slackware faq


 a new updated, formatted page for 12.2 is coming...

slacker's mini wiki -- unofficial slackware how to --  some thing for every linux user -- more subsections for every entry in the contents.

i tried to put those things which i found most needed (or confusing)...so these are the first steps to become a slacker.. :^)

linux is not  a programming language it is an operating system, it should be learned via installing and using it. if you are a kind of person who have  the  aim of only  using linux (need a minimal linux experience) like using windowsOS, please  use  mandriva linux or  opensuse linux.

slackware is  the standard linux distribution.in the sense that it is still the plain vanilla linux and the easiest to adjust to one's needs.  (with additional difficulty of configuring manually). It is also in my experience the linux to follow a neat installation method.

 this is  written primarly for slackware 11.0. infact, as we know, these methods can also be applied for most of the available flavours of linux too. it is worth mentioning about, slackbook project and shilo's guide, also finally slackware forum in LQ,

slackware is just a plain vanilla linux, with each scripts written by Patrick J Volkerding. i hope the discription on each scripts, readmes on the relevent folders, well explained *.conf files, is more than enough to tweak into  the distro, which will make you the feeling that you are working with your own distro. i think you will learn more linux from working with slackware for a month rather than working with most of the available flavour of linux for a year.

i love slackware because it follows the KISS principle, relying heavily on simple, flexible text scripts rather than going for junk gui configuration tools, 

the slackware logo is : Tux the penguin with a corncob pipe.

  thatis really nice, keep it simple and stupid !!! i will mostly be following the KISS principle in every aspect ;^)

where do i get the new slackware?

don't ask this. go to slackware.com

if u have full time internet connection and u have plenty of time configuring slackware, i will suggest u to go for slackware-current, instead of a stable version. (u can keep uptodate with slackpkg- see slackpkg section)

official slackware forum ?

slackware forum in LQ, from here i started everything and this is the best community you can ever get in the world. post your questions and please do reply to their messages

checkin the package integrity

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what do i do with the asc files?

Command:
$ gpg --verify slackware-11.0-install-d1.iso.asc

how do i use md5sum? or md5checksum

to check an md5sum against a "md5-file" do

Command:
$ md5sum -c md5-file |less

for exampe in slackware cds you can see a CHECKSUMS.md5 file, so after mounting the cdrom, i do a "md5sum -c CHECKSUMS.md5 |less" from the cdrom directory.

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what do i do with tar.gz and tar.bz2 files?

to uncompress a tar.bz2 file, to the working directory, do

Command: untarring a tar.bz2 file
$ tar xvjf file.tar.bz2

to uncompress a tar.gz file, to the working directory, do

Command: untarring a tar.gz file
$ tar xvzf file.tar.gz 
if we choose c instead of x we can create tar.gz and tar.bz2 files

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how do i install slackware ?

tehre is no other help than grogan's help. you can always use slackbook.

how to make bootable slackware dvd iso image ?

this is the pat's way!!! To make a bootable Slackware install DVD, get into the top level slackware directory (The one with ChangeLog.txt in it) and issue a command like this to build the ISO image in /tmp:
Command:making slackware dvd
$ mkisofs -o /tmp/slackware-dvd.iso \
-R -J -A "Slackware Install" \
-hide-rr-moved \
-v -d -N \
-no-emul-boot -boot-load-size 32 -boot-info-table \
-sort isolinux/iso.sort \
-b isolinux/isolinux.bin \
-c isolinux/isolinux.boot \
-V SlackDVD .

how do i identify my hard disk ?

