian and other extinction extinction events. In this case however we have totally tipped the balance with our extreme carbon dioxide and methane emissions so that there will be no chance of recovery for the Earth in this time frame, because the methane release will cause the oceans to begin boiling off between 115oC and 120oC (Severson, 2013) in 2080 and the Earth's atmosphere will have reached temperatures equivalent to those on Venus by 2096 (460oC to 467oC)(Wales, 2013; Moon Phases, 2013).
Mankind's greed for fossil fuels will have completely destroyed a magnificent beautiful blue planet and converted its atmosphere into a barren, stiflingly hot , carbon dioxide rich haze. The earth will have moved permanently out of the magical zone (Circumstellar habitable zone, Goldilocks zone) where life (some of it probably highly intelligent) also exists elsewhere in the myriad of other solar systems that are located within the far reaches of our Universe.
The power, prestige and massive economy of the United States has been built on cheap and abundant fossil fuels and Canada is now trying to do the same. The present end of the financial crisis and recovery of the U.S. economy will take us down the same fossil fuel driven road to catastrophe that the U.S. has followed before. Unless the United States, Canada reduce their extreme carbon footprints (per unit population)(Figures 29 and 30), they will end up being found guilty of ecocide and genocide as the number of countries destroyed by the catastrophic weather systems continues to increase.
The United States and Canada with their expanding economies and their growing frenetic extraction of fossil fuels, using the most environmentally destructive methods possible (fracking and shale oil) as well as the population's total addiction to inefficient gas transport is leading our planet into suicide. We are like maniacal lemmings leaping to their deaths over a global warming cliff. What a final and futile legacy it will be for the leader of the free world to be remembered only in the log of some passing alien ship recording the loss of the Earth’s atmosphere and hydrosphere after 2080 due to human greed and absolute energy ineptitude.
The U.S. Government and Canada must ban all environmentally destructive methods of fossil fuel extraction such as fracking, extracting shale oil and coal and widespread construction of the now found to be faulty hydrocarbon pipeline systems. All Federal Government subsidies to fossil fuel corporations, for fossil fuel discovery and extraction must be immediately eliminated and the money spent solely on renewable energy development which will provide many jobs to the unemployed. All long and short range (high consumption) fossil fuel transport must be electrified and where the range is too large, electrical trains must be used instead of trucks for transport. All the major work for this conversion and railway construction can provide a new and growing set of jobs for the unemployed. Nuclear power stations must continue to be used and should be converted to the safe thorium energy system until the transition is complete.
The U.S. has to put itself on a war footing, recall its entire military forces and set them to work on the massive change over to renewable energy that the country needs to undertake, if it wishes to survive the fast approaching catastrophe. The enemy now is Mother Nature who has infinite power at her disposal and intends to take no prisoners in this very short, absolutely brutal, 30 to 40 year war she has begun. I cannot emphasise more, how serious humanity’s predicament is and what we should try to do to prevent our certain final destruction and extinction in the next 30 to 40 years if we continue down the present path we are following .
My greatest thanks go to Sam Carana and Harold Hensel for their tireless work in continuously editing publishing and speaking about the latest available information on the fast growing Arctic methane threat to an ever expanding audience. Their work has been unceasing and of outstanding value in these very dangerous times. Let us hope and pray that their efforts bear fruit and that we and our children are able to come out of this in one piece.
Generating Hydroxyls from Water by Beaming Polarized 13.56 MHZ Radio Waves
Thorium Reactors and Car Engines
Abu-Nasr D., 1998. World's weather losses will set record this year. Austin American Satesman, saturday, november 28, A7
Allen, P.A., and Allen, J.R. 1990. Basin Analysis, Principles and Applications. Blackwell, Oxford, 451 pp.
Anderson L.I., Peterson K.P. and Parisi, W.A., 1984. "Enhanced production from a Slightly Geopressured Water-Drive Gas Condensate Field". SPE/DOE/GRI 12866. Paper presented at the Unconventional Gas Recovery Symposium, Pittsburgh, P.A., May 13 - 15, 1984.
