Bibliography




References for a good start



State-of-art papers or books :


BORMUTH, J. (1966). Readability : A new approach. Reading research quarterly, 1(3):79-132.

CHALL, J. (1958). Readability : An Appraisal of Research and Application. Rapport technique, Bureau of Educational Research Monographs, Columbus : OH : Ohio State Univ. Press.

CHALL, J. and DALE, E. (1995). Readability Revisited : The New Dale-Chall Readability Formula. Brookline Books, Cambridge.

COLLINS-THOMPSON, K. (2014). Computational Assessment of Text Readability: A survey of current and future research. In François, Thomas and Delphine Bernhard (eds.), Recent Advances in Automatic Readability Assessment and Text Simplification. Special issue of International Journal of Applied Linguistics 165:2 (2014). 243 pp. (pp. 97–135).

DU BAY, W. (2004). The principles of readability. Impact Information. Also available at http://www.impact-information.com/impactinfo/readability02.pdf

DU BAY, W. (2007). Unlocking Language - The Classic Readability Studies. Information Impact. Also available at
http://www.impact-information.com/impactinfo/research/classics.pdf

DU BAY, W. (2007). Smart Language: Readers, Readability, and the Grading of Text. Also available at http://www.impact-information.com/impactinfo/newsletter/smartlanguage02.pdf

FRANÇOIS, T. (2011). La lisibilité computationnelle : un renouveau pour la lisibilité du français langue première et seconde ? International Journal of Applied Linguistics (ITL), 160.

GILLILAND, J. (1972). Readability. Hodder and Stoughton, London.

HARRISSON, C. (1980). Readability in the classroom. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

KLARE, G. (1963). The Measurement of Readability. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA.

KLARE, G. (1974). Assessing readability. Reading Research Quarterly, 10(1):62–102.

KLARE, G. (1984). Readability. In PEARSON, P., BARR, R., KAMIL, M. L., MOSENTHAL, P. and DYKSTRA, R., éditeurs : Handbook of Reading Research, pages 681–744. Longman, New York.

RICHAUDEAU, F. (1984). Recherches actuelles sur la lisibilité. Éditions Retz, Paris.


Other reference web sites:

- Find here another bibliography prepared by Sowmya Vajjala


Recent papers :

BEINBORN, L. and ZESCH, T. and GUREVYCH, I. (2012). Towards fine-grained readability measures for self-directed language learning. In Electronic Conference Proceedings, vol. 80, 11-19.

BARBARESI, A. (2012). Enjeux de la classification pour les mesures et les représentations de la compréhensibilité de textes. In Colloque International Jeunes Chercheurs en Linguistique (CIJC 2012).

CURTO, P., MAMEDE, N., and BAPTISTA, (2015). J. Automatic readability classifier for European Portuguese. system, 5, 6.

DASCALU, M., DESSUS, P., TRAUSAN-MATU, Ş., BIANCO, M. and NARDY, A. (2013). ReaderBench, an environment for analyzing text complexity and reading strategies. In Artificial Intelligence in Education. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013. p. 379-388.

DAUD, N. M., HASSAN, H., and AZIZ, N. A. (2013). A Corpus-Based Readability Formula for Estimate of Arabic Texts Reading Difficulty. World Applied Sciences Journal, 21, 168-173.

DE CLERQ, O. and HOSTE, V. and DESMET, B. and VAN OOSTEN, P. and DE COCK, M. and MACKEN, L. (2013). Using the crowd for readability prediction. In Natural Language Engineering, Canbridge University Press, 1-33.

DENNING, J., PERA, M. S., and NG, Y. K. (2015). A readability level prediction tool for K‐12 books. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology.

FLOR, M., KLEBANOV, B. B., et SHEEHAN, K. M. (2013). Lexical Tightness and Text Complexity. In NLP4ITA 2013, vol. 1, p. 29.

FRANÇOIS, T. and FAIRON, C. (2012). An "AI readability" formula for French as a foreign language. In Proceedings of the 2012 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP 2012), Jeju, 466-477.

