Create Furniture out of Cardboard

Guiding Question:  Can we decide a s
uitable and eco-friendly solution for a commonly manufactured commodity?

Problem:  Our problem is that we have to make a piece of furniture out of cardboard.  It must be eco-friendly, and has to be able to serve the same function that a piece of the same furniture out of a different material would.

Cardboard as a Material:
There are three main kinds of cardboard:  graphic cardboard, corrugated cardboard, and solid cardboard.  Graphic cardboard is made by pressing layer after layer of kraft paper together.  Glue is spread in between each layer, and more and more layers are added until the cardboard has reached the wanted thickness.  Graphic cardboard is used to create binder covers, hardcover book covers, and puzzles.  Solid cardboard, or carton board is a very thin kind of cardboard that is made with one side created very smooth.  The smooth side can be printed on, and it is easy to glue things onto it.  Solid cardboard is used to package items like hair cosmetics, breakfast cereal, and other foods.  Lastly, Corrugated cardboard is a much thicker kind of cardboard that is made by pressing solid cardboard against a corrugated surface in order to make it curvy, and then sticking it in between two other pieces of board.  Different kinds of corrugated cardboard are made by how many layers of waved board the cardboard has.  Some have one layer of flat, one of waved, another of flat, another of waved, and then the final flat layer of cardboard.  Others follow the same structure, just with more layers of waved and flat board.  Corrugated cardboard is used to transport big, heavy objects, and is generally the kind of cardboard you think of when someone says "cardboard". 

I think that the best kind of cardboard that would suit our needs would be corrugated cardboard.  It is the thickest and most sturdy, as both graphic and solid cardboard are relatively thin.  Furniture needs to have the maximum amount of strength possible in order for it to withstand all the stress that it will be subject to.  Neither graphic nor solid cardboard will give the strength needed for furniture.  However, several layers of corrugated board probably will.  We could use solid cardboard to decorate the furniture, because its smooth side will be easier to paint and draw on than the sides of corrugated board. 

Advantages/Disadvantages of Cardboard:
-Cardboard is extremely light (much lighter then wood, metal, and some kinds of plastic), therefore it is much easier to transport from place to place
-Cardboard is cheap and inexpensive and is easy to purchase
-Cardboard is much easier to handle then materials like wood and metal
-Cardboard is eco-friendly, because most cardboard is made out of recycled materials, a cardboard box can be used multiple times, and cardboard can be recycled

-Cardboard is not water-proof.  If set out in the rain, it will become ruined
-Cardboard will wear out much more quickly than wood or metal

As you can see, there are many more advantages to using cardboard as opposed to disadvantages.  One thing that is important to think about is that one of the disadvantages about cardboard is that it is not water-proof.  However, because we will be making cardboard furniture for the classroom, this is unimportant as it will never have to go outside.  This leaves one major problem of making furniture out of cardboard:  how fa5st it wears out.  Furniture is generally used a lot, whether it is a table, chair, or shelf.  The cardboard must be durable enough to serve its purpose for an extended period of time.  A way we could solve this problem would be to reinforce it with other stronger materials, or to just add as many layers of cardboard as possible, to make it t
hicker and stronger.

Furniture Design Principles:


Furniture is a very important part of peoples' daily lives.  We sit in chairs, we write on desks, we take books off shelves.  Ergonomics focuses on how to make a piece of furniture comfortable for about 95% of the people who will use it.  The desk height cannot be too tall, but neither should it be too short.  The dip in the chair should not be too deep, but nor should it be nonexistent.  The shelving sho
uld not be up too high on the wall, but nor should it be too low.  Many workers have to sit in chairs at their desk for many hours a day.  Each aspect of the chair must be able to accommodate this.  Arm rests must not obstruct the movement of a chair, but they have to be big enough to support the arms of the user.  Backrests should be able to support the whole back of the person.  The base of the chair must be strong and have the ability to support weight for a long period of time, and the seat pan should be wide enough for the different sizes of people.

Anthropometrics is very closely linked with ergonomics.  It is the study of the human body and body measurements that allows ergonomics t
o work.  It works with the proportions of the body.  Anthropometrics is important to ergonomics, because it provides the data needed to make the measurements for furniture.  How wide a seat pan for a chair should be depends on how wide the average hip is.  How tall a shelf should be depends on how tall the average person is.  The height of a desk is decided by how long the average legs are. However, Anthropometrics is not only about the average person - it is about 95% of the population, as a good piece of furniture will accommodate 95% of the people who will use it.

