Killarney

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 Killarney (Irish: Cill Airne, meaning "The church of the sloe") is a town in County Kerry, southwestern Ireland. The town is in a deep valley in the MacGillicuddy Reeks, beside the Lakes of Killarney and part of the Killarney National Park. It is home to St. Mary's Cathedral, Ross Castle, Muckross Abbey, torc waterfall and Innisfallen Island, the location of a ruined monastery. It is a sister city of Cooper City, Florida and Concord, North Carolina.

Thanks to its history, natural interest and proximity to the Dingle Peninsula, Skellig Michael island and its location on the Ring of Kerry, Killarney is a popular tourist destination.


 Transport

Killarney is served by National Primary Route N22 (north to Tralee and Castleisland, south to Cork) and National Secondary Route N72 (west to Killorglin, east to Waterford).

There are train services to Tralee, Limerick, Cork and Dublin operated by Iarnród Éireann. Bus Éireann provides bus services to Limerick (and onwards to Dublin), Tralee, Cork, Kenmare and Skibbereen.

Kerry International Airport, in Farranfore between Tralee and Killarney, provides an increasing number of air services. Cork International Airport, easily accessible by bus or rail, also serves the Kerry region.

Sport

Killarney has three Gaelic Football teams: Dr. Crokes, Killarney Legion and Spa. The rural hinterland has a large number of Gaelic Football teams, such as Kilcummin, Fossa, Firies, Glenflesk and Gneeveguilla. All these teams compete in the Kerry County league and the East Kerry Championship (O'Donoghue Cup) and league.

Dr Crokes are the most successful of these teams, with the most notable triumphs being the capture of the All-Ireland Club Championship in 1992 and the Munster Club Championship in 1991 and 1990. The club has also won the County Championship on 6 separate occasions, the last being in 2000.

Dr Crokes are the only club in Killarney with a hurling team, which has had some important successes, most recently winning the Kerry Intermediate Hurling Championship in 1999 and 2001.

Killarney Rugby Club competes in the Munster Junior League Division 3.

Tourism

Tourism is by far the largest industry in Killarney. With the exception of Dublin, there are more hotel beds in Killarney than in any other Irish town or city. Killarney's tourism history goes back at least to the mid 1700s, when Thomas, fourth Viscount Kenmare, began to attract visitors and new residents to the town. The date of 1747 was used in recent 250-year celebrations to honour the history of Killarney tourism. A visit by Queen Victoria in 1861 gave the town international exposure, which it has enjoyed ever since.

Attractions

Lakes of Killarney, Killarney National Park, Muckross House, The Black Valley, Aghadoe]

Ross Castle: this square medieval tower, built by the O' Donoghues on the shores of Lough Lein in the 15th century, is beautifully situated. Now restored, the castle houses a fine collection of 16th and 17th century oak furniture.

Ross Castle is the departure point for boat tours on Lough Lein.

Nightlife

Killarney is a popular destination for partygoers. Killarney's nightspots are often busy seven days a week during the summer months, when the population of the town and the surrounding area increases significantly. The places most commonly visited are Mustang Sallys, McSorleys, Scruffys, Folklore, Charlie Foleys and the Grand Hotel, which is particularly popular with American tourists during the summer.

Rally Of The Lakes

Every year in the first weekend of May the town is host to the Rally of the Lakes.

People from Killarney

External links

Torc Waterfall, near Killarney

The Lakes of Killarney are a renowned scenic attraction located near Killarney, County Kerry Ireland. They consist of three lakes - Lough Leane, Muckross Lake (also called Middle Lake) and Upper Lake.

Lough Leane (Irish Loch Léin) meaning Lake of Learning is the largest of three lakes. The River Laune drains Lough Leane to the north towards Killorglin and into Dingle Bay

The lakes lie in a mountain ringed valley starting in the Black Valley. The mountains include:

Lakes of Killarney as viewed from Ladies View

Ladies View is a scenic stopping point on the N71 road from Killarney to Kenmare that offers a view of the lakes and valleys.

There are many sites of natural, historic and religious interest on the lakes which are mostly contained in the surrounding Killarney National Park. One the shores lie Ross Castle, Muckross Abbey and Muckross House. On Lough Leane is Innisfallen Island.

Ross Island, a peninsula on the Eastern side of Lough Leane, is the site copper mines dating back 4000 years to the Bronze Age, the earliest known copper mines in the British Isles. The area was also extensively mined in the early 19th Century by the Herbert family of Muckross House.

Muckross Pensinula, which separates Lough Leane from Muckross Lake, contains one of the few Yew woods in Europe.

The lakes are renowned for their trout fisheries. Live Images of he Lakes of Killarney with Castle and Mountain Views: http://www.vacationkillarney.com/webcam.htm

 

The lakes from nearby Torc Mountain

External links

Killarney National Park (Irish: Páirc Náisiúnta Chill Airne) is located beside Killarney, County Kerry, Ireland. It was one of the first national parks of the Irish state initially formed by the donation of the Muckross Estate in 1932 by Senator Arthur Vincent and his parents-in-law Mr. and Mrs. William Bowers Bourn.

The original 40 km² Bourn Vincent Memorial Park (formerly Muckross Estate) has been substantially added to in later years most notably with land of the Earl of Kenmare's estate. The park now encompasses 103 km² of mountains, woodland and the lakes of Killarney.

Killarney National Park viewed from Torc Mountain

The National Park has Ireland's only herd of Red Deer in addition to Japanese Sika Deer which were introduced into the area.

Ladies' View provides a good view of the Lakes including the Gap of Dunloe, the Black Valley and Ross Castle.

Muckross House and its surrounding gardens are included in the Park.

See also

External links

 

Muckross House

 

Muckross House, Killarney, County Kerry

Muckross House (Irish: Theach Mhucrois) is located on the small Muckross Peninsula between Muckross Lake and Lough Leane, two of the lakes of Killarney, 6 km from the town of Killarney in County Kerry, Ireland.

Muckross House is a mansion designed by the Scottish architect, William Burn, that was built in 1843 for Henry Arthur Herbert and his wife, the watercolourist Mary Balfour Herbert. With 65 rooms, it was built in the Tudor style. Extensive improvements were undertaken in the 1850s in preparation for the visit of Queen Victoria in 1861. It is said that these improvements for the Queen's visit were a contributory factor in the financial difficulties suffered by the Herbert family which consequenced in the sale of the estate.

