Carolina Cosculluela-Martínez

Visiting Professor  (2016) and Visiting  Scholar (2011) at Regional Economics Applications Laboratory. 

Economist at COMCEC (33rd Session Plenary conference, Nov 2017)


Faculty Staff of the Rey Juan Carlos University (URJC). Pass in the ACAP as "Ayudante Doctor" (2010), the ACAP as "Contratado Doctor y Profesor Doctor de Universidad Privada" (2011), ANECA as "Contratado Doctor, Profesor Doctor de Universidad Privada y Ayudante Doctor" (2018).


PhD with distinction in Statistics for Economics and Business Studies by the National Spanish University (second National position in ranking 2009, and FUNCAS prize 2010), a MSc in risk analysis (2000) and is BS in Economics and Business Sciences (CUNEF, 1998). 

At the University of Fray Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros she taught several quantitative subjects and was the coordinator of the Business Administration and Tourism Branch, encouraging several projects MBAs, MScs and BAs of related subjects. She gave Public Press Conferences and Coordinated General Directorates at the Vice-Council Office of Economics and Employment of the Madrid Regional Department. 

Senior Risk Analyst in Avalmadrid S.G.R, external economist at A.E.M.S.A. and professor at European University in Madrid (UEM). She has participated on several projects of the EU, Education Ministry, Madrid Regional Education and Employment Department, Private Foundations (Ramón Areces, AEM S.A.) and Townhalls.

Referee of Journal Citation Report Index Journals such as Economic Modelling, Applied Economics... 




      TitleLife Expectancy Index: Age Structure of Population and Environment Evolution

Author:  Cosculluela-Martínez, Carolina; Ibar-Alonso, Raquel; Hewings, Geoffrey JD

Journal: Social Indicators Research, April 2019, Volume 142, Issue 2pp 507–522,

Abstract: Tolerance, Technology and Talent indexes that are found in the literature and used to compare cities tend to focus more on economic and technologic progress. However, time is important, this paper presents a Life Expectancy Index (LEI) for the 40 OECD countries computed as a weighted average of three dimensions: population pyramid base (such as fertility, dependency, population, life expectancy per sex, birth and fertility rates), enterprise contamination (methane and nitrogenous gases population density) and civil contamination (deaths and greenhouse emissions) obtained in a factorial analysis, where the weights are calculated with the IRFs of the estimated VECM. The ranking of the countries provides policy-makers with a sense of where improvements might be targeted. For each timespan, 1970–2012, 2000–2012 and 2008–2012, Mexico, Korea and Israel are the countries where the index is higher while Sub-Sahara, Russia and Hungary are the ones where the index is lower.

TitleTime indicator of the Human Development Index

Author: Ibar-Alonso, Raquel, Cosculluela-Martínez, Carolina, Hewings GJD
JournalTime & Society  Volume 28 Issue 1, February 2019, pp. 273–296, First Published July 6, 2017 

Abstract: The Human Development Index, computed by the United Nations, has been challenged since it does not measure the real development of a country. It needs to be combined with other indexes and ratios (poverty, Gini index). Using the same data as the United Nations, an additional dimension (time) is added to create a Time Human Development Index (THDI) where the weights differ for each cluster of countries. Fisher discriminant functions classify countries in each period of time, allowing different weights of the variables for the same country each year. Results suggest that when the Literacy and gross enrolment rates decrease in the four countries occupying the lower positions in the THDI, the THDI falls. In those countries where the THDI increases, gross domestic product and life expectancy rates do not seem to be positively correlated to the THDI, while the gross enrolment rate also increases. Thus, gross enrolment and literacy rates are variables related to the evolution of THDI; while, surprisingly, gross domestic product and life expectancy has few influence in its evolution.