Command: listing storage devices
#fdisk -l

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how can i install package before the first reboot?

this is good if u want to install packages form /extra cds ( for eg. modules for huge26.s kernel )

system is mounted on /mnt while instalation, so soon after u exit from slackware setup, to make the basic changes, u dont need to reboot. what i do is chroot to /mnt

# chroot /mnt

edit the fstab, mount all teh devices in fstab

# vi /etc/fstab #mount -a

now u r on ur machine, u can do whatever you want. like, edit /etc/lilo.conf, install packages from /extra, install alternate kernel, install graphics dirvers, compile kernel(i didnt tried this, if this workes fine, pease inform me)

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how do i install an alternate kernel to slackware?

here i will assume that i had installed bare.i kernel and i want to install huge26.s kernel (2.6 test kernel) for that i mount the 1st cd,
Command:
#cd /boot 
#cp /media/cdrom/kernels/huge26.s/bzImage vmlinuz-2.6.17.13
#cp /media/cdrom/kernels/huge26.s/System.map.gz System.map-2.6.17.13
#ln -sf System.map-2.6.17.13 System.map

mount 2nd cd, install the modules

Command:
#installpkg /media/cdrom/extra/linux-2.6.17.13/kernel-modules-2.6.17.13-i486-1.tgz

edit lilo, like this

File: /etc/lilo.conf
image = /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.17.13
root = /dev/hdax ----give proper device
label = lin-2.6
read-only
run lilo it is very important, dont upgrade package with the alternate kernels given in slackware cd

if we are using 2.6 kernel series please follow the mini how to on initrd by pat it will be there in 2nd slack install cd or in your /boot ie,.
/boot/README.initrd

/media/cdrom/extra/linux-2.6.17.13/README.initrd

run lilo it is very important, dont upgrade package with the alternate kernels given in slackware cd

if we are using 2.6 kernel series please follow the mini how to on initrd by pat it will eb there in 2nd slack install cd or in your /boot ie,. /boot/README.initrd

/media/cdrom/extra/linux-2.6.17.13/README.initrd

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how do i get into my box if boot loaders are not working?

slackware installation 1st disk can be used as a rescue disk, boot with slackware install cd. at teh boot: prompt, type

boot: bare.i root=/dev/hdaX noinitrd ro

if your harddisk is sata or scsi please choose appropriate, kernel, also please put your correct slackware root partition.

if your slack is distributed over different partitions like separate /root /var /home then as root please do

mount -a

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windows reinstall erased my mbr, i cant log into linux

you can either use the previous method to log into your machine or use a live cd 1. if you used slack cd to boot into machine, for rescue operation. as soon as you getinto machine, check the lilo.conf and run lilo. it will install lilo accordingly, it will report for errors if any. if you are using grub, do a

#grub-install /dev/hda

2. boot with a live cd. suppose your slack root partition is /dev/hda2, and you have used reiserfs as the root filesystem. please mount it manualy to some place, chroot into it, run lilo or grub-install. the comamnds will be like

#mkdir slack-rescue #mount -t reiserfs /dev/hda2 slack-rescue #chroot slack-rescue #lilo or grub-install /dev/hda

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how do i get into xwindow?

i am getting a console login, as soon as i login, i am in a black screen with with a bash prompt, what do i do, how can i see graphical windows?

you are greeted by a console login. it is because, your curretn runlevel is "runlevel 3" this is the slackware default runlevel.(here no graphical modules aer loaded) for getting into xwindow do "startx", graphical window is in "runlevel 4" for slackware

to check whether run level 4 is working type telinti 4

we can change our default runlevel. inorder to do this, edit /etc/inittab" as root, replace the entry 3 with 4, in the line with "id:3:initdefault:"

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some basics configuration tool for slackware

when we login as root for the first time, we are greeted with a message "have 2 mail". type mail and scroll it is from pat some of the configuration stuffs are given in that. start from pat's mail

selecting x window, choose between kde or gnome or xfce

xwmconfig - run xwmconfig, choose the window managers, kde, xfce, fluxbox blackbox etc

sound related fixations in linux

Command:
#alsaconfig 
#alsamixer
#alsactl restore

making my x server work - xorgsetup

x server will search xorg.conf file in /etc/X11/ before it starts, please always backup a copy of xorg.conf which pat made. do

Command:
$cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf xorg.conf.pat
#xorgsetup
you can always make a xorg.conf file by

xorgsetup

xorgsetup will automatically make a "xorg.conf" file, type startx and see whether it is working or not. hi. if you have someother linux flovour (or live cd ) runing in yur machine please take that xorg.conf filecompare conf files. make changes

configure network-stop start restart

Command:
# /etc/rc/d/rc.init1 restart

will restart your network.to configure your netowrk

Command:
# netconfig 

packagemanagement in slackware linux - install upgrade remove

use "pkgtool".

