10

 
 
 

Royal Papua and New Guinea Constabulary














 







 
 



N.G. RIOT

AREA

SURROUNDED BY POLICE


The Canberra Times  Tuesday 1 August 1961 p 3 Article

RABAUL, Monday (A.A.P.).-—Native police with riot slicks and tin helmets   ringed Rabaul to-night after week   end riots in which two natives died.  The police also manned r0ad blocks at each end of ihe town and on the road leading to Toleap, four miles to the north. Police Superintendent Brian Holloway said to-night, "The town is completely covered. We will be ready or anything if fresh rioting starts, Supt. Holloway arrived in Rabaul late to-day with   75 native police, 16 native warders and six native officer cadets.He said the Port Moresby reinforcements had relieved local native police at posts throughout the town.

Resting

Wireless patrol cars carrying European officers and  native police are patrolling Rabaul.Local native police to-night were resting after three days of intermittent rioting. Rabaul Police Superintendent Jack Carroll, who received  hospital treatment after   he was injured at Toleap yesterday, has handed over his  duties to Supt. Holloway.Early to-day hundreds of native residents and workers deserted ' Rabaul to seize makeshift weapons and join others against another possible attack by Tolai natives.  Big mobs of natives were reported to have roamed along Malunga Road on the town's outskirts armed with clubs 'spears and sticks.The Administrator of Papua and New Guinea, Sir Donald Cleland, flew from Port Moresby to Rabaul to day with the police reinforcements.He said after his arrival he drove into the township and passed groups of Tolai tribesmen lining the road but they were "just sitting and talking."Sir Donald reported two people were killed and 13 were in hospital as a result of the clashes between New Guinea mainland natives and local Tolai natives at the Week-end. Several policemen were  injured trying to prevent fights between the natives.

Serious

Four of the people in hospital were in a serious condition Another 19 people, includes three female natives, were  treated at hospital and discharged Three European police and many other people were treated as out-patients.  Sir Donald said, "At the Rabaul native market on   Saturday morning a native   woman claimed that a New Guinea mainland native man assaulted her."Other Tolai women started to scream at the man and threw potatoes at him. Tolai women were joined by Tolai men who attacked the New Guinea mainland natives.Police restored order. Later on Saturday, Tolais attacked New Guinea men and women wherever they could find them."These attacks resulted in six casualties—one a fractured skull. Among the injured  were three policemen."Sir Donald said that on Sunday informationwas received that Tolaiswere assembling at Toleap, adjacent to Rabaul.Two vehicles carrying each two police officers and four native constables, all unarmed entered Toleap where   they were attacked.Five police were injured but none seriously. One   vehicle was damaged beyond repair and the other badly damaged by stones.The District Commissioner for New Britain, Mr. J. R. Foldi, and the Assistant District Officer, Mr. J. Emmanuel,   then went to Toleap.  

Fired Shots

Tolais attacked a truck carrying New Guinea main land natives and to save the natives, Mr. Emmanuel fired pistol shots into the air and the Tolais broke away. Later, Mr. Foldi and another er officer intercepted some hundreds of natives near Rabaul and tried to persuade them to turn back. Meanwhile police   established a barricade between the town of Rabaul and about300 Tolai natives. About! 2,000 New Guinea mainland natives were on the town side of the barricade.The mainlanders were   persuaded to disperse and several turned to go back to their quarters.The Tolais suddenly rushed the police barricade in   pursuit of the mainland natives.Police then opened fire. Two people were killed, two were wounded seriously and one woman was wounded   seriously by a ricochet bullet.

 


  District Commissioner (special Duties ) Jack Emanuel


Superintendent Ernest Bain Young



The Canberra Times Wednesday 17 March 197
















 


 Rabaul 1972


House told of Mataungan threats

The Canberra Times Wednesday 17 March 197



PORT MORESBY, Tuesday (AAP). — Members of the. anti Government Mataungan Association had threatened the lives of some of their opponents, the Deputy Administrator. Mr A. P. J. Newman,said today.Among those threatened was District  Commissioner, Mr Jack Emmanuel he told the   House of Assembly.Mr Newman was making the first statement in the house since violent clashes occurred between the   Mantaungan and riot police at three Gazelle Peninsula cocoa fermentaries.In the worst incident, at Ngatur fermentary on Saturday Mataungans hurled petrol   bombs and rocks at police.