TitleThe macroeconomic impact of transportation investment on the Spanish economy
Author: Cosculluela-Martínez, C., & de Frutos, R. F.
Journal: EJTIR, Vol. 4 2015

Abstract: This paper compares the responses of employment and GDP Spanish growth to a permanent unitary shock in different types of transport capital stock, with those estimated in the literature. The theoretical model used to estimate the step response functions is the multiple equations dynamic model proposed by Flores et al.. (1998) adapted to this particular problem. Results suggest that: (1) The standard single equation static methodology underestimates the elasticity of the capital stock with respect to output, due to the existence of feedback relationships among transport capital stock and output. (2) The exclusion of the remaining net capital stock from the model, when dealing with a particular type of transport capital stock, might lead to biases in the estimation of the responses.

TitleHousing investment in Spain: has it been the main engine of growth?
Author: Cosculluela-Martínez, Carolina y Flores de Frutos, Rafael

Journal: Applied Economics, Vol. 45 2013

Abstract: This article studies dynamic responses of employment and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth to a permanent, unitary shock in the housing capital stock for the Spanish economy. It quantifies the importance of this variable in the boom experienced by the Spanish economy during the pre-crisis years. Results confirm that building industry has been the most important engine for output and labour growth.


TitlePositive effects on the least motivated students of the highly motivated ones
Author: Cosculluela-Martínez, Carolina e Ibar-Alonso, Raquel
Journal: Boletín De Estadística E Investigación Operativa (BEIO), Vol. 33 (3) 2017

Abstract: The teaching methodology affects the motivation of the students. Non-motivated students can influence the most motivated ones and vice versa. Adjusting continuously the methodology to the less motivated students could be done if there is information on what is really motivating, if they can decide the way to be taught. A group of students of two different universities in Madrid, a public and a private one, answered a survey after a month attending the course of Statistics. The three clusters found are motivated by different methodology tools. The smallest motivation values of the 30% more motivated people of group 3 (percentile 70) has been compared to the highest motivation value of the 30% less motivated (percentile 30) and with (percentile 70) 30% more motivated people in group 1. Thus, how the most motivated group can influence the less motivating one in a non-linear way?.

TitleEffects on labour of transportation infrastructure investment: Empirical studies  
Author: Cosculluela-Martínez, Carolina e Ibar-Alonso, Raquel
Journal: Boletín De Estadística E Investigación Operativa (BEIO), Vol. 32 (1) 2016

Abstract: This paper summarizes the history of the empirical works studying the effects of transportation investment infrastructures on labour. Analyses the reasons of so many different results and studies if there can be similar conclusions between them. Results suggest that, at a national level, capital stock seems to be much more saturated in the United States than in the European Union Countries in terms of investments in transportation infrastructures which are employee hiring.

TitleOpen Source Software for Mathematics and Statistics Teaching
Author: Rabadán-Pérez, Francisco, Cosculluela-Martínez, Carolina e Ibar-Alonso, Raquel
Journal: Boletín De Estadística E Investigación Operativa (BEIO), Vol. 32 (2) 2016

Abstract: Open Source software (OSS) and GNU (GNU’s Not Unix) or free software, is practically unfamiliar for the Teaching Community. This paper provides a certain number of free tools of special utility for teaching mathematics and statistics. The knowledge of these programs by the academic community will simplify teaching at the same time that it will offer longterm application of the techniques that have been learned by the students. The increasing expansion of Open Source Software in the organizations, and especially in university environments and in the enterprises, will motivate the students to use and to specialize in them. For this purpose, a general criteria to comply with the suitable program for teaching is proposed: 1) accordingly to the potential of implantation with hardware, 2) with respect to the task of teaching; and, 3) regarding its practical use by the student. As conclusion, all software potentially valid selects those tools more suitable for the teaching of mathematics, with special emphasis in the statistics and tools associated with the R project.



AuthorCosculluela-Martínez, Carolina e Ibar-Alonso, Raquel 

Journal: Información Comercial Española, ICE: Revista De Economía, Vol. 2018

Abstract: The economic and social conditions of a country determine its Human Development, which is the key determinant of their appeal for immigrants. The United Nations calculates a Human Development Index (HDI) for most countries; however, this fails to include time as the fourth important dimension. This paper compares the Time Human Development Index (THDI) for Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries with the THDI for European Union (EU-28) countries. The THDI takes into account the non-observable variable: time. The results suggest that, in mean terms, EU-28 countries are much more attractive according to their THDI and HDI than MENA countries. 