Killarney National Park (Irish: Páirc Náisiúnta Chill Airne) was formed principally from a donation of Muckross Estate, which was presented to the state in 1932 by Senator Arthur Vincent and his parents-in-law Mr. and Mrs. William Bowers Bourn, in memory of Senator Vincent's late wife, Maud. The park was substantially expanded by acquisition of land from the former Earl of Kenmare's estate.

The house, gardens and traditional farms are all open to the public with guided tours of the house's rooms.

External links

The Black Valley in County Kerry, is a remote location in the MacGillycuddys Reeks situated south of the Gap of Dunloe and north of Moll's Gap. The valley is also part of the Kerry Way, a walkers version of the Ring of Kerry beginning and ending in Killarney.

The valley is also noted for being the last place in Ireland to be connected to the electricity and telephone networks due to its remoteness.

Aghadoe is a large townland overlooking the town and lakes of Killarney in Ireland. Officially it is also a parish, although the parish is larger than the area normally associated with the name. The area is famous for its views of the lakes and islands, including Innisfallen Island. The ruins of 13th century Parkavonear Castle and of the old Romanesque church ruins make the spot popular with tourists and archeologists.

Aghadoe takes its name from Acha Da Eo, which is Irish for "The place of the two yew trees". (It was traditional for church yards to have only one yew tree).

St. Mary's Cathedral, Killarney, Co. Kerry, Ireland

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St. Mary's Cathedral, Killarney

The diocese of Kerry, or Ardfert and Ahadoe as it is sometimes called, was ruled by vicars apostolic from the mid-16th century until the early 18th century, with the exception of a brief few years in the 1640s. The 18th century Bishops of Kerry resided at Dingle, Kilcummin, Tuogh, Listowel and Tralee, from 1720 until 1775. In the latter years Bishop Francis Moylan (1775-87) established the see at Killarney. Before the construction of Killarney cathedral there was a small chapel in Chapel Lane, of which the font survives in the baptistery of the present cathedral. The idea of building a cathedral was begun by Fr. Joseph O’Sullivan, curate of Dingle, who roused the enthusiasm of Bishop Cornelius Egan (1824-1856) and the 2nd Earl of Kenmare (1788-1853), a local Catholic landowner.

Site and funding

A subscription list was opened in 1828, and a building committee was formed in 1836; Fr. O’Sullivan was transferred to Killarney in that year and placed in charge of the committee. By 1840 they had collected only £900, but, undaunted, they commissioned Augustus Welby Pugin to design a new cathedral. His design drew some inspiration from the ancient ruined cathedral at Ardfert, most notably in the slender triple lancets in the east wall, which are repeated in the west wall and in each transept. Killarney was Pugin's personal homage to his favourite cathedral, Salisbury Cathedral.

A site was acquired from the Presentation Brothers, and the foundation stone was laid in the summer of 1842. Funds were still short, and public appeals were made in Ireland and the US. Work continued under the supervision of Richard Pierce of Wexford (Pugin being unable to undertake personal supervision) until May 1848 when the full effects of the failure of the potato crops in 1846 and 1847 were felt and the Great Famine spread throughout Ireland. No work was done for five years, and during that time the two men who had done so much to produce the cathedral, both died. Fr. O’Sullivan died in Oct. 1851, and Pugin in September 1852.

Construction

Construction was resumed at the beginning of 1853, and J. J. McCarthy succeeded Pugin as architect. Two years later, the total cost having risen to £20,000, the cathedral was free of debt, substantially complete, and ready for divine worship.

On 22 August 1855 it was consecrated and dedicated to the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the presence of McCarthy and Edward Pugin, the architect’s eldest son, who said later that of all the sixty-odd churches designed by his father, Killarney had been his father’s favourite.

Bishop Egan, now elderly and frail, had been taken to the cathedral in a chair on the previous day and was moved to tears when he surveyed the building that he had helped to begin twenty-seven years earlier.

Description

It is built in the first period of the pointed style known as Lancet arched Gothic, and is noted for its long, slender lancet windows and its acutely pointed arches. So beautifully proportioned are all its parts, and so strikingly majestic, that it has been mentioned as the finest specimen of revised Gothic in these islands. Interiorly the Church has a very solemn and devotional appearance, the lofty windows admitting a soft, spectral light. The pointed arches, resting on circular shafts of plain, chiselled limestone, with simple Doric capitals, add stateliness to the structure, while those of the tower, rising almost to the roof, are awe- inspiring in their height and massiveness.

Although the cathedral was now usable for worship, it was still unfinished. Pugin’s design for a great central tower was left for future generations to build. An organ was installed in 1869 and minor additions were made by Bishop Egan’s successors, but the final effort began in 1907. Bishop John Mangan sent priests to the US and to Australia to raise funds to complete the work begun in 1842. The firm of George Ashlin and Thomas Coleman, who had designed Cobh Cathedral, were appointed to complete the work of Pugin and McCarthy. The nave and aisles were extended westwards by 8.2m to create two new bays; a new sacristy and mortuary were built; pinnacles were added to the flanking turrets at the west end, and a pinnacle at the east end to join one already there; the crossing piers were strengthened, and a great tower and spire, 86.8m high, were constructed above at a cost of £36,500. The work was completed and the cathedral finished in 1912.

Killarney Cathedral is set in spacious grounds on a level site reminiscent of the plain of Salisbury Cathedral. Pugin used grey, red and brown sandstone with dressings of limestone. This creamy exterior contrasts with the grey of the slate roof, spire and pinnacles and gives the cathedral a softer appearance than it might otherwise have had. The plan is cruciform, with an aisled nave of six bays, clerestory, transepts and an aisled chancel of four bays. The former baptistery, off the north nave aisle, has a double font, mosaic work and a coffered vault with stencil design. The former Mortuary Chapel, off the south nave aisle, lacks the original floor. The gallery at the west end of the nave contains an organ by Telford & Son, erected in 1869. In the early 1970’s it was rebuilt and divided, to reveal the lower part of the west window.