Command:
#pkgtool

you can aslo use "slackpkg". ifyou want to work with individual packages, use installpkg, upgradepkg, removepkg, explodepkg, makepkg

we can get reliable slack packages from http://linuxpackages.net/

install lilo - install/configure

run "liloconfig" choose expert mode

Command:
# liloconfig

setting up mouse - mouseconfig

run mouseconfig to reconfigure your mouse.

Command:
# mouseconfig

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how do i enable/disable services in boot in slackware linux

go to /etc/rc.d/ do an " ls -al " check the names which are executable, for example this is the line coresponds to sshd, this will start in the boot

-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 1222 2006-09-29 02:47 rc.sshd*

inorder to disable this service, make it not executable

Command: listing files
$ls -al /etc/rc.d/
.....
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1314 2006-10-19 15:17 rc.dhcdbd
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 512 2006-08-08 09:32 rc.dnsmasq
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 1148 2000-01-01 06:34 rc.gpm
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 1242 2006-11-02 23:37 rc.hal
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 2243 2006-09-21 05:20 rc.hotplug
.....

the frist two are not executable, so if we want to disable sshd do

Command: disabling sshd
# chmod -x /etc/rc.d/rc.sshd 
you can also use "/etc/rc.d/rc.local" file for any local startup commands to run at boot time.
Also, if you have anything that needs to be run at shutdown time you can make an /etc/rc.d/rc.local_shutdown script

my graphical screen not working?

when i do startx it is showing error messages. i am still in runlebvel 3, what do i do?


first identify your graphicsl device, like nvidia or intel or ati etc. go to the respective webpage of graphics providers and download respective drivers since most of them haev vesa support, usually we can login to x window without additional problems.

File: /etc/fstab

how do i scan my scsi devices in slackware?

after plugging a new usb, firewire device please do

Command:
#rescan-scsi-bus -l 

this will scan for all scsi devices attached to your machine

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how do i identify my devices in slackware (CD/DVD/USB)?

the basic command is dmesg, do a

Command:
$dmesg |more

and scroll down there u can c devices listed and the names associated to them. u can also select the relevent part by piping through grep like

Command:
$dmesg |grep -i cd
or,
$dmesg |grep -i dvd or $dmesg |grep -i usb

this is one of the tipical dmesg output, in the last you can see the assigned device name as /dev/sda1

Command: output of dmesg
.......
:~$ dmesg |grep -i cd
hdd: GCR-8521B, ATAPI CD/DVD-ROM drive
hdd: ATAPI 52X CD-ROM drive, 128kB Cache, DMA
...........
:~$ dmesg
usb-storage: device found at 2
usb-storage: waiting for device to settle before scanning
Vendor: JetFlash Model: TS2GJFV30 Rev: 8.07
Type: Direct-Access ANSI SCSI revision: 02
..........
sda: assuming drive cache: write through
sda: sda1
sd 0:0:0:0: Attached scsi removable disk sda

#alsaconfig #alsamixer #alsactl restore

making my x server work - xorgsetup

x server will search xorg.conf file in /etc/X11/ before it starts, please always backup a copy of xorg.conf which pat made. do

$cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf xorg.conf.pat #xorgsetup


configure network - stop start restart

# /etc/rc/d/rc.init1 restart

will restart your network.to configure your netowrk

# netconfig

packagemanagement in slackware linux - install upgrade remove

use "pkgtool".

#pkgtool

you can aslo use "slackpkg". ifyou want to work with individual packages, use installpkg, upgradepkg, removepkg, explodepkg, makepkg

you can get reliable slack packages from http://linuxpackages.net/

install lilo - install/configure

run "liloconfig" choose expert mode

# liloconfig

setting up mouse - mouseconfig

run mouseconfig to reconfigure your mouse.