Anitei S. 2007. How is the Ozone layer menaced? The Daily Climate. www. Daily Climate.org.
Arctic Methane Emergency Group (AMEG), 2012
Altonn H. 2000. Weird hunt for U.H. team. The biggest oddest place in the upper ocean could yield greenhouse gas clue. Star-belletin.com
Ashton, A. 2001. Harmonograph. A visual guide to the mathematics of music. Wooden Books, Glastonbury. 58 pp.
Avetisov G.P. 2008. Seismic Arctic Earthquakes-Geophysical Center. Russian Academy of Sciences-NGDC-NOAA.
Barnola et al. 1987. Nature, 329. 408-4
Boudon V. 2012. Spectroscopy of Methane. Molecular Spectroscopy and Applications. Department of Optics and Matter-Radiation Interaction. Institut Carnat de Bourgogne (ICB). UMR5209 CNRS-Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon, France.
Box J. and Decker D. 2012. Greenland Ice Sheet Reflectivity , July 2000 – 2011, 2012 days 1 – 23. NASA MOD1OA1 data processed by Jason Bird and David Decker. Byrd Polar Research Centre. Projection in red added by Sam Carana, 2012.
Brown J., Ferrians O. J., Heginbottom, J.A., and Melnikov, E.S., 1997. Circum - Arctic map of the permafrost and ground - ice conditions.International Permafrost Association. United Sates Geological Survey. Scale 1:10 000 000, 1 sheet.
Calder, N. 1984. Timescale - An Atlas of the Fourth Dimension. Chatto and Windus, London, 288 pp.
Callesthen C. 2001. Giant submarine landslides off continetal margins and stability of hydrocarbon clathrate hydrates - A laboratory study. U.S.G.S.
Campbell I.D., Campbell C., Apps M.J., Rutter N.W., Bush A. B. G., 1998. Late Holocene - 1500 yr climatic periodicities and their implcations. geology 26,5. p. 471 - 473
Carana, S. 2011a. Runaway Warming 2011. Geo-engineering blog
Carana, S. 2011b. Runaway global warming 2011. Knol
Carana, S. 2011g. Runaway Global Warming. In: Climate Change the Next Generation.
Carana, S. 2012. Striking increase of methane in the Arctic. In: Arctic News
Carana S., 2012. Record levels of greenhouse gases in the Arctic. Arctic News. Wednesday, May 2, 2012.
Carana S., 2012. The accumulating impact of methane releases in the Arctic and how much time there is left to act.
Carana S., 2012. How much time is there left to act? Abrupt release of 1 Gt of methane.
Carana S., 2013. Quantifying Arctic Methane.
Carana S., 2013. Methane - hydrates.
Carana S., 2013. Methane up to 2241 ppb at 742 mb on January 23, 2013. In: Carana S., 2013, Dramatic increase in methane in the Arctic in January 2013.
Carana S., 2013. Global warming, accelerated warming in the Arctic and runaway global warming. - How much will temperatures rise?.
Carana S., 2011b. Light, M.P.R. and Carana, S. 2011c. Knol - A unit of Knowledge - Methane linked to seismic activity in the Arctic.
Chao, B.F., Yu, Y.H., Li, Y.S., 2008. Impact of Artificial Reservoir Water Impoundment on Global Sea Level. Science, v. 320, p. 212 – 214.
Chesney T.P., Lewis R.C., and Trice, 1982. "Secondary Gas Recovery from a Moderately Strong Water Drive reservoir. A Case History. "Journal of Petroleum Technology. September 1982.
Church J.A., White N.J., Thorkild A., Wilson W.S., Woodworth, .L. Domingues C.M., Hunter J.R., Lambeck K., 2008. Understanding global sea levels: past, present and future. Special Feature. Original Article. Sustain Sci. V.3, pp. 9 - 22.