Re-ordering

Bishop Eamonn Casey (1969-76) launched a fund-raising campaign in December 1970 for the restoration and re-ordering of the Cathedral. The work lasted from April 1972 until July 1973 and the total cost was £278,500. The designer was Ray Carroll of Glencullen, Co. Dublin, and the supervising architect was Daniel J. Kennedy of Tralee. Carroll adopted a very radical and much-criticised approach to the re-ordering of the Cathedral, and apart from a few small areas, nothing of the former interior remains to be seen. The greatest single change was the removal of all the internal Victorian plasterwork. The original reredos, altar and screens were removed, the floor of the crossing was raised to the level of the former sanctuary, and a new sanctuary was created at the crossing. A new altar, pulpit, throne and chairs, all made of Tasmanian oak, were installed. A new font consisting of a limestone bowl was fitted into the angle between the south-west pier of the crossing and the first pier of the south nave arcade. In the north transept the former St. Patrick’s Altar was removed.

The north chancel aisle was formerly the Chapel of St. Joseph. It was emptied during the re-ordering, and the only indication of its former use is the rather sad plaque on the easternmost column, recording the fact that the chapel was ‘decorated and fitted for divine service’ by John Morrogh Bernard and Francis Maria Raymond, who had bequeathed the five-acre site on which the cathedral stands to the Presentation Brothers. The proposal to build the cathedral technically invalidated the bequest. Bernard stood to inherit the land in the case of such invalidation, but in a rare act of generosity, he drew up new leases, allowing the site to be used for the cathedral. As one author has noted, ‘It is one of the sadder results of the renovation that this plaque is all that remains to commemorate him and his family’.

Ross Castle

Ross Castle is the ancestral home of the O'Donoghue clan. It is located on the edge of Lough Leane, in Killarney National Park, County Kerry, Ir

Ross Castle was built in the late 1400s by local ruling clan the O'Donoghues, though ownership changed hands during the Desmond Rebellion of the 1580s. The castle was amongst the last to surrender to Cromwellian's Roundheads during the Irish Confederate Wars, and was only taken when artillery was brought by boat via the river lane.

The castle is typical of stronghold of Irish chieftain buIlt during the middle ages. The tower house had square bartizans on diagonally opposite corners and a thick end wall. The tower was originally surrounded by a square bawn defended by round corner towers on each end.

There is a legend that O’Donoghue leaped or was sucked out of the window of the grand chamber at the top of the castle and disappeared into the waters of the lake along with his horse, his table and his library. It is said that O’Donoghue now lives in a great palace at the bottom of the lake where he keeps a close eye on everything that he sees.


It is possible to go on boat-trips on the lake leaving from Ross Castle during the summer. Some of the smaller boats will allow you to visit Innisfallen Island on the lake during the summer. Ross Castle is located along the Ring of Kerry, a scenic driving route, and the Kerry Way, a similar hiking path.

Muckross Abbey


Muckross Abbey is one of the major ecclesiastical sites found in the Killarney National Park. It was founded in 1448 as a Franciscan Friary for the Observantine Franciscans by Donal McCarthy Mor.

It has had a violent history, and has been damaged and reconstructed many times. The Friars were often persecuted and subjected to raids by marauding groups. Today the Abbey is largely roofless, although apart from this is generally quite well preserved. Its most striking feature is a central courtyard which contains a large yew tree and is surrounded by a vaulted cloister.

The cloistered courtyard of Muckross Abbey

In the 17th and 18th centuries it became the burial place for some prominent County Kerry poets, O'Donoghue, O'Rathaille and O'Suilleabhain.

Innisfallen Island

Innisfallen Island is an island found in Lough Leane, one of the three Lakes of Killarney in the Republic of Ireland.

It is home to the ruins of Innisfallen Abbey, one of the most impressive archaeological remains dating from the early Christian period found in the Killarney National Park. The monastery was founded in the 7th century by St. Finian the Leper, and was occupied for approximately 700 years. Over a period of about 300 of these, the Annals of Innisfallen were written, which chronicle the early history of Ireland as it was known to the monks.

The location of the monastery on the island is thought to have given rise to the name Lough Leane (Irish Loch Léin), which means "Lake of Learning".

Dr. Crokes



Dr. Crokes is a Gaelic Football club based in Killarney in County Kerry. Famous current players include Colm "Gooch" Cooper and Eoin Brosnan.

Dr. Crokes are the most successful GAA team in Killarney and its surrounding environs, with their most notable triumph being the capture of the All-Ireland Senior Club Football Championship in 1992 along with the Munster Club Championship in 1991 and 1992. The club has also won the Kerry Senior Football Championship on 5 separate occasions, the last being in 2000.

The Dr Crokes are the only club in Killarney with a Hurling team, this team has had 2 notable successes; winning the Kerry Intermediate Hurling Championship in 1999 and 2001.

Dr. Crokes lost the 2005 and 2006 football finals to South Kerry.

Dr. Crokes' Trainer Pat O'Shea has been selected to train the Kerry Senior Football team for the 2007 Season.

2006 Season

Dr. Crokes reached the Kerry County Championship in 2006 after victories against Kenmare, Milltown/Castlemaine and Mid Kerry, but lost by a single point to South Kerry.

Dr. Crokes represent Kerry in the 2006 All Ireland Club Championship due to them being the last club team remaining in the County Championship.

On November 26th they defeated Nemo Rangers of Cork by 2-10 to 10 pts, the first time that a Kerry team had ever defeated Nemo in the Club Championship.

They won the Munster Club Championship title on December 10th courtesy of a narrow 2-05 to 0-08 victory against The Nire of Waterford.

The Crokes defeated Great Britain Champions St. Brendan's of London in Ruislip on January 28th by 2-12 to 0-05 courtesy of two second half penalties by Colm Cooper.

Dr. Crokes will play Moorefield, the Kildare and Leinster Champions, in the All Ireland Club Semi Final in Limerick on February 18th.

[edit] History

Dr. Crokes was founded in 1886. Many members were involved in politics and a lot of them ended up in English prisons. One of the first notable players was Dick Fitzgerald who was a huge part of the team that brought the first All-Ireland title to the Kingdom in 1903. Another notable club member of that time is Eugene O'Sullivan, a nationalist M.P., who became chairman of the Kerry county board and it was during his rule that Kerry won 4 more of the any All-Ireland titles.

A total of 77 senior All Ireland medals have been won to date by Dr Croke players.

In addition to the Kerry players, Dr. Crokes Dr. Eamon O’Sullivan, coached and trained Kerry All Ireland winning teams, beginning in 1924, and ending in 1962.

