For my more math and science minded students, the following are equations that might help the types of sentences make more sense.
Words and Phrases you will need to know
Subject=Noun or Pronoun and the Adjectives that describe this noun
Verb phrase=Verb ad complements (complements can be the direct object of the verb and/or any adverbs applied to the verb
Prepositional Phrase=preposition and it’s object
Predicate=Verb Phrase +(Prepositional Phrases if there are any) +Adverbs
Simple sentence=Independent clause
Simple Sentence= Subject + Predicate
Example: Ms. Hernandez teaches English.
Explanation: “Ms. Hernandez” is the subject of the sentence .The predicate is “teaches English.” The verb is “teaches” but we must also know what she is teaching “English” is the noun serving as the direct object of the verb”
Compound Sentence=Simple Sentence + ; +Simple Sentence
Example: Ms. Hernandez reads books; she sometimes shares them with her students.
Explanation: “Ms. Hernandez” is the subject of the sentence. The predicate is “reads books.” The verb is “reads” but we must also know what she is teaching “books” is the noun serving as the direct object. In the second simple sentence, “she” is the subject. The verb phrase is “sometimes shares them.” “Sometimes” is an adverb telling how “she” “shares.” “shares” is the verb in the sentence and “books” is the direct object of the verb. “with her students” Is a prepositional phrase giving more information. The semicolon serves to join the two simple sentences
Compound Sentence =Simple Sentence +, +coordinating conjunction + Simple Sentence
Example: Rutland High School is in Macon, but there is another Rutland High in Virginia.
Explanation: here the “,” and conjunction “but” takes the place of the semicolon and does the same job. NOTICE: there is no comma after but
Compound Sentence= Simple Sentence + ; + conjunctive adverb + , +Simple Sentence
Example: Freshmen are really excited about being in high school; however, most Juniors are ready to go to college.
Explanation: Here the semicolon is assisted by the conjunctive adverb “however” followed by a comma. NOTE: The semicolon goes before the conjunctive adverb and the comma goes afterwards.
Complex Sentence=subordinating clause+ , +simple sentence
The subordinating clause can be, a introductory phrase, nonrestrictive phrase or clause, or an appositive.
Example: When I got up this morning, I was still tired.
Explanation: The subordinating clause is signaled by it’s use of a subordinating conjunction “when.” “I got up this morning” cannot stand on it’s own as a complete sentence, but does have a subject and a verb—this makes is a subordinating clause. In this case the subordinating clause is also and introductory word group.
Complex Sentence=simple sentence start+,+ subordinating clause +, + rest of simple sentence
Mr. Friar, a math teacher, often tries to explain math concepts to Ms.
Explanation: The subordinating clause here is “a math teacher.” It cannot stand on it’s own and it serves to describe Mr. Friar. This makes it a nonrestrictive appositive—you could remove it and the sentence would still make sense. The simple sentence, the independent clause that can stand alone is “Mr. Friar often tries to explain math concepts to Ms. Hernandez”
Compound-Complex Sentence= compound sentence (Any of the above formulas) + subordinating clause
Compound-Complex sentence= Complex sentence (Any formula) + ; + simple sentence
Ex: Coach Christian, the boy’s basketball coach, is having tryouts; however, Coach Collins already has his team. ((Complex Sentence=simple sentence start+,+ subordinating clause +, + rest of simple sentence) + ; + simple sentence)
EX: As usual, my locker didn’t work, but Mrs. Chitwood opened the locker for me. ((Complex Sentence=subordinating clause+ , +simple sentence) + ; + simple sentence
Obviously, the second simple sentence can also carry the subordinate clause