# mouseconfig

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how do i enable/disable services in boot in slackware linux

go to /etc/rc.d/ do an " ls -al " check the names which are executable, for example this is the line coresponds to sshd, this will start in the boot

-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 1222 2006-09-29 02:47 rc.sshd*

inorder to disable this service, make it not executable

# chmod -x /etc/rc.d/rc.sshd

you can also use "/etc/rc.d/rc.local" file for adding services to run at boot time.

my graphical screen not working?

when i do startx it is showing error messages. i am still in runlebvel 3, what do i do?

play with xorg.conf , copy xorg.conf of working live cds on the respective machine, compare with slack xorg.conf, make changes test the conf file by restarting X (by killing Alt+cntrl+backspace)

first identify your graphicsl device, like nvidia or intel or ati etc. since most of them haev vesa support, usually we can login to x window without additional problems.

how do i scan my scsi devices in slackware?

after plugging a new usb, firewire device please do

#rescan-scsi-bus -l

>this will scan for all scsi devices attached to your machine

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how do i identify my devices in slackware (CD/DVD/USB)?

the basic command is dmesg, do a

$dmesg |more

and scroll down there u can c devices listed and the names associated to them. u can also select the relevent part by piping through grep like

$dmesg |grep -i cd


" or $dmesg |grep -i dvd or $dmesg |grep -i usb "

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moving from /mnt to /media !!!!

in recent days i found that most of the xwindows assume /media folder instead of /mnt for mounting, and i had some problems with kde because of this. so i decided to use /media folder, ie moving over to /media from /mnt

remove everything from /media folder, create directories like cdrom, floppy, memory(usb), iso

#rm -rf /media/* #mkdir /media/cdrom

edit fstab according to that
playing with fstab

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how to get my second cd/dvd drive in slackware?

follow the previous ans to identify the device, let me assume that /dev/hdc (reader) and /dev/hdd (dvd/rw) are my 2 cd/dvd drives and reader is detected and dvd is not shown.
dont panic, we can fix this. it is very easy!!!
first check wether the devices are correct
eject /dev/hdc
eject /dev/hdd
1.make a simlimk if not(check waht all simlinks are there in /dev)

#ln -sf /dev/hdd /dev/dvd

2.edit teh fstab add an entry like this
File: /etc/fstab
/dev/dvd 	/media/dvd 	auto 	noauto,user,ro 	0 	0 

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how do i mount a usb, thumb, flash, drive in slackware? as a normal user

identify the usb device first. please scan scsi devices as mention in previous section
edit the /etc/fstab add an entry like this

File: /etc/fstab
/dev/sda1 	/media/memory 	auto 	noauto,rw,umask=000,user 0 0

here /dev/sda1 is the usb device, to identify ur device please follow the previous ans. as soon as we enter this in the fstab

we can mount the usb by mount /media/memory command, as a normal user, umask=000 is like chmod 777

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how to make slackware packages? - checkinstall

when ever u want a slackbuild for any software, instead of doing

"./configure -->make and make install " do

./configure --> make -->checkinstall

it will make a slackware package in the working directory

for this u need checkinstall from the /extra, install "checkinstall"

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how do i compile a custom 2.6 kernel ?

there are many how-to's awailable on internet. this is a small how to. i am not giving any specific version of kernel, instead i will use "linux-2.6.x.x".

prerequsites,

1. a "build" directory in ur home.

$mkdir build && cd build

by doing this user have a full access over the directory, and also it is prefered.

2. kernel source

download the kernel source from http://kernel.org/ untar to build directory, now make a symlink (optional), cd to that dir, the series of commands goes like this

$wget -c http://kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v2.6/linux-2.6.x.x.tar.bz2 $tar -xvjf linux-2.6.x.x.tar.bz2 $ln -sf linux-2.6.x.x/ linux $cd linux

3.info regarding ur machine

collect informations from "lspci " and cat /proc

compiling a kernel

$ make menuconfig $ make

then su to root and

# cp System.map /boot/System.map-2.6.x.x ; ln -sf /boot/System.map-2.6.x.x /boot/System.map # make modules_install # cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.x.x #lilo ------ edit lilo before this #reboot ------to test the new kernel

if u have an old config file, u can do " make oldconfig ", then the sequence will be "make oldconfig-->make menuconfig-->make-->...etc" (infact one can use pats config file to start with. for that please mount the first cd. do $cp /media/cdrom/kernels/test26.s/config .configand start -->make oldconfig---> make menuconfig-->etc)