Dr. Crokes have owned four playing fields; the first being in The Cricket Field, Flesk Bridge which was used up to the 1930's. In 1936 Fitzgerald Stadium was built by the club members in memory of Dr. Croke and Kerry GAA legend Dick Fitzgerald. The past 20 years two new playing complexes have been acquired and developed by the club at Deerpark and Lewis Rd. to cater for the ever increasing number of members.

Fr. Tom Looney, when writing of the Clubs early years, said that the senior team had played tournaments and challenges before the County Board was formed. He also stated that the Club captain – John Langford – was one of the committee members at the inaugural meeting of the Kerry county board and that the Club lost the first Kerry County final to Laune Rangers, in what all agreed was the finest match ever witnessed.

Another County final was lost in 1900 before the beginning of a glorious spell when their deeds spread far and wide, and they became known as the Clean Air Boys, or Dickeen Fitz’s (Dick Fitzgerald) team. Four county championships in a sixteen –year run including 3- in- a- row 1912,1913 and 1914 followed.

The club did go into decline, having very lean times on the football field in the 1930’s, 40’s and early 50’s, which was surprising because they could still call on some top class players – three county players at any given time, and the administration was well organized.

In the 1950's becoming once again the dominant team in East Kerry, winning ten O’Donoghue Cup’s in another fifteen year spell, but unfortunately failing in the final stages of the County Championship. Maybe no great success in winning for a few years after, but this time the standard was held, and entering the 1980’s with a youth policy in place for some years , everyone had hopes for a repeat of the early glory years – this time they were not disappointed.

Everything seemed to come right in the centennial (1986), when the Dr. Crokes were again performing against the best and winning –County Intermediate, County Club Championship, County League, a set back again in two County Finals, but eventually going on to become Kerry County Champions, Munster Club Champions on two occasions, and then the ultimate prize – the All Ireland Club Championship, won in Croke Park on St. Patrick's Day 1992.

Hurling, which played such an important role within the club in the 1920’s, and 30’s and 40’s, was revived and organized in the centennial year. In a short time they have made a huge impact – winning East Kerry competitions, County League Division 3, and were crowned Intermediate Champions of Kerry for 1999 and again in 2000 .

Camogie was a game which the Dr. Croke ladies were very proficient in during the 1920/1930's. Now the ladies are very much into the football, showing the same expertise and skill and forging a name for themselves in the County and already under age players have gone on to represent Kerry and have won All Ireland medals at under 14’s and 16’s.

Dr. Crokes have three Senior teams – A,B & C, an under 21, minor, under 16’s,14’s,12’s, and coaching every Saturday mornings for under 6,8, &10’s.

Books

Dr. Crokes clubmen have published 5 Gaelic Football related books:

  • Dick Fitzgerald's: How to play Gaelic Football (1914)
  • Dr. Eamonn O'Sullivan: The Art and Science of Gaelic Football (1958)
  • Club History: Dr. Crokes Gaelic Century (1886-1986)
  • Club History: Decade of Glory 1986-1996
  • Pat O’Shea’s: Gaelic Football, Training Drills (1996).

Notable Players

A few of the notable Dr. Crokes players who got All-Ireland medals with the Kerry GAA team are:

  • Paul Russell
  • Dee O’Connor
  • Tim O’Donnell
  • Bill Landers
  • Murt Kelly
  • Billy Myers
  • Teddy O’Connor
  • Dan Kavanagh
  • Tadhgie Lyne
  • Tom Long
  • Donie Sullivan

Other notable members

  • Jerry O’Leary, Kerry Selector on many occasions, football historian, very much involved in the purchase of Croke Park
  • Michael O’Connor’s, a man who made a huge contribution to the Fitzgerald Stadium, the playing fields of Kerry, while Chairman of Kerry’s Bord na bPairc, and as treasurer and Chairman of the Munster Council.
  • John Langford
  • Archbishop Dr Croke Patron
  • Maurice Francis O’Leary
  • Jack O'Keeffe - Club Patron and winner of All-Ireland Minor medal in 1931
  • John Moynihan - Club President
  • Andy Mulcahy
  • Dick Fitzgerald
  • Jer O'Leary
  • Paddy Looney
  • Teddy O'Connor
  • Paddy Sexton
  • Michael O'Connor
  • Nellie Kavanagh - Club Vice-President
  • Bridie O'Shea - Club Vice-President
  • Eddie Barry
  • Colm Cooper

Roll of Honour

See also

External links

Gaelic football (Irish: Peil or Caid ), commonly referred to as "football", "Gaelic" or "GAA ('gah')", is a form of football played mainly in Ireland. It along with Hurling are the most popular spectator sports in Ireland[1] .

Gaelic football is played by teams of 15 on a rectangular grass pitch with H-shaped goals at each end. The primary object is to score by pushing the ball through the goals. The team with the highest score at the end of the match wins.

A child kicks a gaelic football

Players advance the ball up the field with a combination of carrying, soloing (dropping and then toe-kicking the ball upward into the hands), kicking, and hand-passing to their team-mates.

Gaelic football is one of four Gaelic Games run by the Gaelic Athletic Association, the largest and most popular organization in Ireland. It has strict rules on player amateurism and the pinnacle of the sport is the inter county All-Ireland Football Final. The game is believed to have descended from ancient Irish football known as caid which date back to 1537, although the modern game took shape in 1887.

Rules


Playing field

The grass pitch is rectangular, stretching 130–145 meters long and 80–90 meters wide. There are H-shaped goalposts at each end with a net on the bottom section. The same pitch is used for hurling; the GAA, which organizes both sports, decided this to facilitate dual usage. Lines are marked at distances of 13m, 20m and 45m from each end-line. Shorter pitches and smaller goals are used by under-13s.

Duration

At intercounty level, Gaelic football matches last for 70 minutes, divided into two halves. At club level, the game is sixty minutes long.

Teams

Teams consist of fifteen players (a goalkeeper, two corner backs, a full back, three half backs, two mid fielders, three half forwards, two corner forwards and a full forward) plus up to fifteen substitutes, of which five may be used. Each player is numbered 1–15, starting with the goalkeeper, who must wear a different coloured jersey.

Positions

Further information: Gaelic football and Hurling positions

The ball

The game is played with a round leather football, similar to a soccer ball, but heavier, and with horizontal stitching rather than the hexagon and pentagon panels often used on soccer balls, and similar in appearance to a standard volleyball. It may be kicked or hand passed. A hand pass is not a punch but rather a strike of the ball with the side of the closed fist, using the knuckle of the thumb.