Clague D.A., Maher N., and Paull C.K., 2001. High resolution multibeam survey of Hydrate ridge offshore Oregon. In: Natural Gas Hydrates. Occurence, distribution and detection. C.K. Paul and W.P. Dillon (Eds.) Geophysical Monograph 124. American Geophysical Union, p. 297 - 303.
ClimateChange 2012. Climate Change; The Next Generation
Collett T.S., 1993. Natural gas hydrates of the Prudoe Bay and Kuparak River area, North Slope, Alaska. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 77, p. 793 - 812.
Collett T.S., 1995. Gas Hydrate Resources of the United States. In Gautier D.L. et al. eds. National assessment of United States oil and gas resources on CD-ROM. U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series 30.
Collett T.S. and Ladd J., 1999. Detection of gas hydrate with down hole logs and assessment of gas hydrate concentrations (saturations) and gas volumes on the Blake Ridge with electrical resistivity log data - Leg 164 SR, in press.
Connor S., 2011. Shock as retreat of Arctic sea ice releases deadly greenhouse gas. Russian research team astonished after finding fountains of methane bubbling to the surface. The Independent.
http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/shock as retreat of arctic-sea-ice-releases deadly-greenhouse-gas-6276134.html
Cornell C.B., 2008. "CNG fuel almost free in some parts of the country". Natural gas Cars.
Couper A.D., 1983. The Times. Atlas of the Oceans. Van Nostrand Reinold, New York, 272 pp.
CCSP 2008. Abrupt Climate Change. A report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change (Clarke P.U., and Weaver A.J. (coordinating lead authors), Brook F., Cook E.R., Delworth T.L. and Steffen K., (chapter lead authors), U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, 459 pp.
Csanady G.T., 2001. Air - Sea Interaction. Laws and Mechanisms. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, 236 pp.
Daly J.L., 1995. The top of the world. Is the North pole turning to water? http://www.microtech.com.au/daly/polar.arctic.htm
Dessus, B., and Laponche B., Herve le Treut, 2008. Global Warming: The Significance of Methane bd-bl-hlt January 2008.
D'Hondt S., Rutherford S., Spivack A.J., 2002. Metabolic activity of subsurface life in deep-sea sediments. Science 295, pp. 2067 - 2070.
Dickens G.R., Paull C.K., Wallace P. et al., 1997. Direct measurement of in situ methane quantities in a large gas - hydrate reservoir - Nature, 385, p. 426 - 428.
Dillon W.P. and Max M.D., 2000. Oceanic gas hydrate In: M.D. Max (Ed.) Natural gas hydrate in ocean and permafrost environments. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 61 - 76.
Dillon W.P., Nealon J.W., Taylor M.H., Lee M.W., Drury R.M., Anton C.H., 2001. Seafloor collapse and methane venting associated with gas hydrate on the Blake Ridge - cause and implications to sea floor stability and to methane release. In: Drummond J. 1986. Natural Energy Resources Map of the Circum Pacific region. Circum - Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral resources. AAPG, Tulsa. Scale 1:10 000 000.
Dobrynin V.M., Korotajev YuP. and Plyuschev D.V., 1981. gas hydrates - a possible energy resource. In: Meyer R.F., Olsen J.C., eds. Long - term Energy Resources, Boston, Pitman, p. 727 - 729.
Drummond J. 1984. Geodynamic Map of the Circum - Pacific Region. Circum - Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral resources. AAPG, Tulsa. Scale 1 :10 000 000.
Duren T., Sarkisov L., Yaght O.M., Snurr R.Q., 2004. design and New Material for Methane Storage. Langmuir 20(7) 2689 -9.
Edwards, M.H., Kurras G.J., Toltstoy, M., Bohnenstiehl, D.R., Coakley, B.J., Cochran, J.R., 2001. Evidence of recent volcanic activity on the ultraslow - spreading Gakkel Ridge. Letters to nature. Nature 409, no. 6822 808 - 812.