"menuconfig" is for text mode. from xwindow(kde or gnome) replace "make menuconfig", with "make xconfig" or "make gconfig ", always keep a backup copy of your working kernel config.

editin lilo

File: /etc/lilo.conf
image = /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.x.x
root = /dev/hda1 -- put your / (root/boot) partition here
label = lin26
read-only

in the top add a line "default=lin2.6 if needed

in most of the cases we need to compile a kernel that must be the first thing a slacker do, for instance if someone using huge26.s kernel, why he/she is carrying the support for irrelevent hardwares, so what we will do is' chop the unnecessary things and add relevent support which is needed for our current machine

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How to apply patches to the kernel sources ?

Sometimes you need to add new drivers to the kernel, by default that may not be available, Suppose your downloaded patch be patch.bz2. To apply patch to your kernel sources, "you must still be in the /path/to/linux directory" here we are in /home/xxx/build/linux, and the patch is in /home/xxx/build/ first let us have a test,

bzip2 -dc ../patch.bz2 | patch -p1 --dry-run

If it doesn't show errors, you can run the command below, which actually applies the patch.

bzip2 -dc ../patch.bz2 | patch -p1

IMPORTANT while applying "kernel patch" to kernel source, apply patch to teh old stable release. for example if the current stable kernel is 2.6.19.2 and the available patch is patch-2.6.20-rc6.bz2, dont patch the kernel 2.6.19.2 but patch the kernel 2.6.19, for that you have to download the source of 2.6.19 from http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v2.6/ note:

tip: If use the -R option to patch, it will reverse teh patch process.

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nvida graphics card and linux-3d acceleration

download the latest driver from nvidia

run the installer and allow it to edit the xorg.conf file too. if u have kernel source in different directory (than /usr/src/linux) then do

#sh NVIDIA-Linux-x86-1.0-8776-pkg1.run --kernel-source-path=/pathto/linux-source

before runnig the run file, change the run level to 3, if not. for that please do "telinit 3" as root.

as soon as the xorg.conf editing is done, 3d acceleration is also taken care. type "glxinfo", then "glxgears"

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How do i enable mouse scroll button in slackware?

make sure that these lines are there in Section "InputDevice" of xorg.conf file just beneth the Identifier "Mouse1"line, if not, add

File: /etc/X11/xorg.conf
Option 	"Protocol" "IMPS/2"
Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"
the number written here, depends on the number of mouse buttons you have

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keep uptodate - with slackpkg

slackware is given with slackpkg utility install it from /extra. please go through slackpkg web page

Slackpkg is a tool for installing or upgrading standard slackware packages through network.

choose a mirror (single repository)by editin the file "/etc/slackpkg/mirrors" and do

#slackpkg update

we can install and upgrade packages using slackpkg.

how do i upgrade to slackware current?

you can use slackpkg to upgrade your machine,

do a minmal install of slackware, choose a repository, pointing to slackware current, update

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enable automatic power down?

for 2.4 kernel series, u need to manually push the power button to switch power off. defaultly in slackware it is not enabled, in 2.4 kernel series apm is handling the power down so u need to enable taht module

so do

#modprobe apm

edit the /etc/rc.modules and uncomment the line with

File: /etc/rc.modules
/sbin/modprobe apm

this is for a permentant setup, keep in mind that this will work on next reboot only

how do i do ssh form graphical window

i use konqueror for ssh, in the type

fish://username@server

in konqueror winodw and it wil ask for passwd and u r done

from gnome Nautilus go to file -->connect to server

how do i backup mbr?

create a backup of your MBR using dd command

$dd if=/dev/hdx of=bckup-mbr bs=512 count=1

this will copy mbr along with partition table. you can restore the backuped mbr, if some problem arises, by this command but please dotn try, dont play with mbr

$dd if=bckup-mbr of=/dev/hdx bs=512 count=1

take care of " if and of " entry of "dd" command

how do i start second xserver?

