The Origin is as you probably know regarding both the Music and the Dance, The Dominican Republic (DR) in the Caribbean, after saying originated in El Cibao and grewed in the poor areas of the capital through Bars, Musicians and Radios like La Guarachita.
The Music was in the late fifties and early sixties very semilar to a Puerto Rican Bolero genre in the mid fifties (approximate) and then it over the following decades evolved into the faster, more characteristic and unique Bachata sound as we know today - The Caribbean Bolero is a Cuban invention from the last quarter of 1800s.
Today you can find Bachata Music in many varying paces from the slow 'Bolere-pace' to the fast 'Salsa-pace'.
The first known recording with Bachata was with Jose Manuel Calderon and the track 'Qué Será De Mi' the 30 maj 1962 and it was from that period the genre was formed even though the music in general was slower then (Bachata-Bolero) and the music was recorded with acustic guitars.
Summary: Bachata has evolved from the Caribbean Bolero (originally from Cuba) with influence from the Cuban Son and the Dominican Merengue and it also applies to the authentic dance Bachata.
The Evolution of the authentic dance: Bachata was in the beginning of the sixties danced as the slow Dominican Bolero in a close position only (it was actually Bolero they where dancing). On this Dominican Bolero steps the dance started to Evolve to the more dynamic music coming up, the first was adding a tap as a fourth step, then later also syncopated steps (steps in between the melody beats: 1,2,3,4) and footwork basically inspired from Cuban Son but most of it redesigned to Bachata. Turns also became more generally, first the Vuelta (full turn) and then the Enchufla (half turn) which are unique to Bachata and not similar to any other of the dances which inspired the dance Bachata, or similar to any other dance for that matter. The idea with the Enchufla was to be able to change position and thereby create more dynamic to fit the new dynamics and faster paces in the music and the creation of the Enchufla was based on the basic steps with the first step to the side and then the second step passing the guy and that also includes the Vuelta with a turning step to the side and then from there turned on the spot. Notice that the Bolero steps was danced without the Tap and it was danced turning slowly counter clockwise but this turning was taken out of the dance Bachata but then added these new turns Vuelta and Enchufla and also new positions to dance from e.g. the open position so basically today having the close, the semi close and the open. The bouncing way of dancing some dancers do while dancing is coming from the dance Merengue. Bachata was by this several decades long and still active evolutionary process carefully designed to fit the continuous evolving music and thereby is Bachata the unique bodily expression of the music Bachata the same way all authentic social dances are evolved to fit any unique music genre. Bachata was as mentioned inspired by the dances Bolero, Son and Merengue but is not a fusion of these dances because most of the elements in Bachata have some very unique evolved structures basically not similar to the inspirational dances, very important to know and understand because this is how evolution works.
In Bachata there is as mentioned a unique evolved basic dance structure which is used by all the experienced dancers, but the size of the steps, the exact direction of the steps, the footwork, the body movements together with the natural styling can varied because the dancers, opposite in e.g. Sport Dance are working to create their own unique and personal dance style, it's in general what social dance is about, being free to express oneselves the way one want according to the mood and the character of the music by using the same fundamental dance structure evolved to the music which is what makes it possible for all social dancers to dance together.
Like all social dances Bachata also have had certant time periods for how the dance was danced: In the early years as mentioned Bachata was in general danced more romantic with less turns, syncopated steps and footwork to that time period slower Bolero-Bachata music style, then slowly there were evolved faster and more dynamic music including the replacement of the acoustic guitars to electric guitars in the second half of the eighties and the dance evolved further according to these changes becoming more dynamic by adding more turns, syncopated steps and footwork. Today Bachata music are to be find in many different paces, moods and dynamics and as a social dancer one have to adapt the dance to the track being played by using more or less of the elements to the dance which you can find described below, and by learning all these original dance elements you will be able to dance to any kind of the music Bachata.