Ehret G. 2010. MERLIN: French - German climate satellite to be launched in 2014. Deutches Zentrum für Luft - und Raumfahrt (DLR), Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Lidar Department.
Engineering Toolbox, 2011. Gases – Specific Gravities.
EPA (1999). Global Warming Site Reports. Presentations - Climate Change and Impacts. http://www.epa.gov/globalwarming/reports/slides/cc&i/a-intro.html
Ewing T.E., Light M.P.R., and Tyler N., 1984. Thermal and diagenetic history of the Pleasant Bayou - Chocolate Bayou area, Brazoria County, Texas. Gulf Coast Association of geological Societies Transactions, v. 34, p. 341 - 348.
Francis, J., A., 2013. Extreme Weather and Global Warming. Rutgers University.
Friend, A., 2013. 4 degree temperature rise will end vegetation ' carbon sink'.
FT.com 2011. Shell's floating LNG Plant given green light.
Glass J., 2013. Methane-Eating Microbes Need Trace Metal. School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the Georgia Institute of Technology.
Gas Hydrates, Occurence, distribution and detection. C.K. Paul and W.P. dillon (Eds.) Geophysical Monograph 124. American Geophysical Union. p. 211 - 233.
Gazprom 2011. Gazprom Platform Heading North. The Moscow Times 19th August 2011.
Ginsburg G.D. and Soloviev V.A., 1995. Submarine gas hydrate estimation; theoretical and empirical approaches - 27th Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, texas, p. 513 - 518.
Ginsburg G.D., and Soloviev V.A., 1994. Submarine Gas hydrates VNIIOkeangeologia, St Petersburg, 216 p.
Gill A.E. 1982. Atmosphere - Ocean Dynamics. Academic Press. san Diego, 662 pp.
Gille S.T., 2002. Warming of the Southern Ocean since the 1950's Science, 295, p. 1275 - 1277. http://www.sciencemag.org
Gleick P., 2013. "You are here". Perspective on 400 ppm CO2 in the Atmosphere. http://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/index.php/2013/12/04/you-are-here-perspective-on-400-ppm-co2-in-the-atmosphere
Globell C., Macdonald R.W., Smith J.N., Beaudin 2001, Atlantic water flow pathways revealed by lead contamination in Arctic Basin sediments. Science, 293, p. 1301 - 1304.
Gornitz V and Fung I., 1994. Potential distribution od methane hydrates in the World's Oceans - Global Biochem Cycles, 8. p. 335 - 347.
Gramberg I.S., Verba V.V., Verba M.L., Kos'ko' M.K., 1999. Sediemntary Cover Thickness Map - Sedientary Basins in the Arctic. In: Polarfoeschung 69, Tessensohn F., Roland N.W. (eds.) ICAMIII. III International Conference on Arctic Margins, Celle (Germany) 12 - 16 October, 1998: pp 243 - 249.
Grant - Gross M., 1982. Oceanography: A view of the Earth, 3rd ed., Prentice - hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Fig. 6.8.
Grants A., and Dinter D.A., 1980. Constraints of geologic processes on western Beaufort sea oil developments. Oil and Gas Journal. 78 (18), 304 - 319.
Guffanti M., and Nathenson M., 1980. Preliminary map of temperature gradients in the conterminous Unites States: Geothermal Resources Council Transactions, V. 4, p. 53 - 56.
Halbouty M.T., 2001. Giant Oil and Gas Fields of the Decade, 1990 - 2000. An Introduction. http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/documents/halbouty03/index.htm
Hansen J.E. 2011. Giss Surface Temperature Analysis, NASA. Goddard Institute for Space Physics; http://data.giss.nasa.gov/egibin/gistemp/do_nmap.py?year_last=2001&month_last=08&sat=4&sst=1&type=anoms&mean_gen=02&year1=2009&year2=2009&base1=1951&base2=1980&radius=1200&pol=pol
Hargraves, 2012. Altitudes of World Cities. Hargraves Advanced Fluidic Solutions.