you can use one of the x(alt+cntrl+F7-default), how will yuo use a second x server, for another user?

login to a virtual console, type

$startx -- :1

this will start a new x server at (alt+cntrl+F8) similarly you can move on

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editing lilo

slackware ships with plain lilo, u can do more stuffs to make it perfect for your needs, here are some configuration i do. lilo will search "/etc/lilo.conf" file

edtit "/boot/boot_message.txt". change teh name linux to "slackware linux 11.0", windows to dos

default entry in lilo

add line "default = " and put the corresponding "label entry" in lilo to be defaultly selected. if winows is tehre it will be teh default entry. change "default = Linux"

password protect your lilo

graphical lilo

how do i append lilo ?

append entry in lilo.conf will eb like

append="splash=silent" or append="hdc=ide-scsi"

add this entry just below the root= line in lilo.

always run lilo, after every editing," run lilo"" run lilo" " run lilo"" /sbin/lilo " lilo lilo lilo

How do i install grub and configure for slackware ?

install the grub package from the /extra directory

use " grubconfig" as we do for lilo (liloconfig),

choose "expert mode", but "grubconfig" is a junk one but u can easly edit "menu.lst" for your needs

remove the unwanted lines :^)

Manually editing grub

not complete!!

it is nice to play with grub than lilo

here are two kind of typical entries of first ione for slackware and the second one for suse which is in some other partition and no boot loader is installed

-----------------------------------------#playing with grub

#color white/blue black/light-gray
#default 0
#timeout 8

title Slackware Linux 11
root (hd0,0)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz root=/dev/sda1 vga=792

initrd /boot/initrd.gz


title SUSE Linux 10.1
root (hd0,5)
kernel (hd0,5)/boot/vmlinuz root=/dev/sda1 vga=792 resume=/dev/sda5 splash=silent showopts
initrd (hd0,5)/boot/initrd
----------------------------

gnome in slackware?

gnome is removed from slackware but the all teh gtk libraries are still thre. there are unofficial slackbuilds available and noted ones are

droplinegnome Freerock GNOMEand gware

dropline gnome has much more improvements so i can recommend that for gnome lovers of slackware

slackwer hacking xp

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how can i boot to linux from windows boot screen?

load linux from windows

slackware is shipped with loadlin, unzip it and follow the txt file. you can find these files in the /root (loadlin16c.txt loadlin16c.zip are the files shiped with slack 11.0) read the loadlin16c.txt file

how can i access linux partition from windows?

read/write edit files in linux ext2/ext3 and reiser file systems, from windows

EXT2 IFS for ext2/ext3 and

rfsd: ReiserDriver for reiserfs

download it and nice documentations are there along with both the drivers

how to make linux boot from windows ? booting linux from windows

2-3 methods i will choose a better one and put it

somethin shiny

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how do i enable transparency to windows

i tried it with the new kde shipped with slackware 11.0, you have to follow respective xwindow manuals inorder to get this working

add these lines to xorg.conf

File: /etc/X11/xorg.conf
Section "Extensions"
Option "Composite" "Enable"
EndSection

and add this toSection "Device"

File: /etc/X11/xorg.conf, Section "Device"
Option "RenderAccel" "true"
Option "AllowGLXWithComposite" "true"

from kde controlcentre, go to, Desktop ---> window behaviour -----> translucency and enable the "use trnaslucency/shadows "

this is one of the preview of my desk. cool

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how do i enable bootsplash in slackware

you will miss cool tux, sitting in the top left corner, while booting.

as soon as i make a nice background slack tux, i fill finish this part. i made it according to gentoo wiki.