The following are considered technical fouls ("fouling the ball"):

  • Picking the ball directly off the ground
  • Throwing the ball
  • Going four steps without releasing, bouncing or soloing the ball. (Soloing involves kicking the ball into one's own hands)
  • Bouncing the ball twice in a row
  • Hand passing the ball over an opponent's head, then running around him to catch it
  • Hand passing a goal (the ball may be punched into the goal from up in the air, however)
  • Square ball, an often controversial rule: If, at the moment the ball enters the small rectangle, there is already an attacking player inside the small rectangle, then a free out is awarded.
  • Changing hands: Taking the ball from your right-hand to left or vice-versa.

Scoring

If the ball goes over the crossbar, a point is scored and a white flag is raised by an umpire. If the ball goes below the crossbar, a goal, worth three points, is scored, and a green flag is raised by an umpire. The goal is guarded by a goalkeeper. Scores are recorded in the format {goal total}-{point total}. For example, the 1991 All-Ireland semi-final finished: Meath 0-15 Roscommon 1-11. Thus Meath won "fifteen points to one-eleven" (1-11 being worth 14 points).

Tackling

The level of tackling allowed is more robust than in football (soccer), but less than rugby. The tackling rule has been criticised for being too vague.

Shoulder-charging and wrestling or slapping the ball out of an opponent's hand is permitted, but the following are all fouls:

  • using both hands to tackle
  • pushing an opponent
  • deliberately striking an opponent
  • pulling an opponent's jersey
  • blocking a shot with the foot
  • sliding tackles
  • touching the goalkeeper when he is inside the small rectangle

Restarting play

  • The match begins with the referee throwing the ball up between the four mid fielders.
  • After an attacker has put the ball wide of the goals, the goalkeeper may take a kick out from the ground at the edge of the small square. All players must be beyond the 20m line.
  • After an attacker has scored, the goalkeeper may take a kick out from the ground from the 20m line. All players must be beyond the 20m line and outside the semicircle.
  • After a defender has put the ball wide of the goals, an attacker may take a "45" from the ground on the 45m line level with where the ball went wide.
  • After a player has put the ball over the sideline, the other team may take a sideline kick at the point where the ball left the pitch. It may be kicked from the ground or the hands.
  • After a player has committed a foul, the other team may take a free kick at the point where the foul was committed. It may be kicked from the ground or the hands.
  • After a defender has committed a foul inside the large rectangle, the other team may take a penalty kick from the ground from the center of the 13m line. Only the goalkeeper may guard the goals.
  • If many players are struggling for the ball and it is not clear who was fouled first, the referee may choose to throw the ball up between two opposing players.

Officials

A Gaelic football match is watched over by eight officials:

  • The referee
  • Two linesmen
  • Sideline official/Standby linesman (inter-county games only)
  • Four umpires (two at each end)

The referee is responsible for starting and stopping play, recording the score, awarding frees and booking and sending off players.

Linesmen are responsible for indicating the direction of line balls to the referee.

The fourth official is responsible for overseeing substitutions, and also indicating the amount of stoppage time (signalled to him by the referee) and the players substituted using an electronic board.

The umpires are responsible for judging the scoring. They indicate to the referee whether a shot was: wide (spread both arms), a 45m kick (raise one arm), a point (wave white flag), square ball (cross arms) or a goal (wave green flag).

All officials are also required to indicate to the referee, foul play or other misdemeanours he may have missed, but unfortunately this is a rare occurrence. The referee can over-rule any decision by a linesman or umpire.

Dissatisfaction with officials is common in Gaelic football. Referees are often criticised for leniency and inconsistency (particularly with regard to the "square ball" rule, sending players off, and dissent), not seeing fouls, and playing an inordinate amount of stoppage time at the end of games (said to be hoping the losing team gets a draw). A common (but untrue) urban legend refers to a referee who was locked in the boot of a car after a Wicklow club game by unimpressed players. A macho attitude, which is similar to that which prevails in Australian rules football, does nothing to enhance the image of the game which strives to attract young people in preference to soccer and rugby where discipline is more rigidly applied.

History

The first mention of football in Ireland is found in 1308, where John McCrocan, a spectator at a football game at Newcastle, County Dublin was charged with accidentally stabbing a player named William Bernard.

The Statute of Galway of 1527 allowed the playing of "foot balle" and archery but banned "'hokie' [sic] — the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves" as well as other sports. However even "foot-ball" was banned by the severe Sunday Observance Act of 1695, which imposed a fine of one shilling (a substantial amount at the time) for those caught playing sports. It proved difficult, if not impossible for the authorities to enforce the Act and the earliest recorded inter-county match in Ireland was one between Louth and Meath, at Slane, in 1712.

By the early 19th century, various football games, referred to collectively as caid, were popular in Kerry , especially the Dingle Peninsula. Father W. Ferris described two forms of caid: the "field game" in which the object was to put the ball through arch-like goals, formed from the boughs of two trees, and; the epic "cross-country game" which lasted the whole of a Sunday (after mass) and was won by taking the ball across a parish boundary. "Wrestling", "holding" opposing players, and carrying the ball were all allowed.

During the 1860s and 1870s, Rugby and Association football started to become popular in Ireland. Trinity College, Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby, and the rules of the English Football Association were codified in 1863 and distributed widely. By this time, according to Gaelic football historian Jack Mahon, even in the Irish countryside, caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which even allowed tripping.

Irish forms of football were not formally arranged into an organised playing code by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) until 1887. The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject "foreign" (particularly English) imports. The first Gaelic football rules, showing the influence of hurling and a desire to differentiate from association football — for example in their lack of an offside rule — were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on February 7, 1887.

Ladies' Gaelic football has become increasingly popular with women since the 1970s.

The relationship between Gaelic football and Australian rules football

While it is clear even to casual observers that Gaelic football is similar to Australian rules football, the exact relationship is unclear, or even controversial. The Australian historian B. W. O'Dwyer suggests that there is circumstantial evidence that traditional Irish games influenced the founders of Australian rules.[2] O'Dwyer argued that both Gaelic football and Australian rules are distinct from rugby in elements such as the lack of a limitation on ball or player movement — the absence of an offside rule. It has not been shown that other common elements of Gaelic and Australian rules, such as the need to bounce or solo (toe-kick) the ball while running and punching the ball (hand-passing) rather than throwing it were also elements of caid. For example, the requirement that players bounce the ball while running was not in the first Victorian rules (1859). There is no conclusive evidence to prove a direct influence of caid on Australian rules football.

