I. Mission Statement
The mission of the Roanoke Public Library is to provide access to knowledge and information that will inform, educate, entertain and serve the Roanoke community based upon funding provided by tax dollars collected and donations.
In an attempt to more clearly spell out the rules and regulations for the library staff, the following policy has been adopted. Since it is not possible to cover all situations and circumstances, when any questions arise, the Director and the staff should direct all inquiries of interpretations for clarification or referral to the Board of Trustees.
A. SELECTION OF DIRECTOR
1) The selection and direction of the Library Director shall be by the Board of Trustees.
2) Requirements: Librarian V Certification
3) Job Description (see Appendix A)
4) The Board of Trustees shall make a yearly review of all salaries.
5) Annual Evaluation of the Director shall be by the Board of Trustees.
B. SELECTION OF OTHER STAFF
1) The administration and direction of the staff shall be the responsibility of the Library Director.
2) Requirements for the position:
b) Computer skills
c) High School Diploma or equivalent
3) Job Description (See Appendix B)
4) Salary is under the jurisdiction and subjected to the Board of Trustees’ approval.
5) Work schedule, vacation schedule (if applicable), job assignment and general function that best fits the need of the library, shall be the responsibility of the Library Director in consultation with the Board of Trustees.
6) Evaluation shall be by the Director and provided to the Board of Trustees for annual review.
C. HIRING POLICY
Through the daily efforts of our dedicated staff, the Roanoke Public Library is proud to provide courteous, knowledgeable, and efficient service to a growing community with constantly evolving needs. We are dedicated to ethical values in our day-to-day activities at all level of our organization. Honesty, stewardship, respect, responsibility, service, and excellence guide our decision making. If you are seeking that rare opportunity to develop your own professional skills while offering valuable assistance to others, then consider a career with us.
It is the policy of the Library to fill all positions with the best qualified people. The Library will promote from within whenever possible. The position will be advertised with outside sources, such as public library listservs, local newspapers, employment websites, the library’s website, etc. This is done to reach the most people and aid in ensuring that vacancies are filled by the most qualified persons as expediently as possible.
Library Assistant: An applicant for the job of Library Assistant, having been chosen by the Library Director for employment, must sign a waiver permitting a police check and give all necessary information i.e. full name, date of birth and social security number to perform such check. The Library will pay for the police check to be done. Upon passing such check, applicant’s name and information will come before the Board of Trustees for their approval of the hiring of applicant. With Board of Trustees approval Library Director, will offer the said applicant the job of library assistant. The job of Library Assistant is designated as a “Part Time” position which means the employee works less than 40 hours per week.
Summer Help: An applicant for the job of Summer Help, having been chosen by the Library Director for employment, must sign a waiver permitting a police check and give all necessary information i.e. full name, date of birth and social security number to perform such check. The Library will pay for the police check to be done. Upon passing such check, applicant’s name and information will come before the Board of Trustees for their approval of the hiring of applicant. With Board of Trustees approval Library Director, will offer the said applicant the job of summer help. The job of Summer Help is designated as a “Temporary” position which means they are hired for a temporary period and receive no benefits.
D. Employee Benefits
1) Meal and Rest Periods: Staff members are normally scheduled for one (1) unpaid meal break during an eight (8) hour day. Staff members are also permitted a paid fifteen (15) minute rest break for each four (4) hours worked to be taken at Director’s discretion. Rest periods are not to be accumulated or used to shorten work schedule or lengthen the meal period. Neither food nor drink is allowed in Library except for designated area.
2) Workmen’s Compensation: Indiana Worker’s Compensation Insurance covers Staff members for injuries, which occur on the job. All accidents and job-related injuries must be reported to the Director in writing as soon as possible and reported to the insurance company within seven (7) days.
3) Unemployment Compensation: The Library stands by its responsibility to pay unemployment compensation claims to regular employees when such claims are legitimate and judicious. The Library will contest spurious and unjust claims.
4) Education: The Library supports all continuing education of its employees and encourages personal development through workshops, seminars, library meetings, conference attendance and formal education. Registration and required materials fees incurred from approved seminars, workshops, conferences and library meetings will be reimbursed upon presentation of receipt to Director and approval by Board.
5) Free Library Cards: The Library will issue a free library card to any Library employee who lives outside of the library district for the term of her/his employment.
E. CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT
1) Probationary Period
During the probationary period a staff member is trained for effective performance of the job. Throughout this period the Director discusses with the employee her/his strengths and weaknesses and makes recommendations for further improvements. A person whose work is considered unsatisfactory may be dismissed. The probationary period for all employees will be six (6) months. It may be extended for an additional three (3) months upon recommendation by the Director to the Board of Trustees. The employee shall be notified in writing of extended probationary period.
2) Evaluation of Performance
Director: Performance is reviewed by the Board of Trustees after six (6) months. A written evaluation will be given at this time. These evaluations will be on file with the Board Secretary and in the personnel files. Performance is then evaluated annually or as deemed necessary. It will be at this time that all decisions concerning salary or benefits will be made.
3) Other Employees: Performance will be reviewed by the Director after six (6) months. Written evaluation, signed by the employee and the Director will be filed annually thereafter. This evaluation will be submitted to the Board of Trustees, who will at this time make all decisions concerning salary or benefits, and then evaluation will be placed on file in the library and with the Board Secretary.
F. CAUSES FOR DISCIPINARY ACTION
Continuance in a position of employment at the Library is based on continuing satisfactory performance by the employee. Disciplinary action may be taken against any employee who fails to perform assigned duties. If after six (6) months, an employee is not performing her/his assigned duties, the Board of Trustees may remove the employee from her/his position after review.
Disciplinary and dismissal procedures:
1) The Library Director shall give a written warning concerning the performance of an undesirable practice or failure to perform a required duty to any employee who commits an offense. Records of the warning date, when and where given and content should be made by the Director and placed in the employee’s personnel file and provided to the Board of Trustees at its next regular meeting.
2) Written reprimands must contain the specifics of the conduct for which the employee is being reprimanded. The employee must sign the reprimand. A copy is given to the employee and a copy is placed in the employee’s file and a copy to the Board of Trustees at their next regular meeting. Any two (2) reprimands in a twelve (12) month period are cause for termination by the Board.
3) In the event that the Board of Trustees determines that the discharge of a staff member is required in the best interest of the Library, the employee will be notified in writing. The employee will be paid only through the last day worked.
Prompt resolution of personnel difficulties is important for good personnel relations in the operation of an efficient organization. The Board of Trustees is committed to fair and just relations with its employees.
An employee who believes to have a justifiable grievance shall discuss the grievance with the Director. If a satisfactory solution is not agreed upon the Director or the employee may appeal to the Board of Trustees in writing. The Board will consider the appeal and act upon it.
G. TRAVEL POLICY
All travel and related expenses outside of the Library district must be authorized by the Director and are subject to the approval of the Board. Employees traveling outside the Library district in their own vehicles on official Library business may be reimbursed for mileage at the rate currently approved by the State of Indiana. Parking fees, tolls and other travel expenses will be reimbursed at actual cost. Claims for mileage on appropriate mileage form, tolls and parking fees must be presented accompanied by appropriate receipts and are payable upon approval at the next regular meeting of the Board. Mileage will only be paid to the operator of the vehicle. Car pooling or public transportation is encouraged whenever possible.
H. SUBSTANCE ABUSE
The library’s policy is to employ a work force free from the use and effects of illegal drugs and alcohol during working hours. Any employee found to be in violation of this policy is subject to disciplinary action up to and including termination.
Smoking is not permitted by staff or patrons in any part of the library building.
Telephones are for library business. Personal calls need to be limited and when made kept brief. Long distance calls need to be charged to the employee’s home telephone number.
K. JURY DUTY
Library employees who are called for jury duty during regular work hours will be granted time off provided proper verification of the days of service is furnished by the Clerk of the Courts. When a part-time or full-time employee is called for jury duty, she or he will be granted a leave of absence. An employee will be paid at the base rate of pay for each scheduled workday, which she or he is required to spend in court. When the employee who has served on jury duty receives her or his check from the courts, she or he needs to bring the check to the Library Director. At this time, she or he will endorse the check so it is payable to the order of the Roanoke Public Library. The Library will receipt the check into its operation fund. Then the Library will issue the employee a regular paycheck in the preset pay schedule. The Library will pay the difference between the jury duty pay and the employee’s regular pay so that there will be no penalty for public service. The employee is expected to report to work when doing so does not conflict with jury duty. It is the employee’s responsibility to keep the Library Director informed about the amount of time required for jury duty and to provide documentation regarding the amount of jury duty pay received in order to receive the Library-provided compensation supplement.