HANCKE, J., VAJJALA, S., and MEURERS, D. (2012). Readability Classification for German using Lexical, Syntactic, and Morphological Features. In Proceedings of COLING 2012. p. 1063-1080.

LASECKI, W. S., RELLO, L., and BIGHAM, J. P. (2015). Measuring Text Simplification with the Crowd. W4A.

PILAN, I., VOLODINA, E., and JOHANSSON, R. (2014). Rule-based and machine learning approaches for second language sentence-level readability. ACL 2014, 174.

PAUKKERI, M.S. and OLLIKAINEN, M. and HONKELA, T. (2012). Assessing user-specific difficulty of documents In Information Processing & Management, Elsevier, 198-212.

ŠTAJNER, S., MITKOV, R., and PASTOR, G. C. (2015). Simple or Not Simple? A Readability Question. In Language Production, Cognition, and the Lexicon (pp. 379-398). Springer International Publishing.

ŠTAJNER, S., EVANS, R., ORASAN, C., and MITKOV, R. (2012). What can readability measures really tell us about text complexity. In proceedings of workshop on Natural Language Processing for Improving Textual Accessibility (pp. 14-22).

TEMNIKOVA, I., VIEWEG, S., and CASTILLO, C. (2015). The Case for Readability of Crisis Communications in Social Media.

TODIRASCU, A., FRANÇOIS, T., GALA, N., FAIRON, C., LIGOZAT, A.L., and BERNHARD, D. (2013). Coherence and Cohesion for the Assessment of Text Readability. Natural Language Processing and Cognitive Science, p. 11.

VAJJALA, S. and MEURERS, D. (2012). On Improving the Accuracy of Readability Classification using insights from Second Language Acquisition. In Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications (BEA7), pp.163-173.

VAJJALA, S. and MEURERS, D. (2014). Readability assessment for text simplification: From analyzing documents to identifying sentential simplifications. ITL International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 2014.

L1 English :


ALUISIO, S., SPECIA, L., GASPERIN, C. and SCARTON, C. (2010). Readability assessment for text simplification. In Fifth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications, pages 1–9, Los Angeles.

AMIRAN, M. and JONES, B. (1982). Toward a new definition of readability. Educational Psychologist, 17(1):13–30.

ANDERSON, J. (1981). Analysing the Readability of English and non-English Texts in the Classroom with Lix. In Paper presented at the Australian Reading Association Conference, Darwin.

BARKER, D. and STOKES, W. (1968). A Simplification of the Revised Lorge Readability Formula. The Journal of Educational Research, 61(9):398–400.

BINKLEY, M. (1988). New ways of assessing text difficulty. In ZAKALUK, B. and SAMUELS, S., éditeurs : Readability : Its Past, Present and Future, pages 98–120. International Reading Association, Newark, Delaware.

BJÖRNSSON, C. (1983). Readability of newspapers in 11 languages. Reading Research Quarterly, 18(4):480-497.

BORMUTH, J. (1969a). Development of Readability Analysis. Rapport technique, Projet n˚7-0052, U.S. Office of Education, Bureau of Research, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington, DC.

BORMUTH, J. (1969b). Factor validity of cloze tests as measures of reading comprehension ability. Reading Research Quarterly, 4(3):358–365.

BOTEL, M. and G RANOWSKY, A. (1972). A Formula for Measuring Syntactic Complexity ; A Directional Effort. Elementary English, 49(4):513-16.

BROWN, J. (1952). The Flesch Formula ’Through the Looking Glass’. College English, 13(7):393-394.

BROWN, W. (1965). Science textbook selection and the Dale-Chall formula. School Science and Mathematics, 65(2):164-167.

BRUCE, B., RUBIN, A. and STARR, K. (1981). Why readability formulas fail. Rapport technique, Reading Education Report No. 28, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL.

CARVER, R. (1975). Measuring prose difficulty using the Rauding Scale. Reading Research Quarterly, 11(4):660-685.

CARVER, R. (1985). Is the Degrees of Reading Power Test Valid or Invalid ? Journal of Reading, 29(1):34-41.