Other unofficial accounts suggest that a relationship may have originated from the opposite direction: Archbishop Thomas Croke, one of the founders of the GAA, lived in New Zealand in the early 1880s and had the opportunity to witness Victorian Rules played there. Like Australian rules, the Irish football games of the 1880s allowed players to grab or push each other. If Croke was influenced by Australasian rules, the two games were soon developing and diverging in isolation from each other.

In 1967, following approaches from Australian rules football authorities, there was a series of games between an Irish representative team and an Australian team, under various sets of hybrid, compromise rules. In 1984, the first official representative matches of International rules football were played, and the Ireland international rules football team now plays the Australian team annually each October.

Since the 1980s, some Gaelic players, such as Jim Stynes and Tadhg Kennelly, have been recruited by AFL clubs and have had lengthy careers with them.

Team of the Millennium

This was a team chosen in 1999 by a panel of GAA past presidents and journalists. The goal was to single out the best ever 15 players who had played the game in their respective positions, since the foundation of the GAA in 1884 up to the Millennium year, 2000. Naturally many of the selections were hotly debated by fans around the country.

 

 

 

Goalkeeper

 

 

Dan O'Keefe
(Kerry)

 

 

 

 

Right Corner Back

Full Back

Left Corner Back

 

Enda Colleran
(Galway)

Joe Keohane
(Kerry)

Seán Flanagan
(Mayo)

 

 

 

 

 

Right Half Back

Centre Back

Left Half Back

 

Sean Murphy
(Kerry)

J.J. O'Reilly
(Cavan)

Martin O'Connell
(Meath)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Midfield

 

 

Mick O'Connell
(Kerry)

 

Tommy Murphy
(Laois)

 

 

 

 

 

Right Half Forward

Centre Forward

Left Half Forward

 

Pat Spillane
(Kerry)

Seán Purcell
(Galway)

Seán O'Neill
(Down)

 

 

 

 

 

Right Corner Forward

Full Forward

Left Corner Forward

 

 

 

 

 

Mikey Sheehy
(Kerry)

Tommy Langan
(Mayo)

Kevin Heffernan
(Dublin)

 

Leagues and team structure

All Gaelic sports are amateur; easing the strictness with which this is interpreted is advocated by the Gaelic Players Association.

The basic unit of each game is organised at the club level, which is usually arranged on a parish basis, with various local clubs playing to win the County Championship at various levels:

  • Senior: the better adult clubs
  • Intermediate: junior champions compete in this the following season
  • Junior: weaker adult clubs, from small communities
  • Under-21
  • Minor: under-18
  • Under-age: all ages from under-17 down to under-9

On a national level, the team is organised on the old Irish county system 1, producing 34 teams representing the original 32 counties that cover the island of Ireland, plus teams representing the Irish diaspora in London and New York. Splitting Dublin into North and South due to its enormous population has been considered, but is unlikely to happen any time soon. There are also clubs in other parts of the USA, Britain, Asia, Australia, continental Europe and Canada (see ClubGAA link at bottom).

Though Ireland was partitioned into two states in 1920, Gaelic sports (like most cultural organisations and all religions) continue to be organised on an all-island basis.

A team of 15 players plus substitutes is formed from the best players playing at club level.

Nearly all counties play against each other in a knock-out tournament known as the All Ireland Championship.

These modified knock-out games are organised on the four Irish provinces of Ulster, Munster, Lenister and Connacht.

In the past, the best team from each would play one of the others, at a stage known as the All-Ireland semi-finals, with the winning team from each game playing each other in the All-Ireland Final.

A recent re-organisation now provides a 'back door' method of qualifying, with knocked out teams getting another chance to win back into the competition.

County teams also compete in the National Football League, held every spring. The League is nowhere near as prestigious as the All-Ireland, but in recent years attendances have grown and interest, from the public and from players, has grown. This is due in part to the organisation of the league into the above format, the provision of the Division 2 final stages and the relatively new change of starting the league in February rather than November. Live matches are shown on the Irish-language TV station TG4, with highlights shown on RTE2. In 2006, Kerry won the Division 1 title for the 18th time defeating Galway in the final. Louth defeated Donegal to win the Division 2 title.

The All Ireland Final

The final game of the inter-county series is the All Ireland Final which takes place on the fourth Sunday of September in Croke Park. Before 1999, the final was held on the third Sunday of the month, but this custom was changed due to an overloaded schedule of matches.

Over the four Sundays of September, All Ireland Finals in men's football, women's football, hurling and camogie take place in Croke Park, the national stadium of the GAA, with the men's decider regularly attracting crowds of over 80,000. Guests who attend include Uachtarán na hÉireann, An Taoiseach and leading dignitaries.

Two levels of the game are played at each All Ireland, the Senior team and the Minor team (consisting of younger players, under the age of 18, who have played their own Minor All-Ireland competition.)

The winning senior county football team receives the Sam Maguire cup. The most successful county in the history of Gaelic football is Kerry, with 34 All-Ireland wins, followed by Dublin, with 22 wins.

In 2006, Kerry took the Men's Senior Football Championship, defeating Mayo in the final, with Roscommon winning the Minor equivalent.

See also

References

Jack Mahon, 2001, A History of Gaelic Football Dublin: Gill & Macmillan. (ISBN 0-7171-3279-X)

Footnotes

  1. ^ GAA attendance figures. Retrieved on 2006-11-27.
  2. ^ B. W. O'Dwyer, March 1989, "The Shaping of Victorian Rules Football", Victorian Historical Journal, v.60, no.1.

External links

Hurling (in Irish, iománaíocht or iomáint) is an outdoor team sport of Celtic origin, administered by the Gaelic Athletic Association, and played with sticks and a ball. The game, played primarily in Ireland, is arguably the world's fastest field team sport in terms of game play. One of Ireland's native Gaelic Games, it shares a number of features with Gaelic football, such as the field and goals, number of players, and much terminology. There is a similar game for women called camogie.

The object of the game is for players to use a wooden axe-shaped stick called a hurley to hit a small ball between the opponents' goalposts either over the crossbar for one point, or under the crossbar into a net guarded by a goalkeeper for three points.