L. SICK LEAVE
The Library recognizes that an employee’s inability to work because of illness or injury may cause economic hardship. For this reason, the Library provides paid sick days to full-time employees. Sick days may be used for the following reasons:
1) Personal illness
2) Illness of members of immediate family living with you and you are the only other practical care provider.
3) Medical procedures or surgery
4) Paternity/Maternity leave at the birth or adoption of a child
The Board of Trustees prefers that staff remain at home when they have contracted contagious illness like colds, flu or virus. When Library Director uses sick leave for three scheduled workdays or more, the Board will require a medical release before returning to work. When an employee uses sick leave for three scheduled workdays or more, Library Director will require medical release before returning to work. Employees should inform the Library Director to the projected length of sick leave.
Full-time employees, including the Director, accrue sick leave at the following rate:
1) No sick leave will be available prior to completion of the first six full calendar months of employment with the Library.
2) Three (3) days of sick leave will be available following the first six- (6) full calendar months of service.
3) Additional sick leave will accrue at the conclusion of each full calendar month of service at the rate of one day per month to a maximum accumulation of ten (10) sick days per year. No full-time employee may accumulate more than a total of sixty (60) sick days.
When using sick leave the Library Director must contact the President of the Board of Trustees and a work replacement. Staff members must notify the Library Director as soon as possible of her or his inability to work as scheduled due to illness.
Sick leave accrual will be forfeited during unpaid leave lasting longer those four- (4) weeks for the duration of the leave, including leaves being paid through disability programs. Upon termination, any unused sick leave or personal time will not be paid.
When Library Director is hospitalized, she or he will present a medical release allowing her or him to resume duties signed by her or his doctor to the President of the Board of Trustees. When a staff member is hospitalized, she or he will present a medical release allowing her or him to resume duties signed by her or his doctor to Library Director who will provide a copy to the President of the Board of Trustees.
M. MEDICAL LEAVE
Roanoke Public Library provides medical leaves of absence without pay to employees who are temporarily unable to work due to a serious health condition or disability. For purposes of this policy, serious health conditions or disabilities include inpatient care in a hospital, hospice, or residential medical facility; continuing treatment by a health care provider, and temporary disabilities associated with pregnancy, childbirth, and related medical conditions and also those conditions specified by the American Family and Medical Leave Act.
Requests for medical leave for the Director and for employees shall be made to the Board of Trustees at least thirty (30) days prior to foreseeable events, and as soon as possible for unforeseeable events.
A health care provider’s statement should be submitted verifying the need for medical leave, and should include expected beginning and ending dates. Any changes in this information should be promptly reported to the Board by the Director or to the Director by the employee. When the Director or employee returns to work, a health care provider’s verification of fitness to return to work shall be submitted to the Board of Trustees prior to the Director or employee resuming their duties.
Leave time is normally granted for the period of the disability. Employees are first required to use any accrued paid leave time before taking unpaid medical leave time. Once unpaid leave and vacation leave is used, Board will evaluate future employment.
Employees who sustain work-related injuries are eligible for a medical leave of absence for the period of the disability in accordance with all applicable laws covering occupational disabilities.
The Library Director is responsible for her/his own health insurance as it is allotted for in the Roanoke Public Library’s budget.
Please see attached pages for Family and Medical Leave Act Policy.
Library Director will have paid vacation . He or she must have approval of Board of Trustees as to the date(s) of said vacation. Other employees have paid vacation. Any unused vacation leave at the end of the year will be lost. Employees are required to take vacation time in the scheduled year. Upon termination, any earned but unused vacation leave (of that year and pro-rated to the last day of employment) will be paid.
O. FUNERAL/BEREAVEMENT LEAVE
If death occurs, an employee needs to notify the Library Director to request time off. A full-time employee with a death occurring in the immediate family (including spouse, father, mother, ) will receive time-off with pay for up to five (5) calendar days. A death occurring of the brother, sister, grandparent, mother-in-law, or father-in-law will receive time-off with pay up to three (3) calendar days. A newspaper obituary or a copy of the death certificate must be obtained.