According to the Merriam Webster Dictionary, "aesthetic" means "pleasing in appearance".  When relating to furniture, aesthetic means making a piece of furniture pleasing to the eye - basically making furniture look good.  No one wants to sit on a chair that looks like a box.  People like pretty things.  Furniture should be reasonably nice to the eye, as well as safe and comfortable to the body.  An example of a building that is aesthetic would be Gaudi's Casa Bayou in Barcelona.  The difference between an aesthetic piece of furniture and an ugly piece of furniture can really make a difference in the atmosphere created around the furniture.  Even if the two pieces of furniture are equally comfortable and equally functional, the one that is aesthetic will be much more popular over the ugly one. 

Would you rather have this over your street...   Or this?


Function is what something was made to do.  A chair is made to hold someone sitting on it.  A box is made to store objects.  A lamp is made to provide light.  The whole reason why a piece of furniture is made is to serve its function.  Something that does not serve its function is useless.  For example, if you have a flashlight that is broken, it can no longer serve its function, which is to provide light.  This makes the flashlight completely useless.  In order for a piece of furniture to be considered "good", it must be comfortable and safe, it must be pleasing to the eye, and it has to serve its function, and serve it well. 


Tension is when something is stretched.  For example, when something is pulled along a length of string, the string is full of tensi
on, because both sides of the strings are being pulled:  the side of the string with the object on the end, and the side of the string that is being pulled result in tension throughout the string.

Compression is the opposite of tension.  Instead of something being stretched, it is pushed back on itself.  In simpler terms, compression means the object is being squished. 

In a piece of furniture, compression and tension happen when force is applied to it.  An example of this would be in a chair.  Force is applied to the top seat of the chair when someone sits down.  The chair bends a little downward, which is compression.  However, as the top part of the seat bends downward, the bottom part of the seat is stretched, which creates tension. 

Design Ideas/Examples:

There are many different pieces of furniture we can make for this project.  There are some limitations, however.  The furniture has to be useful in the classroom.  It cannot be so big that it does not fit in the room, but neither can it be a miniature piece of furniture that won't do anything but look cute.  The furniture has to serve the same purpose that one exactly the same as it would serve if made out of regular material.  These limitations mean that my group cannot build a doll house, or a car, or a tree out of cardboard.  We have to build a piece of furniture that can be used in the classroom. 
Some ideas of things we can make are:

-Shelf or shelving
-A container of some sort
-A plant pot
-A coat rack
-An umbrella stand

I think that all of the objects listed above are constructable, except for the plant pot.  Plants need water, and cardboard is not waterproof.  The cardboard will not be strong enough to withstand daily or weekly plant watering for a long period of time.  A coat rack may also be difficult to make, as I am unsure whether or not we would be allowed to hammer anything into the walls.  An umbrella stand could work, except that it would never be used for umbrellas, as this is a classroom, and students rarely bring umbrellas into class.  However, a container, desk, chair, set of drawers, or shelf would work just fine, as long as none of the other groups have any objections to any of the ones we want to make.

Cutting Cardboard

Cardboard Furniture Construction Techniques:
When constructing things out of cardboard, you have to be careful that you know how it works and how to cut it.  There are different kinds of knives you have to use for the different kinds of cutting you want to do.  If you want to cut long straight lines, or large circles, it is ok to use a knife with a bigger blade.  However, if you want to cut the cardboard into small details (probably for decoration), you want to use a knife with a smaller blade.  Also, you have to make sure that the knives you use are sharp, or the cardboard might tear, and it will take you much longer to cut the cardboard.  When you glue cardboard, it is easiest to use a paintbrush, so you can control where you are gluing more precisely, but if you cannot use a paintbrush, you can squeeze from the bottle.  I would not recommend using a glue stick to glue cardboard together, because glue sticks are not the strongest kinds of glue, and our task is to make a piece of furniture that will last for a very long time.  If it is available to us, I will use either glue from a glue gun, or some other kind of extra-strength glue to glue the parts of the furniture together, and that white sticky Elmer's glue to glue on decorations or other details.  Here is a video explaining how to handle cardboard:
If you liked the video and you want to watch part two, the link to Part 2 of Cardboard Sculpture is below:

Materials We Will Need for Construction:
-Many different kinds of cardboard (so that we can experiment with which kinds will work the best for what we want to make)
-Switchblade knife, like in the video (so that we can cut the cardboard relatively easily)
-Knife with small blade, like in the video (so that we can cut out small details from the cardboard)
-Glue gun with glue (so that we can glue things quickly and with strong glue)
-Cutting board (to cut the cardboard on)
-Regular white glue (so that we can glue small details)
-Ruler (to make measurements)
-Pencil (to draw where to cut and other various tasks)
-Paint (to paint the furniture so that it is more aesthetic)
-Other materials that we will discover we may need along the way

Design Brief: 

What:  We want to build furniture out of cardboard.  This furniture must be sturdy, comfortable, aesthetic, and it has to serve its function. 
Why:  To see if we can make an eco-friendly alternative to furniture that would have been made in a factory.
Who: My two partners and I will design and build the furniture.
How:  We will collaborate to design and build the furniture using materials provided by our Design Technology teacher.

Design Sp
ecification:  We need to create a piece of furniture out of cardboard.  It must be sturdy, comfortable, aesthetic, and it must serve its function.  It must be classroom-appropriate, and has to be able to last a long time.  It must be useful.
                                                                                                                                                                Everyone Design Specification:
-materials:72% cardboard and 25% other materials
or 100% cardboard
- must be furniture
- suitable for MS students
- usable
- visually pleasing
- accurate measurements
- demonstrates good hands on skills(cutting, gluing)
- withstands a lot of weight
- appropriately fits in the environment (classroom)

How to Test it:
  We will test our furniture's sturdiness by applying force on it.  We will start out with applying only a little bit of force, and then increase it.  If the furniture does not break, we will proceed to apply a large amount of force to it at once.  If it does not break after that, we will have different people use it and interview them to see if it is comfortable.  Since furniture should be comfortable to 95% of the population, we will test it on 95% of the class.  We will then have 95% of the class evaluate it for aesthetic purposes.  If they all say that it is ugly, then we have failed, but if they agree that it is pleasing to the eye, then we have successfully made a piece of furniture that fits with our design specification.

Works Cited

"Advantages of Corrugated Cardboard Packagings." Dunapack Rambox Packaging. Dunapack Packaging Group, n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <>.

Anthropometrics and Ergonomics. U of Texas at Austin, n.d. Web. 23 Nov. 2012. <>.

"Anthropometry." The Free Dictionary by Farlex. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Print.

"Anthropometry." The Free Dictionary by Farlex. N.p.: n.p., n.d. The Free Dictionary by Farlex. Web. 23 Nov. 2012. <>.

"Definition of Tension & Compression." Chegg. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Nov. 2012. <>.

Ergonomics. U of Chicago, n.d. Web. 23 Nov. 2012. <>.

Lamb, Robert, and Michael Morrissey. "How Bridges Work." HowStuffWorks., n.d. Web. 23 Nov. 2012. <>.

Lee, Jesse A. "What Are Advantages and Disadvantages of Cardboard Storage Boxes?" N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <>.

"Types of Cardboard." Cart-Pack. N.p., 2009. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <>.

Walker, Areya. "What Are the Different Types of Cardboard." EHow. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <>.

For the design part of this project, each member of my group had to come up with a couple of sketches of different ideas we could use for the actual project.  Then, we had to come up with a s
cale drawing of one of the pieces of furniture we had designed.  I drew a few sketches of different pieces of furniture that we could make:
Although it is hard to see, I drew several designs for chairs, drawers, and tables.  I first tried to be aesthetic with the big drawer in the middle.  It has funny curves and lines that I believed would look nice.  However, it ended up looking like a very bad piece of furniture from "Beauty and the Beast,"(see right) and I decided that only professionals could pull off furniture like that.  My next chest of drawers that I attempted was square and normal-looking in appearance, but then I tried to make it look aesthetic by drawing curvy lines on the side.  Those ended up making it look really bad.  For some reason, I was finding it hard to stay away from curvy lines.  I then took a break from drawing drawers, and tried some tables.  The results were not very impressive.  Both tables ended up looking like they would be functional, but I doubted they would be considered very aesthetic, as they looked like normal classroom desks.  My last hope was in making chairs.  I started out with a regular chair, but then looked up cardboard chairs on the internet and saw more comfortable-looking curvy chairs.  I drew what one might look like, and decided I really like it.  In the picture to the left, it is labelled as "Chair 2".  This kind of chair is the chair I decided to really design.