CAYLOR, J., STICHT, T., FOX, L. and FORD, J. (1973). Methodologies for Determining Reading Requirements of Military Occupational Specialties. Rapport technique, Projet n˚73-5, Human Resources Research Organization, Alexandria, VA.

CHALL, J. (1988). The Beginning Years. In ZAKALUK, B. and SAMUELS, S., éditeurs : Readability : It’s Past, Present, & Future, pages 2–13. International Reading Association, Newark, Delaware.

CLARK, C. (1981). Assessing Comprehensibility : The PHAN System. The Reading Teacher, 34(6):670-675.

COKE, E. and ROTHKOPF, E. (1970). Note on a simple algorithm for a computer-produced reading ease score. Journal of Applied Psychology, 54(3):208-210.

COLEMAN, M. and LIAU, T. (1975). A computer readability formula designed for machine scoring. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60(2):283-284.

COLLINS -THOMPSON, K. and CALLAN, J. (2005). Predicting reading difficulty with statistical language models. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 56(13):1448–1462.

COLLINS -THOMPSON, K. and CALLAN, J. (2004a). A language modeling approach to predicting reading difficulty. In Proceedings of HLT/NAACL 2004, pages 193-200, Boston, USA.

CROSSLEY, S., DUFTY, D., MC CARTHY, P. and MC NAMARA, D. (2007). Toward a new readability : A mixed model approach. In Proceedings of the 29th annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society, pages 197-202.

CROSSLEY, S., GREENFIELD, J. and MC NAMARA, D. (2008). Assessing text readability using cognitively based indices. TESOL Quarterly, 42(3):475-493.

DALE, E. and CHALL, J. (1948a). A formula for predicting readability. Educational research bulletin, 27(1):11–28.

DALE, E. and CHALL, J. (1948b). A formula for predicting readability : Instructions. Educational research bulletin, 27(2):37–54.

DALE, E. and CHALL, J. (1949). The concept of readability. Elementary English, 26(1):19-26.

DALE, E. and TYLER, R. (1934). A study of the factors influencing the difficulty of reading materials for adults of limited reading ability. The Library Quarterly, 4:384-412.

DAMERST, W. (1972). Clear technical reports. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York.

DANIELSON, W. and BRYAN, S. (1963). Computer automation of two readability formulas. Journalism Quarterly, 40(2):201-205.

DAVISON, A. and KANTOR, R. (1982). On the failure of readability formulas to define readable texts : A case study from adaptations. Reading Research Quarterly, 17(2):187-209.

DOLCH, E. (1948). Problems in reading. The Garrard Press, Champaign : Illinois.

DUFFELMEYER, F. (1982). A Comparison of Two Noncomputational Readability Techniques. The Reading Teacher, 36(1):4-7.

DUFFY, T. (1985). Readability formulas : What’s the use. Designing usable texts, 104:113-143.

ELLEY, W. (1969). The assessment of readability by noun frequency counts. Reading Research Quarterly, 4(3):411-427.

FANG, I. (1966). The “Easy listening formula”. Journal of Broadcasting, 11(1):63-68.

FANG, I. (1968). By computer flesch’s : Reading ease score and a syllable counter. Behavioral Science, 13(3):249-251.

FARR, J., JENKINS, J. and PATERSON, D. (1951). Simplification of Flesch reading ease formula. Journal of applied psychology, 35(5):333–337.

FLESCH, R. (1948). A new readability yardstick. Journal of Applied Psychology, 32(3):221-233.

FENG, L., ELHADAD, N. and HUENERFAUTH, M. (2009). Cognitively motivated features for readability assessment. In Proceedings of the 12th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pages 229–237.

FLESCH, R. (1946). The Art of Plain Talk. Harper & Brothers, New York.

FLESCH, R. (1949). New Facts about Readability. College English, 10(4):225–226.

FLESCH, R. (1950). Measuring the level of abstraction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 34(6):384–390.

FLESCH, R. (1951). Reply to criticism by jenkins and jones. Journal of Applied Psychology, 35(1):69.