Harrison J.C., St-Onge M.R., Petrov O., Streinikov S., Lopatin B., Wilson F., Tella S., Paul D., Lyndts T., Shokalsky S., Hults C., Bergman S., Jepsen H.F., and Solli A., 2008. Geological Map of the Arctic, geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5816, Scale 1:1000 000, 5 Sheets.
Harvey L.D., and Huang Z., 1995. Evaluation of the potential impact of methane clathrate destabilization on future global warming. J.G.R., v. 100, No D2, pp 2905 - 2926.
Heezen B.C. and Ewing M. 1963. The mid - ocean ridge, in: The Sea III, M.N. Hill (ed.), Interscience, New York, 388 - 410.
Heicklen, J. 1976. Atmospheric Chemistry. Academic Press, New York, 406 pp.
Hillen, M.H., Jonkman, S.N., Kanning, W., Kok, M., Geldenhuys M., Vrijling J.K. and Stive, M.J.F., 2010.
Coastal Defence Cost Estimates Case Study of the Netherlands, New Orleans and Vietnam. The Netherlands, TU Delft. Available from: http:/tiny.cc/wikh
Holmes A., 1964. Principles of Physical Geology. New Edn. Nelson, London, 1260 pp.
Holbrook 2001. Seismic studies of the Blake Ridge. Implications for hydrate distribution, methane expulsion and free gas dynamics. In: Natural Gas Hydrates. Hovland M., and Gudmestad, O.T., Potential Influence of Gas Hydrates on Seabed Installations. C.K. Paull and W.P. Dillon (Eds.), Natural Gas Hydrates: Occurence, Distribution and Detection. Geophysical Monograph 124, pp. 307 - 315.
Holbrook W., Hoskins H., Wood W., et al. 1996. Methane hydrate and free gas on the Blake Ridge from vertical seismic profiling - Science, 273, p. 1840 - 1843.
Holtz M.H., nance P.K., and Finley R.J., 1998. Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Underground CO2 Sequestration in texas Oil & gas Reservoirs. Final Contract Report Prepared for the Electric Power Research Institute through U.S. Department of Energy under contract no. W04603-04, December, Bureau of economic geology, the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, 84 p., http://www.beg.utexas.edu/environqlty/co201.htm
IPPC 2001. Working Group 1. The Scientific Basis, 4.1.1. Sources of Greenhouse Gases. IPCC, TAR 2001.
IPPC 2001. Atmosphere, chemistry and Greenhouse Gases, executive Summary. IPCC, TAR 04 (2001).
IPCC Fourth Assessment Report on Climate Change 2007 - temperature rise projections
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007. Working Group 1. The Physical Science Basis, Table 2.14. Climate Change 2007.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007. Working Group 1. The Physical Science Basis, FAQ 10.3. Climate Change 2007.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2013. AR5 Working Group 1,
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 1992a. Climate Change. The IPCC Scientific Assessment (Edited by J. J. Houghton, G. J. Jenkins and J. J. Ephraums). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. U.K.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 1992b. Climate Change in 1992. The Supplementary report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment (Edited by J. J. Houghton, B. A. Callander and S. K. Varney). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. U.K.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007a. Fourth Assessment Report on Climate Change 2007. FAO 3.1, Figure 1, WG1, Chapter 3, p. 253.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007b. Synthesis Report
Lide. D.R. and Frederikse H.P.R., 1995. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 75th Edition, CRC Press, London. pp. 1-1 - 1-33.
Light M.P.R. 2011a. Use of beamed interfering radio frequency transmissions to decompose Arctic atmospheric methane clouds. Edited by Sam Carana.
Light M.P.R. 2011c. Stratospheric methane global warming veil. Edited by Sam Carana. In: Arctic News.
Light M.P.R., 2012a. Global exctinction within one human lifetime as a result of a spreading atmospheric methane heatwave and surface firestorm. Edited by Sam Carana. In Arctic News.