In the event circumstances require additional time off, use of vacation days or unpaid leave may be requested. In the event of death of other close relatives, friends, or co-workers, the Library generally allows time off to attend the funeral. Discuss this matter with Library Director.
P. MILITARY LEAVE
The Library provides compensation for two (2) weeks during annual reserve and National Guard military training for full-time employees who have completed the orientation period. Part-time does not qualify for military leave compensation, although time off will be granted to them.
The amount of the military compensation paid is the difference between military pay and regular pay based on a regular workweek, up to two (2) weeks. Time spent on military leave will not be counted as vacation time used. Military reservist employees and those volunteering for or called to active military duty are entitled to reemployment with the Library upon their return from duty in full compliance with all applicable federal and state laws.
Q. MOVING AND INTERVIEW EXPENSE POLICY
Any moving or interview expenses will be the responsibility of the job applicant. The library will pay no reimbursement.
R. VOLUNTEERS POLICY
The Library welcomes the assistance of volunteers who wish to help the Library provide its services in the community. The Director will supervise the recruitment, orientation, training, and placement of all Library volunteers. Library volunteers are to be given meaningful job assignments, but are not to be used on the service desk. Although Library volunteers are eligible to apply for the job of Library Assistant, volunteers are not to be given the idea that the volunteer work will ensure them of a paid job in the future.
S. HARRASSMENT BASED ON RACE, COLOR, RELIGION, GENDER, NATIONAL ORIGIN, AGE OR DISABILITY
In providing a productive working environment, the Board of that its employees should be able to enjoy a workplace free from all forms of discrimination, including harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, national origin, age or disability. It is the Board of Trustees’ policy to provide an environment free from harassment.
It is against the policy of the Board of Trustees for any employee, whether Library Director, staff or volunteer to harass another person. Prohibited harassment occurs when verbal or physical conduct defaming or showing hostility toward an individual because of her or his race, color, religion, gender, national origin, age, or disability, or that of the individual’s relatives, friends, or associates, creates or is intended to create an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working environment; interferes or is intended to interfere with an individual’s work performance; or otherwise adversely affects an individual’s employment opportunities.
Harassing conduct includes, but is not limited to: epithets; slurs; negative stereotyping; or threatening, intimidating or hostile acts; which relate to race, color, religion, gender, national origin, age, or disability. Written or graphic material that defames or show hostility or aversion toward an individual or group because of race, color, religion, gender, national origin, age, or disability and that is placed on walls, bulletin boards, or elsewhere on the Library’s premises, or that is circulated in the workplace will constitute harassment.
Any employee who believes she or he has been harassed in violation of this policy should report the conduct immediately to the Library Director, or if the Library Director is responsible for the harassment to the President of the Board of Trustees. A written statement of the alleged harassment shall be presented to the President of the Board of Trustees signed by the alleging party.
A thorough and impartial investigation of all complaints will be conducted in a timely and confidential manner by the Board of Trustees. Any employee of the Library who has been found, after appropriate investigate, to have harassed another employee or person in violation of this policy will be subject to disciplinary action up to and including termination.
T. SEXUAL HARASSMENT
The Board of Trustees does not condone, nor will it tolerate sexual harassment. Repeated unwelcome advances, which may be verbal or physical, requests for favors and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature, constitutes sexual harassment when:
1) Submission to such conduct is either an explicit or implicit term or condition or employment.
2) Submission or rejection of the conduct is used as a basis for making employment decision; or,
3) The conduct has the purpose or effect of substantially interfering with an individual’s work performance, or creating an intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment.
To avoid misunderstanding about what might constitute sexual harassment, the following guidelines are provided. Sexual harassment is not limited to those specifically prohibited here.
1) Requests for sexual favors;
2) Unwanted physical contact, including touching, pinching, or brushing the body;
3) Verbal harassment, such as sexual innuendoes, suggestive comments, jokes of sexual nature, sexual proposition, profane language, or threats;
4) Acts of physical aggression, intimidation, hostility, threats, or unequal treatment based on sex (even if not sexual in nature); and
5) Non-verbal conduct, such as displays of sexually suggestive objects or pictures, leering, whistling, or obscene gestures.