The ball can be caught in the hand and carried for not more than four steps, struck in the air, or struck on the ground with the stick. It can be kicked or slapped with an open hand (the hand pass) for short-range passing. A player who wants to carry the ball for more than three steps has to bounce or balance the ball on the end of the stick, and the ball can only be handled twice while in his possession.

Side to side shouldering is allowed although Body-checking or shoulder-charging is illegal. There is no padding, and a plastic protective helmet with faceguard is recommended but not mandatory for players over 21.

Statistics


  • A team comprises 15 players, or "hurlers."
  • The hurley or camán is generally 70–100 cm (32–36 inches) in length
  • The ball, known as a sliotar, is made of leather and 6.5 cm (2.5 inches) in diameter.
  • The goalkeeper's hurley has a bas twice the size of other players' hurleys to provide some advantage against the fast moving sliotar.
  • A good strike with a stick can propel the ball up to 150 km/h (93 mph) in speed and 100 m (305 ft) in distance.

Rules

Playing Field


The pitch is of grass and rectangular, stretching 130-150 metres long and 80–90 metres wide. There are H-shaped goalposts at each end with a net on the bottom section. The same pitch is used for Gaelic football; the GAA, which organises both sports, decided this to facilitate dual usage. Lines are marked at 13 m, 20 m and 65 m from each end-line. Shorter pitches and smaller goals are used by under-13s and younger.

Teams

See also: Gaelic football and Hurling positions

Teams consist of fifteen players and they line out as below:

The panel is made up of 24-30 players and 5 substitutions are allowed per game.

Timekeeping

Senior inter-county matches last 70 minutes (35 minutes a half). All other matches last 60 minutes (30 minutes a half). For age groups of under-13 or lower, games may be shortened to 50 minutes. Timekeeping is at the discretion of the referee who adds on stoppage time at the end of each half.

If a knockout game finishes in a draw, a replay is played. If a replay finishes in a draw, 20 minutes (10 minutes a side) extra time is played. If the game is still tied, another replay is played.

In club competitions replays are increasingly not used due to the fixture backlogs caused. Instead, extra time is played after a draw, and if the game is still level after that it will go to a replay.

In inter-County matches there has been a call for a dedicated time keeper, as referees can often be accused of playing enough extra time for the purpose of a draw. As draws are replayed, it constitutes a huge capital gain for the G.A.A.

Technical Fouls

The following are considered technical fouls ("fouling the ball"):

  • Picking the ball directly off the ground
  • Throwing the ball
  • Going four steps with the ball in the hand. It may be bounced or carried on the hurley though.
  • Catching the ball three times in a row without it touching the ground (touching the hurley does not count)
  • Putting the ball from one hand to the other
  • Hand-passing a goal or point
  • Throwing the hurley
  • Square ball, an often controversial rule: If, at the moment the ball is played towards the goal, there is already an attacking player inside the small rectangle, a free out is awarded.

Scoring

Scoring is achieved by sending the sliotar (ball) between the opposition's goal posts. The posts, which are at each end of the field, are "H" posts as in rugby football but with a net under the crossbar as in soccer. The posts are seven yards (6.37 m) apart and the crossbar is seven feet (2.12 m) above the ground.

If the ball goes over the crossbar, a point is scored and a white flag is raised by an umpire. If the ball goes below the crossbar, a goal, worth three points, is scored, and a green flag is raised by an umpire. The goal is guarded by a goalkeeper. Scores are recorded in the format {goal total} - {point total}. For example, the 1997 All-Ireland final finished: Clare 0-20 Tipperary 2-13. Thus Clare won by "twenty points to two thirteen" (20 to 19). 2-0 would be referred to as "two goals", never "two zero". 0-0 is said "no score".

Tackling

Players may be tackled but not struck by a one handed slash of the stick; exceptions are two handed jabs and strikes. Jersey-pulling, wrestling, pushing and tripping are all forbidden. There are several forms of acceptable tackling, the most popular being:

  • the block, where one player attempts to smother an opposing players strike by trapping the ball between his hurley and the opponent's swinging hurley;
  • the hook, where a player approaches another player from a rear angle and attempts to catch the opponent's hurley with his own at the top of the swing; and
  • the side pull, where two players running together for the sliotar will collide at the shoulders and swing together to win the tackle.

Restarting play

  • The match begins with the referee throwing the sliotar in between the four midfielders on the halfway line.
  • After an attacker has scored or put the ball wide of the goals, the goalkeeper may take a puckout from the hand at the edge of the small square. All players must be beyond the 20 m line.
  • After a defender has put the ball wide of the goals, an attacker may take a "65" from the 65 m line level with where the ball went wide. It must be taken by lifting and striking. However, the ball must not be taken into the hand but struck whilst the ball is lifted.
  • After a player has put the ball over the sideline, the other team may take a sideline puck at the point where the ball left the pitch. It must be taken from the ground.
  • After a player has committed a foul, the other team may take a free at the point where the foul was committed. It must be taken by lifting and striking in the same style as the " 65 ".
  • After a defender has committed a foul inside the large rectangle, the other team may take a penalty from the ground from the centre of the 20 m line. Only the goalkeeper and two defenders may guard the goals. It must be taken by lifting and striking.
  • If many players are struggling for the ball and it is not clear who was fouled first, the referee may choose to throw the ball in between two opposing players.

Officials

A hurling match is watched over by 8 officials:

  • The referee
  • Two linesmen
  • Sideline Official/Standby Linesman (inter-county games only)
  • Four umpires (two at each end)

The referee is responsible for starting and stopping play, recording the score, awarding frees and booking and sending off players.

Linesmen are responsible for indicating the direction of line balls to the referee.
The fourth official is responsible for overseeing substitutions, and also indicating the amount of stoppage time (signalled to him by the referee) and the players substituted using an electronic board. The umpires are responsible for judging the scoring. They indicate to the referee whether a shot was: wide (spread both arms), a 65 m puck (raise one arm), a point (wave white flag), or a goal (wave green flag).

All officials are also supposed to indicate to the referee anything he may have missed, although this is a rare occurrence. The referee can over-rule any decision by a linesman or umpire.