Light M.P.R., 2012b. How much time is there left to act, before methane hydrate releases will lead to human extinction? Edited by Sam Carana. In: Geo-Engineering.
Light M.P.R. 2012c. Angels Proposal - A Proposal for the Prevention of Arctic Methane Induced Catastrophic Global Climate Change by Extraction of Methane from beneath the Permafrost/Arctic Methane Hydrates and its Storage and Sale as a Subsidized "Green Gas" Energy Source. LGS. 49 pp. In: Arctic News.
Light M.P.R. and Carana, S., 2011. Methane linked to seismic activity in the Arctic. Edited by Sam Carana. In: Arctic News.
Light M.P.R. and Solana C., 2002a. Arctic methane hydrates - Mapping a potential greenhouse gas hazard. Abstract and Poster, EGS, Nice.
Light, M.P.R. and Solana, C. , 2002b- Arctic Methane Hydrates: A Potential Greenhouse Gas Hazard
Lopatin, N.V. 1971. Temperature and geologic time as factors in coalification (in Russian). Akad. Nauk SSSR. Izvestiya. Seriya Geologicheskaya, 3, pp.95 - 106.
Masters. J. 2009. Top Climate Story of 2008. Arctic Sea Ice Loss. Dr Jeff Masters Wunderblog.
Moon Phases 2013. Temperature on Venus in Moon Phases - learn all about the moon.
Nassar R., Bernath P.F., Boone C.D., Manney G.L., McLeod S.D., Rinsland C.P., Skelton R., Walker K.A., 2005. Stratospheric abundances of water and methane based on ACE-FTS measurements. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, LI5504, 5 pp.
NASA global temperature data
Naumer T. 2012. Triggering permafrost meltdown is closer than we think.
Neven, 2011. Arctic Sea Ice Blog. Interesting News and Data;
NOAA 2013. Global Analysis, October 2013. National Climate Data Center. National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration.
NOAA 2011a. Huge sudden atmospheric methane spike Arctic Svalbard (north of - Norway)
NOAA 2011b. Huge sudden methane spike recorded at Barrow (BRW), Alaska, United States. Generated ESRL/GMO – 2011. December 14-17-21 pm
NOAA 2006. Global distribution of atmospheric methane adapted by Sam Carana.
NSIDC, 2011a. The Polar Vortex. National Snow and Ice Data Center.
Olivier C.P. 1942. Long Enduring Meteor Trains. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 35, 93.
Olivier C.P. 1948. Long Enduring Meteor Trains. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 91, 315 (Second paper).
Oskin B., Twice as much methane escapingArctic seafloor.
Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof, J.P. and Co-authors, 2007. Impacts, Adaption and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, Eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 23 – 78.
Pearce F., Arctic storms speed up release of methane plumes.
Pravettoni R. 2009. WWF Arctic Feedbacks Report. UNEP.GRID Arendal.
Science Daily, 2011. Record Depletion of Arctic Ozone Layer Causing Increased UV Radiation in Scandinavia.
Scientific American, 2012. Hurricane Sandy: An Unprecidented Disaster.
Semiletov, I. 2011. Quoted from Itar-Tass. Heavy methane emissions found in the Arctic Eastern Sector. Itar-Tass. September 26, 2011.
Semiletov, I. et al. 2012. Arctic Ocean with predicted deposits of CH4 hydrates shown in blue. On carbon transport and fate in the East Siberian Arctic land - shelf - atmosphere system.
Semiletov, I. et al. 2012. On carbon transport and fate in the East Siberian Arctic land-shelf-atmosphere system.
Semiletov et al. 2012. First drlling subsea permafrost in the southeastern Laptev Sea, East Siberian Arctic Shelf. Results and challenges.
Severson G. 2013. What is the boiling point of the ocean?
Shakova N., 2013. A thawing ocean floor pours methane into the atmosphere and it's only getting worse. PRI. Science, Tech and Environment.