Since then, Mr Newman said, "Mataungan members have threatened to destroy fermentaries and have also threatened the lives of some who have opposed them ininuding District Commissioner J. Emmanuel".  

Clashes have been sparked by a Mataungan assertion that it. acting on behalf of he Tolai people should take over nine of 17 fermentrie's owned by the recently set-up New Guinea Islands Produce Company.

Mr Newman referred to a statement yesterday by Mataungan patron and member for Kokopo, Mr Oscar Tammur, who had said violence should stop."Violence was not initiated by police", Mr Newman said.

"Police have exercised most praiseworthy restraint but they have clear instructions to break up riotous   groups should they form and to evict trespassers from property they do not own.

"They will take what ever measures arc necessary to do so and to ensure the maintenance of law on Gazelle".

When Mr Newman n finished speaking Mr Tammur asked him to table the statement so that it could be debated.

Mr Newman refused, saying the statement was simply for the information of Members.Outside the House, Mr Tammur criticised Mr New man's refusal."It is unfair. He should have given me a chance to reply", Mr Tammur said.He denied the association had threatened to kill anyone.


 
 

 
 








John Power adjusting gas mask





 
 
 
 





Sub/Insp D Pearson with riot squad Kokopo 1972








J Revill instructing 303 rifle training
 
 
 




 

12th Squad Rabaul 1972






 
  
            

 




one of the Weapons used  by the Tolai at the  matugatagan conflict









 

NEW NATIVE

RIOTS IN

N.G. FEARED


The Canberra Times  Saturday 5 August 1961, page 3



RABAUL, Friday (A.A. P.). — Police road blocks would be set up. around Rabaul to-morrow, District Commissioner J. Foldi said to-day.The commissioner said the authorities' aim in setting up the blocks was to prevent repetition of last week-end's inter-tribal violence in New  Britain.Officers manning the blocks would stop vehicles carrying natives and confiscate any weapons they might be carry ing, the commissioner said.Last week, Tolai natives! drove into Rabaul with clubs, spears, axes, iron piping, metal and masoni te shields on the floors of their trucks.The discovery in a shallow grave, 18 miles from Rabaul, to-day of the body of a third native killed in last week end's clashes, heightened feel ing here that feuding Tolai and mainland tribesmen would "turn it on again"  tomorrow.

Other natives stated that the dead native, named Sali, had been attacked by Tolais armed with clubs and spears.

 

    
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 














 

 
 

   
 

 
 
Horrie Kneebone – pondering why ute won’t start
 
 

 
 

 Ian Johnston  & Ethel Irene REILLY at Vaunpaladig

  
 
 
 
 
 






 

Clans to be paid for six deaths

The Canberra Times Tuesday 7 August 1973, page 11


PORT MORESBY, Monday. — The Papua New Guinea Govern ment has arranged for compensation totalling S4.000 to relatives of six people killed on the Highlands Highway at the weekend, hoping to prevent tribal "pay back".

Relatives and clansmen of the dead people gave Government officials a firm assurance they would not take the law into their own hands.Road accidents have   been one of she main causes of tribal fighting in the Highland area.

RABAUL, Monday.   Government officers met a group of Highlanders at the Kokopo police station! today and warned them!

not to take the law into their own hands, after riots at the weekend in which a Highlander was killed and two Tolais were injured.

The district commissioner. Mr Philip Bouraga. and the Member of the House of Assembly for Kokopo. Mr Oscar Tammur appealed for peace   today in a radio broadcast to the Tolai people.

 
               












 

Two Killed In Racial Clashes

POLICE FIRE ON NATIVES IN N.G.

RABAUL, Sunday. — Two natives were shot dead and'eight police injured seriously when police attempted to pre vent a clash between several thousand New Guinea natives near Rahaul yester day.

The rioting was the worst in New Guinea history.

Kabaul was deadly quiet to-night, hut thousands of natives were gathered round campfires in the hills surround ing the town.

Rabaul Fear

The riots began al 3 p.m. yesterday when a Sepik

native made overtures to a Tolai woman at Rabaul's native market.

The market was wrecked and mobs of armed Tolais attacked Sepiks on sight.

Four natives were admitted to Nonga Base Hospital. One still is in a critical condition. More than 400 natives at tended as outpatients.