Any incident of sexual harassment must be reported to the Library Director. Incidents of sexual harassment involving the Library Director must be reported to the President of the Board of Trustees. A written statement of the alleged harassment shall be presented to the President of the Board of Trustees signed by the alleging party. A thorough and impartial investigation of all complaints will be conducted by the Board of Trustees in a timely and confidential manner.
Sexual harassment is a form of misconduct, which constitutes a serious offense, and offenders who have been found, after appropriate investigation, to have sexually harassed another employee will be subject of disciplinary action up to and including termination.
U. ACCOMMODATIONS FOR DISABLED EMPLOYEES
The Roanoke Public Library will provide reasonable accommodation to enable a qualified applicant to perform the essential functions of the job which she or he is seeking, and to enable an employee with a disability to perform the essential functions of a currently held job. Modifications or adjustments may be required in the work environment, in the manner or circumstances in which the job is customarily performed, or in employment policies. Our goal is to allow an employee with a disability the opportunity to enjoy the responsibilities, benefits, and privileges of employment; equal to those enjoyed by similarly situated non-disabled employees.
The Board of Trustees will not be able to make an accommodation that could impose undue hardship on the operation of the business. The American with Disabilities Act defines an undue hardship as an action that requires significant difficulty or expense. Each accommodation request will be handled on a case-by-case basis, taking the individual needs of the employee and the Library into consideration.
V. ACCOMMODATION FOR HIV POSITIVE EMPLOYEES
A person who is HIV positive or who has AIDS will not be discriminated against in any way. If able to work, the Library will provide work assignments in accordance with normal procedures. In accordance with the law, reasonable accommodations will be provided as with other disabled employees.
If the employee is unable to work due to disability associated with AIDS, the case will be treated in the same manner and with the same consideration as any other non-occupational disability.
who harass another employee, violate her or his confidentiality rights, or who refuse to work next to a person with AIDS will be subject to immediate disciplinary action, up to and including termination.
W. HOLIDAY CLOSING
The Roanoke Public Library is closed on the following holiday:
1) New Year’s Day
2) Memorial Day
3) Labor Day
5) Christmas Eve
6) Christmas Day
The Roanoke Public Library will close at 5:00 p.m. on the following days:
1) Wednesday before Thanksgiving
2) New Year’s Eve
The Roanoke Public Library will be closed on
1) Independence Day (July 4) if that is a day of regular operation.
The Library will strive to stay open during adverse weather. If the Library Director is unable to open the Library, a part-time employee or a member of the Library Board will open the Library. In the event of a countrywide Snow Emergency, the Library will be closed.
X. PAY PERIOD
Employee will be given a choice of being paid either monthly or semi-monthly.
1) Monthly – If paid monthly, the pay period will end on the last day of the month. Paycheck will be available one week from the end of the pay period. If that date falls on a non-working day, the paycheck will be available on the next working day.
2) Semi-monthly – If paid semi-monthly, the pay period will end on the 15th and on the last day of the month. The paycheck will be available . If that date falls on a non-working day, paycheck will be available on the next working day.
Note: Under special circumstances, payment
EXCEPTION TO ABOVE RULE: The pay period that would normally end on December 31 will end on the last working day of December. The paycheck will be drawn on that date to facilitate year-end closing of the books. Although the paycheck is drawn early it may not be available until January. (For this policy working day refers to a day the library is open to the public.)
Y. TERMINATION POLICY
Termination of employment is an inevitable part of personnel activity within any organization. Below are examples of some of the most common circumstances of termination of employment. Since employment with the Roanoke Public Library (RPL) is based on mutual consent, both the employee and the Board of Trustees have the right to terminate employment at will, with or without cause, at any time. Employees will receive their final pay in accordance with applicable state law.
Employee benefits will be affected by termination in the following manner. All accrued vested benefits that are due and payable at termination will be paid. Some benefits may be continued at the employee’s expense if the employee chooses. The employee will be notified in writing of the benefits that may be continued and the terms, conditions, and limitations of such continuance.
1) Resignation - voluntary termination of employment initiated by employee. An employee resignation shall be submitted in writing to the Board of Trustees two (2) weeks prior to the final working date. Earned but unused vacation time (pro-rated to the last day of employ) will be paid. Sick and personal time left unused will not be paid. If an employee misses three (3) days of scheduled work without contacting his/her supervisor by calling the Library (or in case of Library Director, by calling the President of the Board of Trustees) or coming in person, then the Library will assume that the employee has voluntarily resigned his/her position.