The purpose with the basic dance structure to any social dance is to create a good connection and a great dance flow together while dancing, I call it the functionality of the dance, the longer a dance has been around the more the social dancers have been working on making the basic dance elements the best possible to create the best possible flow, please don't underestimate that work because without this common structure we can't dance together with a proper flow and that is what social dancing is all about: creating that great dance flow (see also Musicality).
The authentic dance structures to Bachata:
Paso Basico (Basic Steps) Video: Danced in a "box"-structure side, side, forward, tap and side, side, backward, tap etc. and can include twisting feet and syncopations (taps between the beats), evolved from the Dominican Bolero steps. In Bolero we also have the walking steps (Paseala) going back in several measures or fourth in several measures and then you have the right turn turning together on the spot (Giro), there are none turns (vueltas or Enchuflas) in Bolero.
The Bolero steps are also used when Dominicans dance Son and both are a variation of the Cuban Danzón steps, a very popular music and dance genre all over the Caribbean many years ago also including The Dominican Republic before the popularity of Bolero and Son displaced Danzón.
Vuelta (Individual Full Turn) Video: A full turn starting with a step to the side and turning the body in the same direction at the same time and from there turned on the spot, a unique turn evolved to Bachata.
Enchufla (Couple Half Turn Changing positions) Video: A Lady inside turn moving forward on the 2nd step and then turn facing the dance partner from the 2nd to the 3rd step, the 1st step is to the side, also evolved unique to fit the structure of the Bachata basic steps.
Zapato/a (Footwork) Video: A part of the styling and playing with the syncopated rhythms in the music, some Cuban Son inspired and some newer made for the dance in accordance to the many syncopated rhythms in the music Bachata.
Movimiento (Movements and Styling) Video1, Video2: Natural soft African moves which can be danced with or without Bounce which is moving the body down in between the beats and up again on the beats by spring the legs a little, coming from the Dominican dance Merengue. Danced with homogeneous soft Arms, Hands, Hip and Torso movements with curved lines, women with a feminine attitude and men with a masculine attitude, NO straight lines in Arms and Fingers as in Sport Dance.
Figuras (Figures) Video: More dynamic ways to use the combinations of vueltas and enchuflas combined with variations of the basic steps or/and footwork.
Nueva Evolución (New evolutionary elements of today by expanding on the original basic elements above):
Vuelta Cubana: Individual Full Turn the way cubans do in Son and Casino ("Salsa").
Vuelta Opposite: An Individual Turn done the opposite way than usually starting e.g. on the right leg on the 1st step but then turned to the left on the 2nd step and finished on the 3rd step, typically done as a half turn but can also be done as a full turn, can also be done backwards as a half turn.
About Syncopations which are unique for Bachata and used to fit the many dynamic syncopations in the Bachata Music.
Ordinary Syncopations are steps coming between the beats and they are normaly coming between the 1st and 2nd beat and the 2nd and 3th beat dancing the Basic Steps as mentioned above by twisting the feet between the beats or tapping between the beats moving your legs inward. In the Kicking Steps they can be done between all the beats and in those you are moving the legs outward between the beats (kicking).
Significant Syncopations are steps between the beats also but where they are marked by an accent in the torso.
They appears as an extension of the tap between the tap and the following step e.g. if the tap is on the 4th beat the significant syncopation is coming between the 4th and 1st beat in the following Bar. Those are the one you also can se as "cha cha" steps going back and forth in the basic steps to the more dynamic music (Not semilar to the cha cha chá steps in the dance ChaChaChá).
About Footwork which are here defined as combinations with varied kind of steps, slides, kicks etc. also including syncopations.
The Kicking Steps are not Footwork by definition but a variation of the Basic Steps because they are repeated the same way (no real variation). You can find Footwork performed from one to several bars in the music and from relatively simple to very advanced.
Dance Connection: Open where the turns and footwork are done with 1 or 2 hand connection - Semi Close with the classic connection with the mans left hand and the women's right hand connected including the mans right hand behind the women's back and women's left hand on the mans shoulder, no torso contact - Close is the same as Semi Close or embracing with torso contact.