A running fight was waged through several of Rabaul's better class residential streets.

The tone of the riots changed early to-day.

From a pattern of Tolai versus Sepik, the nature of the disturbances swung to Toloi's defying authority.

Eyewitnesses said about 500 natives attacked 50 police led by six white officers.

The attack began with

shower of stones directed mainly at native police.

 

 

 

 

 

"Over Heads"

The native police were or dered to open fire over the rioters' heads and the natives withdrew.

Late to-day more than 1,000 war-painted natives prowled up and down Rabaul's Malguna Road.

They were armed with bows and arrows, clubs,

spears and knives.

One mob of natives dis persed into the bush after about 20 shots were fired by

police.

Three police vehicles were wrecked and two large fire engines damaged and pushed from the road.

Groups of armed police   "ere stationed at strategic Points around the town.

Uneasy  

Rabaul was quiet to-night

to-day's rioting—but canip fires twinkled on the "His surrounding the town.

thousands of Tolai natives   from all over the Gazelle peninsular, many of whom wok part in to-day's fighting,

rearound the fires and in Rabaul people believe they are Planning their next move. Native servants. afraid of another attack by Tolai's, have gathered in compounds where

safety is ensured by numbers. Residents of long standing   know t'he habits of the   Tolai native, are sure that the natives' fear or the dark and the spirits they believe inhabit it. dissuade them from venturing into Rabaul  

tonight. but they are uneasy

about tomorrow

In Canberra last night, the Minister for Territories, Mr. Hasluck said the police were in between two groups of natives and were attacked with sticks and stones. ,

The police opened fire on ly after they were overwhelmed

The New Guinea mainlanders had returned to their homes.

A police road block had been established on the road between Rabaul and the Tolai area where other groups of

natives lived.

Mr Hasluck said he had been assured by the District Commissioner and senior Native Affairs officers no more trouble would occur.

Police reinforcements would be flown from Port Moresby to prevent more

trouble.

 

 

Rabaul Riots Natives attack police

 

RABAUL, Thursdays (AAP). — A white police man and six native assistants  were injured last|   night when 80 natives   attacked the police station at Rabaul in an attempt to free six fellow tribesmen.  They tore iron stanchions from the medial strip in the) town's main road and then charged the station where Sub-Inspector Fred Mercer was felled by a blow across the head. He also suffered arm in juries while other police men suffered-head injuries and several needed stitches in deep gashes. Riot squads quelled the attack and arrested 40 men who will appear in Rabaul 

Court tomorrow. The riot began after six tribesmen from Finschafen were arrested on charges of vagrancy.  At 7pm a group of fellow tribesmen went to the  police station demanding the release of the arrested men. They were told the men could not be released.

At 9.45pm about 80 natives returned and massed in front of the police   station. A native police   constable who went to the front steps of the station was felled by a blow on the head. 
 
 

The Canberra Times  Friday 31 December 1965, page 3



    Loloho, Bougainville 1969

 
 

     Ray Whitrod , S/I Gire, John Richard Ormond Power, Kevan Alan Wilde

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
 Kevin Gascoigne 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

Loloho, Bougainville 1969

Subject: "Australia and Papua New Guinea 1966 - 1969"

A remarkable set of documents, full of interest, but a monumental mistake that illustrates how mistakes appear in history. A copy of Bill  Brown's (DC) letter to Canberra:

"I wish to draw your attention to a major and significant error in the publication “Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, Australia and Papua New Guinea 1966 – 1969.”
Viewed in the context of the Department’s statement that the volume “provides a detailed record of the classified communications that informed [sic] and determined Australian policy in Papua New Guinea”, and the statement that “it is essential reading for anyone interested in Papua New Guinea”, there is an obvious need for the error to be recognized, and for the public record to be corrected.
Viewed in the light of the Minister’s enthusiastic endorsement contained in the introductory forward, I suggest that the error, and its magnitude, should be quickly drawn to his attention.
It will be sad, if our neighbours and the world continue to see a volume published by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, purporting to be of historical significance, that proclaims that the Administrator of Papua New Guinea personally directed police operations in the Rorovana affair, personally ordered tear gas smoke to be fire at villagers, personally ordered baton attacks, etc etc, when none of those statements are true
Those statements, which appear in pages numbered xiv and xivi of the Introduction, are a complete nonsense. Administrator David Hay was not involved in any of those events, and the statements completely distort the role played by the Australian Government, the Administration and by David Hay, as Administrator.
My knowledge of the affair was gained from personal involvement. From June 1966 to May 1973, I was variously Assistant District Commissioner Kieta, Deputy District Commissioner, Bougainville and District Commissioner, Bougainville. My name appears at paragraph 7 and paragraph 16 of Document 307. It also appears at paragraph 3 of Document 83 (but is incorrectly referenced as “K.A. Brown, Deputy District Commissioner, Sohano” in footnote 6).
In the Introduction, commencing at page xlv, the statement is made:
“So, on 22 July, with ‘indications that disturbance could possibly develop’, Hay was instructed to travel to Bougainville to personally take charge of police operations. 160. …… On 1 August 1, survey work was interrupted by scuffles between the 70-strong police force and 250 Rorovana people . …. …Hay described what follows:”
I have only quoted excerpts from the next 11 lines, which purport to be Hay’s report of his actions:
“… To prevent a breach of the peace or injury to the people I ordered that tear smoke should be laid down. A smoke grenade was tossed in front of the people but was not sufficient to move them, so several more were fired. … The police baton wave moved forward again in an endeavour to clear the area. No batons were used. Finally after about 20 minutes the smoke had the desired effect …”
The next paragraph commences with the introductory phrase: “A short time later, Hay’s force was met again by the people”. It then purports to continue Hay’s report. Excerpts from those twelve lines:
“They were very excited …… They were again addressed by the District Commissioner and I also spoke to them in terms that I had done before ..Two smoke grenades were fired.”
“….. After a minute or so it was clear that batons would have to be used and I ordered that the police strike at legs only which they did from under their shields.. …”
The Facts:
Administrator, David Hay was not personally involved in any physical operations in Bougainville. He did not arrive in Bougainville “at 8:15 a.m. on 26 July”. He did not fly in a helicopter “over the entire area on Monday, 27 July”. He did not direct, or participate, in any police operations. He was not a participant in the discussions detailed at paragraph 7, nor was he a participant in the discussions described at paragraph 16 of Document 307. Hay did not address all the officers or stress the fact “that as police officers our duty was to maintain law and order”(paragraph 18), nor did Hay “address all the police at Loloho, stressing discipline and the need to avoid violence.” (Donald Denoon “Getting Under the Skin: the Bougainville Copper Agreement and the Creation of the Panguna Mine, Melbourne, 2000. Page 115). David Hay was not in Bougainville at the time.

The Fundamental Error
The narration at pages in the Introduction to “Australia and Papua New Guinea” pages is based on Document 307, TELEX, HAY TO WARWICK SMITH. Port Moresby, 12 August 1969. That document has been erroneously attributed to Administrator David Hay. It has been assumed to a be document written by him, a record of his activities, covering his control of the police operations in Bougainville, at Rorovana, between 26 July 1969 and 8 August 1969, following a direction to him to “move to Bougainville to assume control of police in the region”,
David Hay may have passed the report to Warwick Smith, but Hay did not write it. It is not an account of his activities. Hay was never directed to “move to Bougainville to assume control of police”. Superintendent Brian J Holloway was the officer directed to move to Bougainville, to directly control the police operations under District Commissioner Ashton, and was recalled from overseas to do so. Holloway was the only person who could have written Document 307.


Paragraph 7 of Document 307, attributed to Hay, states:
“In discussion with the District Commissioner and Mr. Brown, 4 we decided that the survey should commence on the beach where we had landed in the morning, mainly because this was the furthermost point and if the people at Rorovana intended to oppose the survey and take action to prevent it, this was the most likely spot they would choose.”
The only individuals present at the discussions described in paragraph 7 of Document 307 were:
1. D.N. Ashton (District Commissioner, Bougainville),
2. B. J. Holloway (Superintendent of Police) and
3. W.T. Brown (Deputy District Commissioner, Bougainville).
Paragraph 16 of Document 307 states:
“When Mr Pratt arrived in Kieta, he, the District Commissioner, Mr Brown, Inspector Gascoigne and I discussed the problems of both passive and active resistance by the people of Rorovana and we finally decided that if the people did prevent the surveyors or attempt to prevent the surveyors from entering on to the land in dispute they committed an offence. … [Matter omitted for brevity] … “ I considered that it was in the best interests of the people not to arrest them and that it was incumbent upon me to prevent a breach of the peace between surveyors, their assistants and the people.”
The only individuals present at the discussions described in paragraph 16 of Document 307 were:
1. D. N. Ashton (District Commissioner, Bougainville),
2. B. J. Holloway (Superintendent of Police),
3. K. R. Gascoigne (Inspector of Police, Kieta),
4. N. H. Pratt (Deputy Crown Solicitor, Rabaul) and
5. W.T. Brown (Deputy District Commissioner, Bougainville).