Author: Cosculluela-Martínez, Carolina 

Journal: Información Comercial Española, ICE: Revista De Economía, Vol. 2012

Abstract: En este trabajo se estudian las respuestas dinámicas que experimentan el empleo y el PIB de la economía española ante un shock permanente unitario del capital vivienda. Se cuantifica la importancia de estas variables en el boom experimentado por la economía española durante los años previos a la crisis. Los resultados confirman que la industria de la construcción ha sido el motor del crecimiento, tanto económico como del empleo. Se estima que entre 2000 y 2005, años de expansión económica, la inversión en vivienda ha causado más del 34 por 100 del crecimiento económico experimentado y, al menos, el 54 por 100 del incremento de empleo neto. En este contexto, ¿se debe cambiar el modelo productivo?

Plenary Invited Talks

1. 33rd COMCEC Special Session  3  in Socio-economic effects of transnational transportation corridors. Plenary Invited Talk. (33rd November 2017)


  • Ibar-Alonso, R., & Cosculluela-Martínez, C. (2014b). Análisis de la noticia. aplicación de la estadística. Paper presented at the Jitice, 25.
  • Cosculluela-Martínez, C. (2013). Effects on labour and GDP of the CAP 2013 reform though investment in agricultural machinery: Spanish case. Revista De Evaluación De Programas Y Políticas Públicas, (1), 169-203.
  • CITA: León, M., & Tejera, I. (2013). Evaluación de la política de expansión del stock de capital como motor de crecimiento económico y convergencia entre CCAA: Los casos de madrid y cataluña. Revista De Evaluación De Programas Y Políticas Públicas, (1), 72-116.
  • Cosculluela-Martínez, C. (2012). ¿Crea suficiente empleo la vivienda? Información Comercial Española, ICE: Revista De Economía, (867), 23-38.
  • Martínez, C. C. (2012). ¿ Crea suficiente empleo la vivienda? Economía, (867), 23.
  • Rubio, F. G. (2012). Estudio sobre empresas públicas Librería-Editorial Dykinson.
  • Martínez, C. C. (2011a). Inversión de las corporaciones locales en infraestructuras: Incidencia en la creación de empleo y en el PIB en españa. Paper presented at the Reforma Estatutaria Y Régimen Local, 467-482.
  • Martínez, C. C. (2011b). La financiación de la empresa pública. Paper presented at the Estudio Sobre Empresas Públicas, 155-170.
  • Montaner, L. C., Porras, E. C., & Alcoz, L. M. (2011). Reforma estatutaria y régimen local
  • Cosculluela Martínez, C. (2010). Impacto de la nueva ley de la competencia en el crecimiento de la economía española. Revista De Derecho De La Competencia Y La Distribución, (7), 269-284.
  • Cosculluela-Martínez, C. (2009). Efectos del stock de capital en la producción y el empleo de la economía española. (Unpublished UNED,
  • Cosculluela-Martínez, C. (2009). Inversiones públicas en capital con mayor incidencia en la creación de empleo en españa. Revista Española De Control Externo, 11(33), 131-152.
  •  Martínez, C. C. (2009).
  • Cosculluela-Martínez, C., & Ibar-Alonso, R.Captación de la atención mediante la vuelta a la infancia. Jitice 2014, , 21.
  •  Ibar Alonso, R., & Cosculluela Martínez, C.Retroalimentación como fuente de mejora de la calidad docente.
  •  Ibar-Alonso, R., & Cosculluela-Martínez, C.Análisis de la noticia. aplicación de la estadística. Jitice 2014, , 25.
  • Martínez, C. C., & de Frutos, R. F. (a). Effects on the spanish net employment of physical transportation investment.
  • Martínez, C. C., & de Frutos, R. F. (b). Effects on the spanish net employment of physical transportation investment.
Carolina Cosculluela,
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