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how do i install microsoft ttf fonts in linux?

this is not complete, please help me to complete this

install windows fonts (true type ttf fonts) here i assume that u have the fonts with you. first reate the directory where system will check for fonts--> move to that direcotry -->copy the ttf files to this directory,( i copy it from the windows partition)-->make the fonts available to everyone. the sequence of commands are like this

mkdir /usr/X11/lib/X11/fonts/TTF-WIN cd /usr/X11/lib/X11/fonts/TTF-WIN cp path/to/ttffonts/*.ttf . cp path/to/ttffonts/*.TTF chmod 444 * mkfontscale mkfontdir fc-cache

then edit /etc/X11/xorg.conf, add these lines
File: /etc/X11/xorg.conf
FontPath "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/TTF-WIN"

********not yet finished....you all are welcome to help finish this, i am quite impressed with the way mandriva does it, i have to go through their scripts and import the settings

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i am getting "cdrecorder --scanbus" error?

if you are using 2.4 kernels with version less than 2.4.29, you need scsi emulation to write from a non scsi cdwritter. the newer 2.4 kernels and 2.6 kernels dont need scsi emulation for old 2.4 kernel you need scsi emulation to the ide cdwriter inorder to write cds, if /dev/hdc is your ide cdwriter, you need to give an extra boot parameter, for this append lilo.conf or menu.lst (grub) hdc=ide-scsi now CD writer looks just like a scsi device, accessed through /dev/sr0.

so inorder to use your reader in your scsi emulated new cd drive, you need to make a simlink showing this as the cdreader. like

ln -sf /dev/sr0 /dev/cdrom

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how do i write cds in linux ?

personally i use k3b. It is having a nice interface. we can even rip vcds and dvds

some "command line" cd writting/reading, tricks!!

i owe this to chinaman of LQ

please be consistant with the device names, here i took /dev/hdc (/dev/cdrom) a cd writter, /dev/hdd (/dev/dvd) a dvd writter,

To burn an image of a CD to the hd

dd if=/dev/hdc of=namethecd.iso

To make a CD from the iso image

cdrecord -v -eject driveropts=burnfree dev=/dev/hdc /path/to/file.iso

save copy of data cdrom

gzip < /dev/cdrom > cdrom.iso.gz

create cdrom image from directory

mkisofs -r dir | gzip > cdrom.iso.gz

mount the cdrom image at /media/iso (for viewing/editing)

mount -o loop -t iso9660 cdrom.iso /edia/iso

burn cdrom image (use 'dmesg | grep -i cd' to confirm dev)

gzip -dc cdrom.iso.gz | cdrecord dev=/dev/cdrom -

rip audio tracks from CD to .wav files in current dir

cdparanoia -B

To convert .wav to .mp3

for i in *.wav; do lame "$i" "`basename "$i" .wav`".mp3; done

make audio CD from all wavs in current dir

cdrecord dev=/dev/cdrom -audio *.wav

make ogg file from wav file

oggenc --tracknum='track' track.cdda.wav -o 'track.ogg'

To burn an iso to DVD

/usr/bin/growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/hdd=/path/to/file.iso

To copy a CD from one drive to another (good for VCDs)

cdrdao copy --device /dev/hdd --source-device /dev/hdc
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my choice of linux aplicatons

text editor   - vi

vi is power, i can't think about a machine without vi

searchin files in linux

i use slocate, for this u need to create a database first. for this do

#touch /var/lib/slocate/slocate.db #updatedb

then do

$slocate myfile

u need to run updatedb, to keep upadating ur database

web browser

firefox - but i use firefox with some of its extentions and good lookin themes. firefox 3.0 is out

among extentions i like flashgot fasterfox and "downthemall"  download helper . i suggest everyone to use downthemall

media player in linux ? how do i play .dat mpeg avi files in linux

mplayer is the final answer for all media files, - inorder to play winodws media files in linux please download the codecs from mplayer and put it in the directory "/usr/lib/codecs", once we uncompress these codecs we can play all windows media files in any linux player

also there is a nice gui for mplayer called "smplayer"  

i use amarok for playing mp3

Note: MPLAYER CAN PLAY VIDEOS WITHOUT X 

window manager

i prefer xfce

lxde and e17 are are under testing 

second prefered linux-

i think it is gentoo. i  suggest mandriva and suse  for newbees. 

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this is in it beguiner stage whatever is needed basically i wil add, hope within one month it will be a complete one :^)

regards rkrishna

comments and suggestions

it is time for posting comments please post comments (point out the mistakes) and suggestions.