Annotated Bibliography

-In this article, Maggie Fox informs us on the amount of deaths that arise from medical error every year in the US. Almost 4 out of 5 Americans are taking some kind of medication whether it’s over the counter or prescribed. As the article stated, almost 1.5 million Americans go through some kind of medical error a year. The article gave us an example of a newborn baby who was being treated for syphilis and was given high amounts of penicillin intravenously and died. Later it was shown that the newborn didn’t even have syphilis. This article will help us by proving our point that medical errors are one of the leading causes of preventable deaths in the US with better funding we could end this.

Fox, M. (2006, July 20). Drug mistakes injure 1.5 million in U.S. every year. Reuters Health Information. <> 

- The article below provides guidelines on traveling the path to safer care. The article points to the lack of communication between doctors and patients as one of the contributors to medical errors. The article states that  patients should bring a list of all the medications they take. Including herbs, vitamins and over the counter medications. Most people feel that it is not important to point out medication they are taking that is not prescribed. Because they don’t believe or don’t know that it can cause an interaction or hinder other medications they are on.  It is also important to point out allergies or side effects one had to medicines. It is also good to understand what one’s doctor is prescribing the article states. Know what medication you are getting and how to take it and what it is for. Also, make sure you if the prescription is hand written you can read it. When also picking up the medication from the pharmacy it is good to look and ask what medication you are getting and who prescribed it. Another vital advice the article points out is to not be afraid and speak up if one has questions and concerns. This was a wonderful article that helped to point out that patients can be an active member of the health care team to help reduce medical errors and receive quality care. 

20 Tips to Help Prevent Medical Errors. Patient Fact Sheet. AHRQ Publication No. 11-0089, September 2011. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. <> 

- This was a wonderful source that helped to define medication error and provided wonderful examples of medication errors that altered patient lives. It also points out things that the FDA does to help minimize medical errors. Examples include: 

“Proposal of requiring bar codes on certain drug and biological product labels. Health care professionals would use bar code scanning equipment, similar to that used in supermarkets, to make sure that the right drug in the right dose and route of administration is given to the right patient at the right time.”  It also has in hospitals, 

“When patients enter the hospital, they get a bar-coded identification wristband that can transmit information to the hospital's computer. Nurses have laptop computers and scanners on top of medication carts that they bring to patients' rooms. Nurses use the scanners to scan the patient's wristband and the medications to be given. The bar codes provide unique, identifying information about drugs given at the patient's bedside. Before giving medications, nurses use the scanner to pull up a patient's full name and social security number on the laptops, along with the medications. If there is not a match between the patient and the medication or some other problem, a warning box pops up on the screen."

The article also pointed out how medication errors are pointed out to hospitals (internally) rather than to the FDA (externally). This is a problem the article points out where doctors may lack the knowledge of knowing to report such situations to external programs. That is why it is hypothesized that the number medical errors that take place is actually higher than the reported statistics. The article was also helpful in that it taught us that one the many ways FDA reduces medication errors include rejecting drugs with similar names to other drugs in the market. Human errors occur due to confusion of drugs with similar names. Finally the article illustrates how one should expect to count on the health system to keep you safe, but there are also steps they can take to look out for themselves and their family.

FDA. (2011, August 12). Strategies to Reduce Medication Errors: Working to Improve Medication Safety. 


-In this article, Parker-Pope informs us on the growing distrust of patients towards their doctors. This can lead to a lot of medical errors. If patients arent trusting their doctors how can we expect them to get help and properly diagnose them. Parker-Pope touches on the fact that 1 in 4 patients feel that their physician exposes them to “unnecessary risk”. Dr. Jahaur who was interviewed by Parker-Pope says that there is a loss of communication between the doctor and the patient these days. This article will help us by identifying one of the reasons for medical errors “communication” if patients and doctors aren’t communicating we’re basically opening the doors for medical errors.

Parker-Pope, T. (2008, July 29). Doctor and patients, now at odds. The New York Times.  <> 

-In this article, Betty Ann Bowser interviews Kathleen Sebelius from Health and Human services. Sebelius informs us about a new program to help cut down medical errors called Partnership for Patients. Sebelius informs us that with this program in work we could save up to 60,000 lives in just 3 years and save up to $35 billion in health care costs. This article would help us by proving our point that if programs like Partnership for Patients was properly funded we could save thousands of lives and billions of dollars.

Bowser, Betty Ann. "New Initiative Aims to Reduce Medical Errors, Accidents." PBS. PBS, 12 Apr. 2011. Web.  19 Nov. 2012. <>. 

-In this article, Lauren S. Schlesselman informs us about 10 strategies we can input to reduce the amount of medical errors. Packaging which results in 33% of medication errors and 30% of fatalities in the US can be reduced with proper guidelines from the FDA or if pharmaceutical companies followed the FDA guidelines more strictly. This article can help us by providing valid points on how hospitals and clinics need to be better funded inorder to reduce the amount of medical errors.