Shakova N., Semiletov I., Leifer I., Sergienko V., Salyuk A., Kosmach D., Chernykh D., Stubbs C., Nicolsky D., Tumskoy V., Gustafsson O., 2007.
Shakova N., Semiletov, I., Salyuk, A., and Kosmach, D., 2008. Anomalies of methane in the atmosphere over the East Siberian Shelf. Is there any sign of methane leakage from shallow shelf hydrates? EGU General Assembly 2008. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 10, EGU2008-A-01526
Shakova, N. and Semiletov, I., 2010a. Methane release from the East Siberian Shelf and the potential for abrupt climate change. Presentation in November 30, 2010.
Shakova N., Semiletov, I., Leifer, I., Salyuk, A., Rekant, P., and Kosmach, D. 2010b. Geochemical and geophysical evidence of methane release over the East Siberian Arctic Shelf. Journal Geophys. Research 115, C08007
Shakova, N., Semiletov, I., Salyuk, A., Yusupov, V., Kosmach, D., and Gustafsson, O., 2010c. Extensive methane venting to the atmosphere from sediments of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf. Science.
Shakun et al. 2012.
Shiryaev, AA., Lakoubovskii, N., Grambole D. and Dubrovinskaia, N. 2006. Spectroscopic study of defects and inclusions in bulk poly- and nanocrystalline diamond aggregates. Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter 18, No 40, L493-L501.
Sternowski, R.H. 2012. Lecture 7. Softronics Ltd.
Stroeve, J.E., Serreze, M.C., Holland, M.M., Kay, J.E., Malanik, J., and Barret, 2012. The Arctics rapidly shrinking sea ice cover: a research synthesis. Clim. Change. 110, (4.- Mar), p. 1005 - 1027.
Taraborelli et al. 2012. Global hydroxyl levels day and night. in Hydroxyl radical buffered by isoprene oxidation over tropical forests.
Tharp. M., and Frankel, H., 1986. In: Natural History, October 1986. North American Museum of Natural History, p. 1 – 6.
The Penguin Dictionary of Physics 2000. 3rd Edition., Market House Books Ltd., Penguin Books, London. pp. 504.
Tschudi, M.A., Stroeve, D.K., Perovich, D.K., and Maslanik, J.A., 2012. Arctic Sea Ice Melt Pond Coverage Derived from Modis and from High Resolution Satellite Imagery. Remote Sensing of the Environment. NSIDC.
Windley B.F. 1984. The Evolving Continents. Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons. 399 pp.
Wofsy, S.C. et al. 2009. (image: HIPPO-1 flight along the date line, January 2009) HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO): fine-grained, global-scale measurements of climatically important atmospheric gases and aerosols Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A (2011) 369, 2073–2086 doi:10.1098/rsta.2010.0313
Wales J. 2012. Wikipedia
- Carbon Dioxide
- Climate of the Arctic
- Density of Air
- Global Warming
- Natural Gas
- Enthalpy of Fusion
- Current Sea Level Rise
Wignall P.B., 2011. Earth Science: Lethal Volcanism. Nature 477, pp. 285 - 286
Wignall, P. 2009. Miracle Planet; Episode 4, Part 2. Coproduced by NHK (Japan) and the National Film Board of Canada (NFB).
Yurganov L. 2013. IASI methane levels March 1-10, 2013 against NSIDC sea ice concentration map, March 12, 2013 in: Carana S. 2013. Record methane in Arctic early March 2013.
Yurganov, L., 2012a. Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data from NASA's Aqua Satellite. Index of pub/yurganov/methane/MAPS/
Yurganov, L., 2012b. Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data from NASA's Aqua Satellite.
Zhang J. and Rothrock D.A. 2012. Arctic Sea Ice Volume Anomaly, Version 2. Polar Science Center, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington.
Zhang J. and Rothrock D.A. 2003. Modelling global sea ice with a thickness and enthalpy distribution model in generalized curvilinear co-ordinates.