FRY, E. (1963). Teaching faster reading. Cambridge University Press, London.

FRY, E. (1968). A readability formula that saves time. Journal of reading, 11(7):513–578.

FRY, E. (1977). Fry’s readability graph : Clarifications, validity, and extension to level 17. Journal of Reading, 21(3):242–252.

FRY, E. (1989). Reading formulas : maligned but valid. Journal of reading, 32(4):292–297.

FRY, E. (1990). A readability formula for short passages. Journal of Reading, 33(8):594-597.

FRY, E. (2002). Readability versus Leveling : Both of These Procedures Can Help Teachers Select Books for Readers at Different Stages. The Reading Teacher, 56(3):286–292.

GRANOWSKY, A. and BOTEL, M. (1974). Background for a new syntactic complexity formula. The Reading Teacher, 28(1):31–35.

GRAY, W. and LEARY, B. (1935). What makes a book readable. University of Chicago Press, Chicago : Illinois.

GUNNING, R. (1952). The technique of clear writing. McGraw-Hill, New York.

HARRIS, A. and JACOBSON, M. (1973). The Harris-Jacobson primary readability formulas. In Proceedings of the annual meeting of the College Reading Association, Denver, Colorado.

HARRIS, A.
and JACOBSON, M. (1974). Revised Harris-Jacobson readability formulas. In Proceedings of the annual meeting of the College Reading Association, Bethesda, Maryland.

HARRIS, A.
and JACOBSON, M. (1976). Predicting twelfth graders’ comprehension scores. Journal of Reading, 20(1):43–46.

HARRIS, A.
and JACOBSON, M. (1979). A framework for readability research : Moving beyond Herbert Spencer. Journal of Reading, 22(5):390–398.

HEILMAN, M., COLLINS -THOMPSON, K., CALLAN, J. and ESKENAZI, M. (2007). Combining lexical and grammatical features to improve readability measures for first and second language texts. In Proceedings of NAACL HLT, pages 460–467.

HEILMAN, M., COLLINS -THOMPSON, K. and ESKENAZI, M. (2008). An analysis of statistical models and features for reading difficulty prediction. In Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications, pages 1–8.

IRWIN, J.
and DAVIS, C. (1980). Assessing readability : The checklist approach. Journal of Reading, 24(2):124–130.

JACOBSON, M. (1965). Reading difficulty of physics and chemistry textbooks. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 25(2):449–457.

JACOBSON, M. (1974). Predicting reading difficulty from spelling. Spelling Progress Bulletin, 14:8–10.

JACOBSON, M., KIRKLAND, C.
and SELDEN, R. (1978a). An examination of the McCall-Crabbs standard test lessons in reading. Journal of Reading, 22(3):224–230.

JACOBSON, M., KIRKLAND, C.
and SELDEN, R. (1978b). An examination of the McCall-Crabbs standard test lessons in reading. Journal of Reading, 22(3):224–230.

JENKINS, J.
and JONES, R. (1951). Flesch’s "measuring the level of abstraction.". Journal of Applied Psychology, 35(1):68.

KATE, R., LUO, X., PATWARDHAN, S., FRANZ, M., FLORIAN, R., MOONEY, R., ROUKOS, S.
and WELTY, C. (2010). Learning to predict readability using diverse linguistic features. In Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computational Linguistics (Coling 2010), pages 546–554.

KIBBY, M. (1981). Test Review : The Degrees of Reading Power. Journal of Reading, 24(5):416–427.

KIDWELL, P., LEBANON, G.
and COLLINS -THOMPSON, K. (2009). Statistical estimation of word acquisition with application to readability prediction. In Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, volume 2, pages
900–909.

KINCAID, J., FISHBURNE, R., RODGERS, R.
and CHISSOM, B. (1975). Derivation of new readability formulas for navy enlisted personnel. Rapport technique, n˚8-75, Research Branch Report.

KINTSCH, W. (1979). On modeling comprehension. Educational Psychologist, 14(1):3–14.