Lauren S. Schlesselman , P. (2011, September 1).Pharmacy times. Retrieved from

-In this article, Greta Pelegrin touches on preventing medical errors. In order to do this programs that help reduce medical errors need to be funded. Almost 100,000 American lives are lost every year due to medical errors. This should be a big problem, that should be addressed sooner rather than later. Having better funds to go around we can reduce medical errors, save lives and money. 

Pelegrin, G. M. (2004, October 1). Medication errors in hospitals: An analysis. Retrieved from

-In this article, Phillips touches on how there is a program for medical errors and instead of reporting it, it is usually used to gather issues and trends of medical errors. Phillips also states many medical problem errors programs that save a few lives and some money but they are usually non-profit organizations and only account to a fraction of the many lives and money lost. If we fund these groups and they get the right sources and equipment we could potentially save thousands of lives and billions of dollars. 

Phillips, M. (2001). National program for medication error reporting and benchmarking: experience with medmarx. Retrieved from

-In this article, Cundiff informs us about the amount of hospitalizations in the US that inquired some sort of medical error and had to be rehospitalized. He talks about his personal experience with working at a hospital. He said that the hospital is a place that saves many lives but at the same time can be considered a dangerous place. 

Cundiff, David. Cut Hospitalizations to reduce Hospital Related Medical Errors. Med Page Today. Retrieved November 2012.

-This article talks about the number of deaths caused by medical error. How it is unacceptable for such to occur since their number one priority is ‘to do no harm.’ SoRelle discussed that when patients go through some sort of injury from a medical error they are more likely not to trust their physician which in the long run can cause more medical errors

SoRelle, Ruth. Reducing the Rate of Medical Errors in the United States. Circulation. Retrieved November 2012.

- This journal discusses the different ways to reduce medical errors that are all being suggested to the editor. One example is that the key parameters of prescribing drugs are : the drug’s name,dose, route and frequency. It was explained how the duration of the treatment and the diagnosis should be including to the previous parameters. This helps give us ideas on how to deal on reducing many of these medical errors.

Strand, John. (2001). Reducing medication errors.American Medical Association, 286(17), 2091-2097. Retrieved from

-This article helps us see that just trying to make people understand their medical diagnosis would make a big difference towards the relationship between patients and  doctors.This article describes the effect of illiteracy towards patients with chronic diseases especially since they have no knowledge of their disease.

O'Rielly, Kevin B.. "The ABCs of health literacy -" American Medical Association. N.p., 19 Mar. 2012. Web. 27 Oct. 2012. <>.

-This article shows all aspects that has to do with health literacy. It states what the problem is and the ways in which it can be prevented. It shows the statistics that support the vulnerable populations of low health literacy.This also helps us to understand the need of having ways to communicate to the patients would be a great idea to reduce medical errors.

Glassmon, A. (2011). Retrieved from National Network of Libraries of Medicine website:

-This article defines ways to minimize the effects of health literacy. An important way to prevent this is by using plain language instead of complicated medical terms. This helps us understand the wide variety of preventions and gives us ideas on ways to create programs for the patients to have more of a background of their diagnosis.

Egbert, N., Nanna, K., (Sept. 30, 2009) "Health Literacy: Challenges and Strategies" OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in NursingVol. 14, No. 3, Manuscript 1. Retrieved from

-Since there many medical errors that happen to go unreported, this article discussed a system in which helps prevent it. The system was a way to create a team which consisted of doctors, nurses, and secretaries in the front desk. This team helped employees on how to report medical errors and that they would be anonymous not to target anyone. So this team meets every month discussing all the errors that came in and ways to reduce it. Due to this system 216 errors have been collected, which was forty times more than what was collected two years before this system.The reduction in medical errors could only start when hospitals admit what they have done wrong which is the errors they made.

Grens, Kerry. (2011, November 28). Punishment-free System Increases Medical Error Reports. Medscape News Today. Retrieved October 29, 2012 from

-This is another article explaining the effect of health literacy. It gave an example of a young mother who pours a drug down her baby’s ear that was to be taken by mouth. That was due to the fact that she didn’t know what the directions were to the medication she was given. It is examples like these that help make our program for health literacy more prominent in the healthcare system.

Boodman, Sandra. (2011, February 28). Many Americans Have Poor Health Literacy. The Washington Post.

-This article explains the different programs that help assess the different medical errors that occur. This is under the FDA website which helps inform also the regulations taken in account of the medical errors. This helps us see what consequences help to be regulated as a way to reduce medical errors.

FDA (2009) Drug - medication error reports. Retrieved on October 29th, 2012 from: 

-This is a wonderful article talking about the implementation of a database. This database would comprise all the prescriptions patients are on. This is wonderful in that it helps with the reasoning we have about how this tool can help reduce not only medical errors but drug-drug interactions. 

Staff, Times. 17 Oct. 2011. "Patient-drug Database Goes Live for Doctors." - Tampa Bay Times. N.p.,

 < >

-This article was very helpful in that it gave examples of how every sphere of health care providers can contribute to the wellness of patients. It will be very useful to help determine exactly how much fees will go to spending our different programs to help minimize medical errors.

 American hospital association. (2012, January 03). Retrieved from