There are statements in Document 307 that indicated that Hay was not the writer. Two of the footnotes should have provided even greater insight:

In Paragraph 18 of Document 307:
“.. I addressed all the officers” ….. “ I stressed the fact that our duty as police officers was to maintain law and order.”
Hay would not have referred to himself a police officer.

Footnote 9, to paragraph 21 of Document 307 notes.
“In a private interview, Hay later opined that Ashton ‘over-reacted to the very difficult situations he found himself in 1968 and 1969 and finally, at the confrontation near Kieta in August of 1969, he appeared with a tin hat on his head …. He looked like a police officer … because he was with a police riot squad with all their equipment – and that was the last thing that a field officer should do and get himself photographed in the paper’.”
Maybe the author of that note did not realize that “the confrontation near Kieta in August 1969” referred to Rorovana, but how could anyone believe that Hay would be directly involved in the use of riot gear after they had read the report of that interview?


Footnote 13, to paragraph 44 of Document 307 reads, in part:
“Ellis later reported to Hay: ‘My investigations reveal that the actions by the Police in both clashes with the Rorovanas recently were carried out by all ranks with great circumspection and restraint, and in my opinion, reflect great credit on the officers and men ..’ ”
If Document 307 was written by Hay, this footnote would suggest an absurdity: Ellis, Hay’s subordinate, reporting to Hay on Ellis’s investigation and evaluation of Hay’s conduct of the Rorovana operation. Ellis was reporting to Hay on the operations directed by Holloway.

There are some inconsistencies in the dates recorded in Document 307. The author states that he arrived in Bougainville on 26th July. He flew in a helicopter on Monday morning, 27th July (the 27th July was a Sunday). “On 13 July a report was received”, perhaps a typographical error. The firm and significant dates are those of arrival (26 July 1969) and departure (8 August 1969), a period of 14 days. David Hay’s Official Diary will show his appointments and activities during that same period. That diary may also record details of the single page handwritten letter that conveyed Hay’s last-minute instructions to Ashton.

Hay and his headquarters advisers determined that there should be media involvement in Rorovana and, as a result, there was extensive coverage by the print and television media. The Sydney, Melbourne and Port Moresby newspapers gave front-page coverage to the participants; to Ashton, and to a lesser extent Holloway. The ABC has archival footage of the affair.