KINTSCH, W.
and MILLER, J. (1984). Readability : A view from cognitive psychology. In FLOOD, J., éditeur : Understanding reading comprehension, pages 220–232. International Reading Association, Newark.

KINTSCH, W.
and VIPOND, D. (1979). Reading comprehension and readability in educational practice and psychological theory. In NILSSON, L., éditeur : Perspectives on Memory Research, pages 329–365. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.

KLARE, G. (1952). Measures of the readability of written communication : an evaluation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 43(7):385–399.

KLARE, G. (1988). The Formative Years. In ZAKALUK, B.
and SAMUELS, S., éditeurs : Readability : It’s Past, Present, & Future, pages 14–34. International Reading Association, Newark, Delaware.

KLARE, G., ROWE, P., ST. JOHN, M.
and STOLUROW, L. (1969). Automation of the Flesch reading ease readability formula, with various options. Reading research quarterly, 4(4): 550–559.

KLARE, G., SINAIKO, H. et STOLUROW, L. (1972). The cloze procedure : A convenient readability test for training materials and translations. Applied Psychology, 21(2):77–105.

KOLERS, P. (1970). Three Stages of Reading. In LEVIN, H.
and WILLIAMS, J., éditeurs : Basic Studies on Reading, pages 90–118. Basic Book, New York.

LEWERENZ, A. (1935). A vocabulary grade placement formula. The Journal of Experimental Educational, 3(3):236.

LIAU, T., BASSIN, C., MARTIN, C.
and COLEMAN, E. (1976). Modification of the Coleman readability formulas. Journal of Literacy Research, 8(4):381–386.

LIVELY, B.
and PRESSEY, S. (1923). A method for measuring the “vocabulary burden” of textbooks. Educational Administration and Supervision, 9:389–398.

LORGE, I. (1939). Predicting reading difficulty of selections for children. Elementary English Review, 16(6):229–33.

LORGE, I. (1944a). Predicting readability. the Teachers College Record, 45(6):404–419.

LORGE, I. (1944b). Word lists as background for communication. The Teachers College Record, 45(8):543–552.

LORGE, I. (1948). The Lorge and Flesch readability formulae : a correction. School and Society, 67:141–142.

LOWE, A. (1979). ThUS : A Non-Formula Readability Measure. Reading Improvement, 16(2):155–57.

MARTIN, L.and GOTTRON, T. (2012). Readability and the Web. Future Internet, 4, 238-252.

MAXWELL, M. (1978). Readability : Have we gone too far ? Journal of reading, 21(6):525-530.

MC CALLUM, D.
and PETERSON, J. (1982). Computer-based readability indexes. In Proceedings of the ACM’82 conference, pages 44–48.

MC CLUSKY, H. (1934). A Quantitative Analysis of the Difficulty of Reading Materials. The Journal of Educational Research, 28:276–282.

MC LAUGHLIN, G. (1969). SMOG grading : A new readability formula. Journal of reading, 12(8):639–646.

MC NAMARA, D., LOUWERSE, M., MC CARTHY, P.
and GRAESSER, A. (2010). Coh-Metrix : Capturing linguistic features of cohesion. Discourse Processes, 47(4):292–330.

MUGFORD, L. (1970). A new way of predicting readability. Reading, 4:31–35.

OJEMANN, R. (1934). The reading ability of parents and factors associated with the reading difficulty of parent education materials. University of Iowa Studies in Child Welfare, 8:11–32.

PATTY, W.
and PAINTER, W. (1931). A technique for measuring the vocabulary burden of textbooks. Journal of Educational Research, 24:127–134.

PAUL, T. (2003). Guided Independent Reading. School Renaissance Institute, Madison, WI.

PETERSEN, S.
and OSTENDORF, M. (2006a). A machine learning approach to reading level assessment. Rapport technique, University of Washington.

PETERSEN, S.
and OSTENDORF, M. (2006b). Assessing the reading level of web pages. In Proceedings of INTERSPEECH 2006 (poster), pages 833–836.

PETERSEN, S.
and OSTENDORF, M. (2009). A machine learning approach to reading level assessment. Computer Speech & Language, 23(1):89–106.