I pers0nally really like this chair, because I think that if we are able to make it, it will be very comfortable, and, once we paint it, it will also be aesthetically pleasing. 

Here are the different views of this chair I designed:                                          Below are the dimensions of the chair:                                                            Below are the dimensions of the parts of the chair:

(If you want to have a better view of my sketches, just click on the pictures)

Evaluate your design to the Design Specifications:
I think that this chair fits pretty well with the Design Specifications.  It will be made out of almost 100% cardboard; it will be furniture that is suitable for MS students, as the measurements I used to design the chair were based on the measurements of an average MS student's body; it will be visually pleasing once we paint it; it has very accurate measurements (though we will only be able to really tell how accurate they are until we build them); they will demonstrate good hands-on skills, as we will have to make the cardboard bend; and it may or may not be able to withstand a lot of weight.  The weight specification is the only one that could be a problem, but I think that if we fortify the edges of the cardboard, it will work out well.

In the end, we chose one of my partners' shelf design as the design for the cardboard project we will make.  We decided that his design is the most interesting a
d the best out of all the options we have to make, as it will be able to be hung on the wall, and will not take up space and clutter up the floor. 
Here are the drawings and dimensions of his design:

As you can see, his shelf will be in the shape of the "FALLEN" logo (see right).  We decided that in order to make the shelf aesthetic, we could either give it a "hippy" look, or an "old/cool" look.  The way we would give it the "hippy" look would be by painting the whole shelf white and then splattering it with colored paint.  We would make the shelf "old/cool" by painting it all black, and then splattering it with white paint.  This fits the design specifications, because it will be made almost entirely out of cardboard (except for paint and glue); it will be suitable for MS students, as they will think it is "cool", and they will be able to use it for holding pens/pencils, etc; it will be aesthetic, once we paint it, and it will also be able to hold a lot of weight, since we will fortify it with extra cardboard; and it will demonstrate good hands-on skills once we start building, as we will have to figure out how to bend the cardboard the way we need it to bend.



December 10: Finish plan and assemble materials
December 11 -  14:  Midterm Exams
December 15 - January 7:  Winter Break
January 9:  Figure out dimensions of the shelf
January 10:  Begin building
January 17: Build
January 18:  Finish building
January 25:  Finish painting

As you can see, our plan is quite short, but it does take into account the time it will take to build and paint our shelf.  The unfortunate thing is, Winter Break is in between work periods
, so it will be hard for us to come back from this long break and remember what we are trying to do with this project. 


-210 in.2 of Cardboard-Glue

-Different colored paint
-Paint brushes
-Switchblade knife

Rafa: Builder
Riena:  Glue-er
David:  Painter

Step-by-step Process: 

1.)  Create dimensions of the shelf
2.)  Cut out pieces of cardboard based on the dimensions from our 3D sketches of the shelf
3.)  Glue the cardboard together based on the 3D sketches of the shelf
4.)  Wait for the glue to dry
5.)  Reinforce the shelf with extra cardboard and glue where it is needed
6.)  Wait for the glue to dry
7.)  Paint whole shelf white
8.) Wait for the paint to dry
9.)  Splatter different colored paint over the shelf
10.)  Wait for extra paint to dry
11.)  Use nails to attach the shelf to a wall
12.)  You are done!


We tried to follow our plan, but our finished product was not what we were planning for it to be.  This is what actually happened:

*To the right is a labelled picture of the Fallen logo.  When I say "shelf" or "centerpiece" I am talking about one of the labelled parts on the image.  When I say "whole shelf", I am talking about the whole thing:

1.)  We cut out pieces of cardboard based on the sizes and shapes from our 3D sketches of the shelf.  Just like in the plan.  Except that we had to change some of the dimensions to more appropriate sizes once we realized what the shelf would really look like.
2.)  We stuck the cardboard pieces together based on our 3D sketches (just like our plan) to form the shelves we needed in order to complete the one big shelf we had in mind.  We did this with a hot glue gun and nails.
3.)  We waited for the glue to dry before we continued. 
4.)  We had to rebuild one shelf, because we'd created one so that it was facing backwards
5.)  We tried to build the centerpiece for our whole shelf, but we ended up without enough cardboard, so we had to make do with connecting two shelves to each other with cardboard rolls stuffed with soft cardboard.
6.)  We used paper tape to smooth over some of the edges of the shelves. 
7.)  We painted the whole shelf white
8.)  We took the whole shelf outside and splattered it with purple, red, orange, and yellow paint.