Finally, Ian Downs (“The Australian Trusteeship – Papua New Guinea 1945 – 75. AGPS, Canberra 1980 pages 357 and 359} wrote:
“… Action to secure the land of the Rorovana people adjacent to Arawa plantation produced the only significant violence during the three years of frustrating opposition. “ “ “…. they were thwarted by the impeccable behaviour of riot police under the tight control of Superintendent Brian Holloway, - this time recalled from a recruiting trip to Australia to take charge of police action in Bougainville – under the direction of Ashton.”
“Ashton and Holloway did well to cope with these situations on the ground. They were comparatively free from surveillance by the central Government and their action at Rorovana was a turning point in the field.”
A remarkable set of documents, full of interest, but a monumental mistake that illustrates how mistakes appear in history. A copy of my letter to Canberra:
"I wish to draw your attention to a major and significant error in the publication “Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, Australia and Papua New Guinea 1966 – 1969.”
Viewed in the context of the Department’s statement that the volume “provides a detailed record of the classified communications that informed [sic] and determined Australian policy in Papua New Guinea”, and the statement that “it is essential reading for anyone interested in Papua New Guinea”, there is an obvious need for the error to be recognized, and for the public record to be corrected.
Viewed in the light of the Minister’s enthusiastic endorsement contained in the introductory forward, I suggest that the error, and its magnitude, should be quickly drawn to his attention.
It will be sad, if our neighbours and the world continue to see a volume published by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, purporting to be of historical significance, that proclaims that the Administrator of Papua New Guinea personally directed police operations in the Rorovana affair, personally ordered tear gas smoke to be fire at villagers, personally ordered baton attacks, etc etc, when none of those statements are true
Those statements, which appear in pages numbered xiv and xivi of the Introduction, are a complete nonsense. Administrator David Hay was not involved in any of those events, and the statements completely distort the role played by the Australian Government, the Administration and by David Hay, as Administrator.
My knowledge of the affair was gained from personal involvement. From June 1966 to May 1973, I was variously Assistant District Commissioner Kieta, Deputy District Commissioner, Bougainville and District Commissioner, Bougainville. My name appears at paragraph 7 and paragraph 16 of Document 307. It also appears at paragraph 3 of Document 83 (but is incorrectly referenced as “K.A. Brown, Deputy District Commissioner, Sohano” in footnote 6).
In the Introduction, commencing at page xlv, the statement is made:
“So, on 22 July, with ‘indications that disturbance could possibly develop’, Hay was instructed to travel to Bougainville to personally take charge of police operations. 160. …… On 1 August 1, survey work was interrupted by scuffles between the 70-strong police force and 250 Rorovana people . …. …Hay described what follows:”
I have only quoted excerpts from the next 11 lines, which purport to be Hay’s report of his actions:
“… To prevent a breach of the peace or injury to the people I ordered that tear smoke should be laid down. A smoke grenade was tossed in front of the people but was not sufficient to move them, so several more were fired. … The police baton wave moved forward again in an endeavour to clear the area. No batons were used. Finally after about 20 minutes the smoke had the desired effect …”
The next paragraph commences with the introductory phrase: “A short time later, Hay’s force was met again by the people”. It then purports to continue Hay’s report. Excerpts from those twelve lines:
“They were very excited …… They were again addressed by the District Commissioner and I also spoke to them in terms that I had done before ..Two smoke grenades were fired.”
“….. After a minute or so it was clear that batons would have to be used and I ordered that the police strike at legs only which they did from under their shields.. …”
The Facts:
Administrator, David Hay was not personally involved in any physical operations in Bougainville. He did not arrive in Bougainville “at 8:15 a.m. on 26 July”. He did not fly in a helicopter “over the entire area on Monday, 27 July”. He did not direct, or participate, in any police operations. He was not a participant in the discussions detailed at paragraph 7, nor was he a participant in the discussions described at paragraph 16 of Document 307. Hay did not address all the officers or stress the fact “that as police officers our duty was to maintain law and order”(paragraph 18), nor did Hay “address all the police at Loloho, stressing discipline and the need to avoid violence.” (Donald Denoon “Getting Under the Skin: the Bougainville Copper Agreement and the Creation of the Panguna Mine, Melbourne, 2000. Page 115). David Hay was not in Bougainville at the time. th July. He flew in a helicopter on Monday morning, 27th July (the 27th July was a Sunday). “On 13 July a report was received”, perhaps a typographical error. The firm and significant dates are those of arrival (26 July 1969) and departure (8 August 1969), a period of 14 days. David Hay’s Official Diary will show his appointments and activities during that same period. That diary may also record details of the single page handwritten letter that conveyed Hay’s last-minute instructions to Ashton.

Hay and his headquarters advisers determined that there should be media involvement in Rorovana and, as a result, there was extensive coverage by the print and television media. The Sydney, Melbourne and Port Moresby newspapers gave front-page coverage to the participants; to Ashton, and to a lesser extent Holloway. The ABC has archival footage of the affair.

Finally, Ian Downs (“The Australian Trusteeship – Papua New Guinea 1945 – 75. AGPS, Canberra 1980 pages 357 and 359} wrote:
“… Action to secure the land of the Rorovana people adjacent to Arawa plantation produced the only significant violence during the three years of frustrating opposition. “ “ “…. they were thwarted by the impeccable behaviour of riot police under the tight control of Superintendent Brian Holloway, - this time recalled from a recruiting trip to Australia to take charge of police action in Bougainville – under the direction of Ashton.”
“Ashton and Holloway did well to cope with these situations on the ground. They were comparatively free from surveillance by the central Government and their action at Rorovana was a turning point in the field.”

 D.C. Bill Brown 


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