PITLER, E.
and NENKOVA, A. (2008). Revisiting readability : A unified framework for predicting text quality. In Proceedings of the Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pages 186–195.

POWERS, R., SUMNER, W.
and KEARL, B. (1958). A recalculation of four adult readability formulas. Journal of Educational Psychology, 49(2):99–105.

ROGERS, J. (1962). A formula for predicting the comprehension level of material to be presented orally. The journal of educational research, 56(4):218–220.

SCHNEYER, J. (1963). Review : Botel predicting readability levels. Journal of Developmental Reading, 7(1):55–57.

SCHWARM , S. and OSTENDORF, M. (2005). Reading level assessment using support vector machines and statistical language models. Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics, pages 523–530.

SELZER, J. (1981). Readability is a four-letter word. Journal of business communication, 18(4):23–34.

SHAW, R.
and JACOBSON, M. (1968). A computerized determination of the readability of programmed materials using complete units. In The annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago.

SINGER, H. (1975). The seer technique : A non-computational procedure for quickly estimating readability level. Journal of Literacy Research, 7(3):255–267.

SI, L. and CALLAN, J. (2001). A statistical model for scientific readability. In Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, pages 574–576. ACM New York, NY, USA.

SMITH, E. (1961). Devereaux readability index. The Journal of Educational Research, 54(8):289–303.

SMITH, E.
and SENTER, R. (1967). Automated Readability Index. Rapport technique, AMRL-TR-66-220, Aerospace Medical Research Laboratories, Wright-Patterson Airforce Base, OH.

SPACHE, G. (1953). A new readability formula for primary-grade reading materials. The Elementary School Journal, 53(7):410–413.

SPACHE, G. (1960). Good Reading For Poor Readers. The Garrard Press, Champaign : Illinois.

STENNER, A. (1996). Measuring reading comprehension with the lexile framework. In Fourth North American Conference on Adolescent/Adult Literacy.

STENNER, A.
and BURDICK, D. (1997). The Objective Measurement of Reading Comprehension : In Response to Technical Questions Raised by the California Department of Education Technical Study Group. Rapport technique, MetaMetrics, Inc., Durham, NC.

STENNER, A., HORADIN, I., SMITH, D.
and SMITH, R. (1988). The Lexile Framework. MetaMetrics, Inc., Durham, NC.

STEVENS, K. (1980). Readability formulae and McCall-Crabbs standard test lessons in reading. The Reading Teacher, 33(4):413–415.

STOCKER, L. (1971). Increasing the Precision of the Dale-Chall Readability Formula. Reading Improvement, 8(3):87–89.

STONE, C. (1956). Measuring difficulty of primary reading material : A constructive criticism of Spache’s measure. The Elementary School Journal, 57(1):36–41.

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TANAKA -ISHII, K., TEZUKA, S. and TERADA, H. (2010). Sorting texts by readability. Computational Linguistics, 36(2):203–227.

VAJJALA
, S. and MEURERS, D. (2012). On Improving the Accuracy of Readability Classification using insights from Second Language Acquisition. In Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications (BEA7), pp.163-173.

van OOSTEN, P. and HOSTE, V. (2011). Readability Annotation : Replacing the Expert by the Crowd. In Sixth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications.

van OOSTEN, P., HOSTE, V. and TANGHE, D. (2011). A posteriori agreement as a quality measure for readability prediction systems. In G ELBUKH, A., éditeur : Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing, volume 6609 de Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 424–435. Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg.

VOGEL, M. and WASHBURNE , C. (1928). An objective method of determining grade placement of children’s reading material. The Elementary School Journal, 28(5):373–381.

WASHBURNE, C. and MORPHETT, M. (1938). Grade placement of children’s books. The Elementary School Journal, 38(5):355–364.

WEAVER, B. (2000). Leveling books K–8 : Matching readers to text. International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

WEIR, G.
and ANAGNOSTOU, N. (2008). Collocation frequency as a readability factor. In Proceedings of the 13th Conference of the Pan Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics.