We have not attached the whole shelf to the wall yet, because we don't have the nails we need.  However, we will hang it up as soon as possible.

As you can see, we followed our plan for the most part, but our final product was not exactly what it was supposed to look like, since we had to connect the shelves using cardboard rolls instead of with the centerpiece we had planned to build.  One half of four final product looks like this:

The other half of the project looks almost exactly the same as this one, except that the paint splatter are different, and the diagonal sides are facing right instead of left.  So four shelves are not connected by one centerpiece like we planned for it to be, but they are connected to make two pairs of shelves that compliment each other. 

Although we mostly followed our plan for the building part of our project, we were unable to complete it according to our timeline.  We got started later than we should have, and it took us more time than we anticipated for us to actually build the shelves.  In fact, we ended up finishing the whole project on February 12, rather than January 25.  We could have benefited from even more time if we'd gone more slowly and carefully, paying more attention to detail.  However, even though we did not finish building the big shelf according to our timeline, we still managed to create a piece of furniture that we are proud of. 


Evaluate your furniture against the design specification in an objective manner:

Here are the Design Specifications:
-materials:  75% cardboard and 25% other materials or 100% cardboard
- must be furniture
- suitable for MS students
- usable
- visually pleasing
- accurate measurements
- demonstrates good hands on skills(cutting, gluing)
- withstands a lot of weight
- appropriately fits in the environment (classroom)

          Our project is definitely made out of at least 98% cardboard.  Every part of our project was made out of cardboard except for the paper tape, the paint, and the glue, and not very much of the project is tape, paint, and glue.  So I believe that our shelf fits that design specification very well.  Our shelf is also definitely furniture - it is a shelf, and it will function as a shelf.  I am pretty sure that the shelf is suitable for Middle School students.  We have not asked any MS students what they think of our project yet, but it is furniture and it is colorful, functional, and interesting to look at.  I think that these make it appropriate for middle schoolers.   I hope that our shelf is usable.  We have not had the chance to test it yet, but it seems pretty strong to me.  However, we will see if it is usable once we have set it up on the wall.  I believe that our shelf is definitely visually pleasing.  It is not very ugly, and it has a modern look with its colorful splashes of paint.  Its colors are fun to look at, and the structure is unique.  However, its edges are slightly frayed.  Our shelf has accurate measurements because we measured each part of it before we cut out the pieces in order to glue them together, and it also demonstrates good hands-on skills, because we had to sketch each piece on cardboard, then cut each one out, and then glue them together.  Every single part of making this shelf required hands-on skills - even the painting part!  Again, we have been unable to test the sturdiness of our shelf, so we do not know yet if it will withstand a lot of weight.  However, we have really tried hard to make sure that the shelf will withstand a lot of weight by using plenty of glue, reinforcing the cardboard where it was necessary for reinforcement, and inserting extra-support pieces of cardboard between the top and bottom of each of the shelves to make sure that they do not collapse.  When we test it, we will see what happens.  Lastly, I am sure that our shelf appropriately fits in with the classroom environment.  It is kid-friendly, nice to look at, and functions as a shelf - something many classrooms need.

Some Mistakes:

We ended up making a shelf that looks a lot different from how we planned for it to be.  First of all, we ran out of cardboard.  We'd made the four shelves that make up the Fallen logo that we were planning to model our shelf after, and we wanted to make the center piece, but there was not enough cardboard for us to use.  In the end, we had to stick two cardboard rolls in between the small shelves and the big shelves to make two double-shelves.  We never got to connect them.