Musicality is about dancing to and with the music, it's about two very important issues: The first one is how the dance has evolved to and with the character of the music Bachata by the generations of social dancers in DR from it's start in the early sixties until today which have been a long evolutionary journey based on the Bolero and with the social dances Son and Merengue (which music genre also have affected the evolution of the music) as inspiration for the creation and the evolution of the dance elements, I call this for the evolutionary musicality (the unique corporal expression created on the specific musical genre). The second one is how you as a leader or follower in the dance Bachata interpret the specific track you are dancing to here and now regarding the mood, dynamic, pace, rhythms etc. using these elements evolved for the specific dance (the evolutionary musicality) which I then call the current musicality (the unique corporal expression of the specific mood and dynamics of the music track being played). Both are very important and both takes lots of experience in social dancing in general, first of all to be able to evolve on a dance together with and to the nature of the music and it's evolution and second to be able to dance Bachata of today using more or less of these evolved dance elements according to the specific track beeing played and how this track include syncopated rhythms, a specific mood, pace and instrumental dynamics etc.
Bachata the Name: Please notice it's this specific structures above which define the dance Bachata, the name given to the dance and the music by the population in DR and thereby also what one should expect if someone is advertising with Bachata.
Bachata Modern, BachaTango, Bachata Sensual, Bachata Cabaret is that Bachata? No they are actually NOT Because those dances are "new" and made by Salsa dance teachers in the Western World, more specific it all started in Spain around 2002 when the music was more popular than ever and then some Salsa dance teachers saw a potential market for selling Bachata courses as well, BUT without the proper knowledge about the real dance Bachata they started teaching basic dance structures that was build on that missing knowledge: They taught the students basic steps with a side to side side movement and not the original "Box" structure of the step danced in a square and because of that first mistake the Vuelta they taught also got the same sideways walking movement because the turn of course should fit together with the new basic steps but as most people know today the authentic Bachata Vuelta/Full Turn is turned on the spot. Furthermore the Position Change to this new early Western dance danced to the music Bachata then became a variation of the Vuelta walking forward instead of sideways and this again was based on the same ignorance about the original dance where the Position Change has its foundational structure in the basic steps and therefore isn't a variation of the Vuelta but are a traveling variation of the basic steps, the result of this is that in the authentic dance the lady is turning facing the man during the position change and in the Western dances she is turning with her back to him which gives completely different connections and dynamics compared with one another. I call the Position Change in the authentic dance for Enchufla. Additional to this completely changed and new basic structures the teachers also started to add dance elements and styling from several other dances, the first one was American Salsa/X-body and that dance is today called Bachata Modern, the second was Tango, another dance today called BachaTango and the third was LambadaZouk which was given the name Bachata Sensual. The styling in these Western dances have most of its influences from American Salsa which again have it from Ballroom dancing while the styling in the authentic dance is more natural related movements. The westerns invented dances are then as you clearly can understand NOT based on the structures of the dance Bachata but are as described a NEW set of basic structures based on the lack of knowledge of the real dance Bachata and then as explained this new basic structure was added elements and styling from different other established dances from the social dance communities: Primarily American Salsa/X-Body, Tango and LambadaZouk.
I this context talking about that the western dances IS Bachata OR evolution of Bachata is PURE nonsense because using the name of the original dance and dancing these western dances to Bachata music don't make them Bachata because the dance with that name Bachata is a very specific and unique Dominican evolved dance, therefore there is a need for a new main label for those very different western dances which basically have nothing to do with Bachata. My suggestion is that we use the term 'Popchata' as the MAIN label and then the EXISTING labels already in use today for the different western dances to make it as easy as possible for everyone who already know those marketing labels. So under need the new main label Popchata we have the dances Modern (mainly American Salsa/X-Body), BachaTango (mainly Tango), Sensual (mainly LambadaZouk), Cabaret (Competition/Show dance mainly consisting of Acrobatics and Gymnastics). 'Pop' then indicate it's popular dance forms in the Western World and the following "chata" give it the link to the music Bachata which they mostly are danced to but not always, that would be much more fair to the Dominican people and their original cultural dance Bachata, this way everyone can recognize what is Bachata and what is Western dances made by Salsa teachers based on a new foundation mixed with other dances.