WEIR, G.
and RITCHIE, C. (2006). Estimating readability with the Strathclyde readability measure. In ICTATLL Workshop Preprints, pages 21–22.

WHEELER, L. (1938). A study of the relative difficulty of a primary reading vocabulary. In Pedagogical Seminary and Journal of Genetic Psychology, 52 (1938) p. 183.

WHEELER, L. and SMITH, E. (1954). A practical readability formula for the classroom teacher in the primary grades. Elementary English, 31:397–99.

WHEELER, L.
and WHEELER, V. (1948). Selecting appropriate reading materials. Elementary English, 25:478–89.

ZAKALUK, B.
and SAMUELS, S. (1988). Toward a New Approach to Predicting Text Comprehensibility. In ZAKALUK, B. and SAMUELS, S., éditeurs : Readability : Its Past, Present and Future, pages 121–144. International Reading Association, Newark, Delaware.

ZAKALUK, B. and SAMUELS, S. (1996). Issues related to text comprehensibility : the future of readability. Revue québécoise de linguistique, 25(1):41–59.



L2 English :


ANAGNOSTOU, N. and WEIR, G. (2006). From corpus-based collocation frequencies to readability measure. ICT in the Analysis, Teaching and Learning of Languages, pages 33–46.

BLAU, E. (1982). The effect of syntax on readability for ESL students in Puerto Rico. TESOL Quarterly, 16(4):517–528.

CARRELL, P. (1987). Readability in ESL. Reading in a Foreign Language, 4(1):21–40.

GAIES, S. (1979). Linguistic imput in formal second language learning : the issues of syntactic gradation and readability in ESL materials. Tesol Quarterly, 13(1):41–50.

GREENFIELD, J. (2004). Readability formulas for EFL. Japan Association for Language Teaching, 26(1):5–24.

OZASA, T., WEIR, G. and FUKUI, M. (2007). Measuring readability for Japanese learners of English. In Proceedings of the 12th Conference of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics.

RABIN, A. (1988). Determining difficulty levels of text written in languages other than English. In ZAKALUK, B. et SAMUELS, S., éditeurs : Readability : Its Past, Present and Future, pages 46–76. International Reading Association, Newark, Delaware.

SCHULZ, R. (1981). Literature and readability : Bridging the gap in foreign language reading. Modern Language Journal, 65(1):43–53.

VAJJALA, S. and MEURERS, D. (2012). On Improving the Accuracy of Readability Classification using insights from Second Language Acquisition. Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications (BEA7), Association for Computational Linguistics. 2012.


L1 and L2 French :


BARBARESI, A. (2011). La complexité linguistique, méthode d’analyse. Actes de TALN 2011. Avignon, France.

BENOÎT, J.-P. (1986b). Revue critique des formules de lisibilité, 60 ans de formules de lisibilité : qu’en reste-t-il ? Pratiques, 52:45–63.

BOYER, J. (1992). La lisibilité. Revue française de pédagogie, 99(1):5–14.

CONQUET, A. and RICHAUDEAU, F. (1973). Cinq méthodes de mesure de la lisibilité. Communication et langages, 17(1):5–16.

CORNAIRE, C. (1985). La lisibilité : essai d’application de la formule courte d’Henry au français langue étrangère. Thèse de doctorat, Université de Montréal, Montréal.

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de LANDSHEERE, G. (1972). Application du cloze test de W.L. Taylor à la langue française. Scientia Paedagogica Experimentalis, 9(2):207–256.

de LANDSHEERE, G. (1978). Le test de closure : mesure de la lisibilité et de la compréhension. Nathan, Paris.

de LANDSHEERE, G. (1982). Introduction à la recherche en éducation. Georges Thone, Liège.

FOUCAMBERT, J. (1983). Une lecture de la lisibilité. les Actes de lecture, 3:37-39.

FRANÇOIS, T. (2009a). Combining a statistical language model with logistic regression to predict the lexical and syntactic difficulty of texts for FFL. In Proceedings of the 12th Conference of the EACL : Student Research Workshop, pages 19–27.