Before we realized we
were not going to be able to finish the entire project by connecting all four shelves, we had set up the four shelves on the floor in the shape they would be when they were on the wall.  With horror, we realized that we had two left shelves.  This meant that we had to remake a little shelf, or our complete shelf would be all messed up.  When we realized that we had to make a whole new shelf, we felt like this:                 

As you can probably tell from the image, it was a horrible feeling.  So then we had to make a whole new shelf, which we did, and we also strengthened the other shelves by adding more cardboard to them.  It ended up turning out ok.  After that, our teacher told us that the project would look better and be more neat if we used paper tape to cover the fraying cardboard edges of our shelf.  We were tired and we just wanted to get it done, however, so we rushed through the taping part and only taped the worst sections of our shelves.  This means that a lot of frayed shelf ends are still showing now, and we can't do it over because we already painted everything.  However, at the time, we did not care and we just wanted to finish, so we rushed and didn't do everything as carefully as we should have. 

Provide an appropriate evaluation of the impact of your furniture on life, community and/or the environment:
          This piece of furniture is very eco-friendly.  It is made up of almost 98% cardboard, which is recycling the cardboard and putting it to use when it would probably have been thrown away.  So much cardboard trash has been saved by our project, and even more would have been saved if we'd had enough cardboard to build the centerpiece.  This piece of furniture is also an example and inspiration to younger children.  Seeing this cardboard shelf on the wall every day will remind people that there are more things to do with cardboard then throwing it away, and maybe provide the spark for them to start their own cardboard-saving, eco-friendly projects.  Also, it promotes saving the Earth and "reducing, reusing, and recycling", because this shelf is reusing cardboard and shows others that the school is trying to save the planet.  Because of this shelf, people will be constantly reminded of being eco-friendly, and it may linger on their minds when they throw things out.  They might then save some of the bottles they are throwing out to recycle, or turn them into something new.  This would then have a good impact on the environment, because more people would reduce, reuse, and recycle, based on what they have seen us doing in DT class. 

Provide an evaluation of your own performance at each stage of the design cycle (Investigate, Design, Plan, Create)and suggests improvements:

For this part of the Design Cycle, I think that I did pretty well.  I conducted in-depth research about cardboard as a material, its advantages and disadvantages, ergonomics, anthropometrics, tension, compression, and more.  I made sure that I had a full understand about cardboard and all the other aspects of building with cardboard before I started to design and plan the furniture.  I also cited my sources using the MLA citation style, which is the appropriate way to cite sources here at ISB.  For my investigation, I would give myself a 6/6, because I worked very hard on it, I included many images, and I believe that I fulfilled the requirements for how an Investigation for this project should be.

I think I did ok for the Design part of this project.  After brainstorming several ideas, I eventually ended up picking a chair as my best design.  I made several diffe
rent sketches of the chair, including how it would look from the front, back, and side; a sketch with all the dimensions of the cardboard; and a sketch with the chair split up into the different pieces of cardboard that would be needed to be cut out in order to build it.  I evaluated my design against the design specifications, and explained why we would end up choosing my partner's design for our group to build rather than mine.  I would give myself a 5/6 for the Design part of this project, because I believe that I could have gone more in-depth, and my sketches could have been made with more detail.

In my plan, I listed the materials we needed, my group made a timeline, and we created a step-by-step process for us to follow as we were building in order to help us in the construction of our furniture.  I did not really write anything else, but I do not believe that more information was necessary.  I would give myself a 5/6 for the Plan part of this project, because I could have explained the timeline and the jobs more.  Also, to assign people jobs like "gluer" and "cutter" was not smart, because all members of my group were needed for multiple things.  Roles like "gluer" and "builder" just were not what you can give to people in a group project like this one.

For the most part, I believe that I did pretty well in the Create part of this project.  I worked hard and did my best to help my group members where I was needed.  For the most part, I tried to keep myself and my group members on task, although that did not work all the time.  However, we ended up with a finished piece of furniture that I am happy with, and that I think we did a good job on.  I would give myself a 5/6 on the Create portion of this project, because, although I did my best and worked hard most of the time, there were some moments when I gave up trying to keep my group on task.

Evaluate your group performance:
All in all, I think that my group performed pretty well.  In the beginning, there were some instances where only two group members would be working and the other would be doing I don't know what, and there were some times when we lost focus in the job at hand, but by the end of the project, we had pulled together to work as a team and produce a piece of cardboard furniture.  I would give my group a 5/6 for group performance, because I believe that we did a pretty good job of working together, even though sometimes we messed up a little bit.  It is difficult to work with the same people for an extended period of time - especially if you maybe do not get along with every single one of your group members.  In my opinion, we did a good job working as a group.