Another problem with Popchata is that many adds theatre dance elements to the dance making it more artificial, the major question is: Is it good for the interaction between the sexes to make the dance more like a theatre play like what we see in Sport and Show dances which is all about the outer, the spot etc. or should we have a genuinely felt interaction on the social dance floor.
Social dance is about the inner, about how you and your dance partner feel, it's a none verbal delicate physical communication between the two, about how the leader best possible can arrange the interaction between them regarding the flow, the movements, the dynamic on a limited space on the dance floor and of course how the follower the best possible way can merge so they will become one movement, one feeling, one delicate affair, that's the true essence of social dancing, therefore we need to focus on what we see is going on, why we socialize, why we dance and why we meet, so our interaction not will be diluted by superficiality.
So the definition of Bachata is pretty clear, it's what the experienced social dancers are dancing in the Caribbean where many of the best and most dedicated Dominican dancers have been a part of the on going evolution of the dance from the sixties to present, which has resulted in the above defined dance elements and dance structures.
The modern labelling of the dance as we suggest based on the dance elements included in the dances:
|Bachata (The authentic dance defined by it's unique and specific structures which mean the NAME Bachata = the authentic structures)
Old social dance from the Dominican Republic in the Caribbean
|Popchata (Umbrella term for western dances without the authentic Bachata structure = Pop-chata danced to the music Bachata or Urban Style)
Dance school invented dances with X-body, LambadaZouk etc.
Whatever you are dancing romantic to a slow "Bolero" track or a medium or fast tempo alternating between close and open position dancing with more or less combinations of turns and footwork the label is Bachata because this is the accepted and used label of today by the population of the Dominican Republic, but ONLY if it's danced with the authentic basic elements to this social dance evolved from Dominican Bolero and inspired by Dominican Merengue and Cuban Son over decades along with and to fit to the music Bachata as we know it today and as described above.
However instructors teaching this dance in the west find it necessary with adjectives as Authentic or Dominican for people and students to understand what is taught at their courses.
Popchata is the main label and it covers different dances "invented" by non Dominican dancers and taught by "Salsa"dance schools. The Subgenres to Popchata you most frequently encountered are Modern, Sensual and Bachatango, a clear detailed description of what the labels cover should be included by the instructors themselves so people will have a clear idea of what it is they can expect of the teaching. These dances are however all danced with the side to side steps, back and forth steps, side walking turns and forward walking turns as basic which are not the authentic structures, and then they include more or less X-body, Tango, Sport/Ballroom, LambadaZouk, HipHop, Pole and Contemporary dance elements in the dancing.
|The Music: Bachata Bolero (the older first genre) Y Bachata Moderna (the sucesor with the electric guitar and in gererally faster more dynamic, the sound from DR most common of today)
||The Music: Bachata Urbana (Bachata merged mostly with R'n'B, the sound from USA started in NY City thereof the name 'Urban')
About the Author: Frank E has danced and analysed Authentic Bachata and Western "Bachata" since 2003 - He has been equipped with video footage from the Dominican Republic dating back to 2000 and continuous forward and has followed Bachata on YouTube from it's inception in 2005 and thereby reviewed thousands of dance videos with the authentic dance Bachata and Western dances danced to the music Bachata - Frank E teach authentic Dominican Bachata, Dominican & Cuban Bolero, Dominican Merengue, Cuban Son, Cuban ChaChaChá and Cuban Casino ("Salsa") at all levels in DK: www.cphsalsa.dk
Bachata Dance Music
First recorded Bachata by Jose M. Calderon
More Old School Bachata, Click Here!
The Origin of the Music Bachata
'Billy Bachata': The Bass in Bachata
Dance Ducumentary from Santo Domingo
Bachata Music Documentary