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FRANÇOIS, T. and WATRIN, P. (2011a). On the contribution of MWE-based features to a readability formula for French as a foreign language. In Proceedings of the International Conference RANLP 2011.

FRANÇOIS, T. and WATRIN, P. (2011b). Quel apport des unités polylexicales dans une formule de lisibilité pour le français langue étrangère ? In Actes de la 18e Conférence sur le Traitement automatique des Langues Naturelles (TALN 2011)

FRANÇOIS, T. and FAIRON, C. (2012). An "AI readability" formula for French as a foreign language. In Proceedings of the 2012 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP 2012), Jeju, 466-477.

FRANÇOIS, T. and MILTSAKAKI, E. (2012). Do NLP and machine learning improve traditional readability formulas? In Proceedings of the First Workshop on Predicting and improving text readability for target reader populations (PITR2012), Montréal, June 7, 49-57.

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Other languages (to be completed) :

AL-KHALIFA, H. S. and AL-AJLAN, A. A.. (2010). Automatic Readability measurements of the Arabic text: An exploratory study; The Arabian journal for science and engineering, 35. (Arabic)

DAOWADUNG, P. and CHEN, Y.-H. (2011). Using word segmentation and SVM to assess readability of Thai text for primary school students. In International Joint Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering - JCSSE, 2011. (Thai language).

DELL'ORLETTA, F., MONTEMAGNI, S. and VENTURI, G. (2011). READ–IT: Assessing Readability of Italian Texts with a View to Text Simplification. In Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Speech and Language Processing for Assistive Technologies, pages 73–83, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, July 30.

SPAULDING, S. (1951). Two formulas for estimating the reading difficulty of Spanish. Educational Research Bulletin, 30(5):117–124.

SPAULDING, S. (1956). A Spanish readability formula. Modern Language Journal, 40(8): 433–441.


Lexicon readability :

GALA, N., FRANÇOIS, T., FAIRON, C. (2013). Towards a French lexicon with difficulty measures: NLP helping to bridge the gap between traditional dictionaries and specialized lexicons. In Electronic lexicography in the 21st century: thinking outside the paper (eLex2013).

SHARDLOW, M. (2013). A Comparison of Techniques to Automatically Identify Complex Words. ACL Student Workshop 2013, p. 103-109.

VOLODINA, E. et KOKKINAKIS, S. J. (2012). Introducing the Swedish Kelly-list, a new lexical e-resource for Swedish. In LREC. 2012. p. 1040-1046.


Related projects :


COLLINS -THOMPSON, K. and CALLAN, J. (2004b). Information retrieval for language tutoring : An overview of the REAP project. In Proceedings of the 27th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval, pages
545–546.


GRAESSER, A., MC NAMARA, D., LOUWERSE, M. and CAI, Z. (2004). Coh-Metrix : Analysis of text on cohesion and language. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36(2):193–202.

KANUNGO, T. and ORR, D. (2009). Predicting the readability of short web summaries. In Proceedings of the Second ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining, pages 202–211.

MILTSAKAKI, E. (2009). Matching readers’ preferences and reading skills with appropriate web texts. In Proceedings of the 12th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics : Demonstrations Session, pages 49–52.

MILTSAKAKI, E. and TROUTT, A. (2008). Real Time Web Text Classification and Analysis of Reading Difficulty. In Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications, at the 46th Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and Human Language Technologies, Columbus, OH. 

MILTSAKAKI, E. (2007). Read-X: Automatic Evaluation of Reading Difficulty of Web Text. In Proceedings of E-Learn 2007, by the Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Quebec, Canada.

UITDENBOGERD, A. (2003). Using the web as a source of graded reading material for language acquisition. International Conference on Web-based Learning, pages 423–432.

UITDENBOGERD, A. (2010). Fun with Filtering French. In Proceedings of Australasian Language Technology Association Workshop, pages 58–66.

WAN, X., LI, H. and XIAO, J. (2010). EUSUM : extracting easy-to-understand english summaries for non-native readers. In Proceeding of the 33rd international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, pages 491–498.
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