2) Retirement – voluntary termination of employment initiated by employee by meeting age, length of service, and/or any other criteria for retirement from the organization. Retirement at age 65 is not compulsory. An employee who wishes may retire (or take semi-retirement, when it is in the best interest of the library or the employee.) She/he may work part time to equal what Social Security will allow. She/he may draw PERF and Social Security at the same time (see PERF instructional guidelines). All other taxes, including social security will be deducted from salary according to federal and state tax laws. Persons who retire from employ with the RPL will receive all earned by unused vacation time (pro-rated to the last day of employ). Sick time and personal time left unused will not be paid.
Any employee who retires and later wants to return to work is not guaranteed their position, or a salary at the same rate at which they left to retire. Each individual will have to meet with the Board of Trustees to determine how this will be handled.
3) Dismissal – involuntary termination of employment initiated by employer. An employee whose performance, attitude, or personal philosophy of library service does not meet the standards, requirements, and philosophy of the Board of Trustees will be warned of the inadequacies of his or her performance verbally and/or in written form by his/her supervisor, or in case of Library director by the Board of Trustees. The Progressive Disciplinary policy will be followed whenever possible.
Grounds for immediate dismissal include proven and witnessed acts , public intoxication, substance abuse, employee theft, harassment, insubordination, or vandalism; on Library time or Library property.
Insubordination is defined as: any action or inaction in direct violation of the policy manual, or a supervisor’s orders. Staff members may question any instruction, but, upon being directed to take a certain action after the question has been addressed, the staff member is to do so; with the following exceptions:
1) Any action or inaction which might cause harm to befall the staff member or another person;
2) Any action or inaction which violates the staff member’s religion or moral convictions;
3) Any action or inaction which in immoral or illegal.
Insubordination also includes being disrespectful to a supervisor, in word or deed; or challenging the supervisor’s authority. (For the instance of this policy, the Board of Trustees is the supervisor over the Library Director in the case of the Library Director being the staff member.)
4) Layoff – involuntary termination of employment initiated by employer for non-disciplinary reasons. In the event the Board of Trustees must release an individual from service for non-disciplinary reasons, every opportunity will be made to help the individual find continued employment. Earned by unused vacation time (pro-rated to the last day of employ) will be paid. Sick time and personal time left unused will not be paid. Records of such time will be kept and reinstated upon rehire of the individual (if such rehiring takes place within 1 calendar year of layoff). Employees who are laid off will be given preference for any openings which become available during the layoff period (providing the employee fulfills the requirements of the job) on a seniority basis.
Reasons for involuntary termination are privileged information.
Termination information on individual employees is treated confidentially. The Board of Trustees will take reasonable precautions to protect such information from inappropriate disclosure. The Director and other employees have a responsibility to respect and maintain the confidentiality of employee termination information. Anyone inappropriately disclosing such information is subject to disciplinary action, up to and including termination of employment.
No one without a managerial “need to know” is to discuss reason for termination. Personnel who engage in such discussions, or who share privileged information are hereby notified that they are liable for anything they say, and are violating Library policy by so doing. If asked about the status of such person, the answer is: “_________________is no longer with the Library.” Further inquiries should be sent to the Board of Trustees.
Z. PERSONAL APPEARANCE
The personal appearance of employees shall be one that emanates pride and professionalism to correspond with the position held. Extremes of any sort should be avoided. Shorts, tank tops and any clothing which bares the shoulders or midriff are examples of clothing to avoid. During business hours, staff personnel are expected to present a clean, neat appearance. Clothing should be clean and cared for.
AA. EMPLOYEES’ CHILDREN
If a library employee’s children are patronizing the library while that employee is working, the employee shall not show any favoritism toward his/her children.
BB. POLICY REVISION
This policy may be amended or altered at any regular meeting of the Board of Trustees with a quorum present, or a majority vote of the entire board. The policy should be reviewed annually.
Policy adopted by Board of Trustees on June 1, 2000. Amended on September 14, 2000. Amended again on April 12, 2001. Amended on April 14, 2003. Amended on March 8, 2004. Amended April 11, 2005. Reviewed and Amended June 14, 2007. Reviewed and amended January 18, 2012.