History


Further information: History of Hurling

Hurling is older than recorded history itself. The game is thought to be related to the games of shinty that is played primarily in Scotland, cammag on the Isle of Man and bandy that was played formerly in England and Wales. Fragments of law predating the Brehon Laws refer to hurling and may have been written before AD 400. The tale of the Táin Bó Cuailgne (drawing on earlier legends) describes the hero Cúchulainn playing hurling at Emain Macha. Similar tales are told about Fionn Mac Cumhail and the Fianna, his legendary warrior band. Recorded references to hurling appear in many places such as the 13th century Statutes of Kilkenny and a 15th century grave slab survives in Inishowen, County Donegal [1]

The Eighteenth Century is frequently referred to as "The Golden Age of Hurling." This was when members of the Anglo-Irish landed gentry kept teams of players on their estates and challenged each other's teams to matches for the amusement of their tenants.

The founding of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) in 1884 turned around a trend of terminal decline by organising the game around a common set of written rules. The 20th century saw greater organisation in Hurling and Gaelic Football. The all-Ireland Hurling championship came into existence along with the provincial championships. Cork, Kilkenny and Tipperary dominated hurling in the 20th century with each of these counties winning more than 20 All-Ireland titles each. Wexford, Waterford, Clare, Limerick, Offaly, Dublin, and Galway were also strong hurling counties during the 20th century.

As hurling entered the new millennium, it has remained Ireland's second most popular sport. An extended qualifier system resulted in a longer All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship, but Cork and Kilkenny have come to dominate the championship and some argue that the All-Ireland has become less competitive. Pay-for-play remains controversial and the Gaelic Players Association continues to grow in strength. The inauguration of the Christy Ring Cup and Nicky Rackard Cup gave new championships and an opportunity to play in Croke Park to the weaker county teams.

International

Further information: Hurling Across the World

Although many hurling clubs exist worldwide, only Ireland has a national team. It and the Scotland shinty team have played for many years with modified match rules (as with International Rules Football). The match is the only such international competition. However, competition at club level has been going on around the world since the late nineteenth century thanks to emigration from Ireland, and the strength of the game has ebbed and flowed along with emigration trends. Nowadays, growth in hurling is noted in Continental Europe, Australasia, and North America.

North America

Further information: Canada GAA, New York GAA and North American GAA

References to hurling on the North American continent date from the 1780s in Canada concerning immigrants from County Waterford and County Kilkenny, [2] and also, in New York City. After the end of the American Revolution, references to hurling cease in American newspapers until the aftermath of the Potato Famine when Irish people moved to America in huge numbers, bringing the game with them. [3]

Newspaper reports from the 1850s refer to occasional matches played in San Francisco, Hoboken, and New York City. The first game of hurling played under GAA rules outside of Ireland was played on Boston Common in June 1886.

In 1888, there was an American tour by fifty Gaelic athletes from Ireland, known as the 'American Invasion.' This created enough interest among Irish Americans to lay the groundwork for the North American GAA. By the end of 1889, almost a dozen GAA clubs existed in America, many of them in and around New York City, Philadelphia, and Chicago. Later, clubs were formed in Boston, Cleveland, and many other centers of Irish America.

In 1910, twenty-two hurlers, composed of an equal number from Chicago and New York, conducted a tour of Ireland, where they played against the County teams from Kilkenny, Tipperary, Limerick, Dublin, and Wexford.

Traditionally, hurling was a game played by Irish immigrants and discarded by their children. Many American hurling teams took to raising money to import players directly from Ireland. In recent years, this has changed considerably with the advent of the Internet. Outside of the traditional North American GAA cities of New York, Boston, Chicago, and San Francisco, clubs are springing up in other places where they consist of predominantly American-born players who bring a new dimension to the game and actively seek to promote it as a mainstream sport. [4]

Argentina

Irish immigrants began arriving in Argentina in the 19th century. [5]

The earliest reference to hurling in Argentina dates from the late 1880s in Mercedes, Buenos Aires. However, the game was not actively promoted until 1900 when it came to the attention of author and newspaperman William Bulfin. Under Bulfin's patronage, the Argentine Hurling Club was formed on July 15, 1900, leading to teams being established in different neighborhoods of Buenos Aires and the surrounding farming communities.

Games of hurling were played every weekend until 1914 and received frequent coverage even from Argentina's Spanish language newspapers like La Nacion. After the outbreak of World War I, however, it became very almost impossible to obtain hurleys from Ireland. An attempt was made to use native Argentine mountain ash, but it proved too heavy and lacking in pliability. Although the game was revived after the end of the war, the golden age of Argentine hurling had passed. World War II finally brought the era to its close.

In the aftermath of the Second World War, immigration from Ireland slowed to a trickle. In addition, native born Irish-Argentines assimilated into the local community. The last time that hurling was played in Argentina was in 1980, when the Aer Lingus Hurling Club conducted a three week tour of the country and played matches at several locations. [6] Although the Argentine Hurling Club still exists, it has switched to playing field hockey, rugby, and soccer.

Australia and New Zealand

The earliest reference to hurling in Australia is related in the book "Sketches of Garryowen." On July 12, 1844 a match took place at Batman's Hill in Melbourne as a counterpoint to a march by the Orange Order. Reportedly, the hurling match attracted a crowd of five hundred Irish immigrants, while the Orange march shivered out of existence. [7]

In 1885, a game between two Sydney based teams took place before a crowd of over ten thousand spectators. Reportedly, the contest was greatly enjoyed despite the fact that one newspaper dubbed the game "Two Degrees Safer Than War." [8]

South Africa

Soldiers who served in the Irish Brigade during the Anglo-Boer War are believed to have played the game on the veldt. Immigrants from County Wicklow who had arrived to work in the explosives factory in Umbogintintwini formed a team c. 1915-1916. A major burst of immigration in the 1920s led to the foundation of the Transvaal Hurling Association in Johannesburg in 1928. Games were traditionally played in a pitch on the site of the modern day Johannesburg Central Railway Station every Easter Sunday after Mass.

In 1932, a South African hurling team sailed to Ireland to compete in the Tailteann Games, where they carried a banner donated by a convent of Irish nuns in Cape Town. On their arrival, they were personally received by Ireland's President, Eamonn De Valera.

South African hurling continued to prosper until the outbreak of World War II, which caused immigration from Ireland to cease and made it impossible to import equipment. Games of hurling and Gaelic Football were occasionally sponsored by the Christian Brothers schools in Boksburg and Pretoria well into the 1950s. Both games have all but ceased to be played. [9]

Quotes

"On Christmas Day and during the Christmas season we used to have hurley matches, and the whole village used to be mixed up in the game. Two men would be chosen, one from each side, for captains. Each of them used to call up man by man in turns until all who were on the strand were distributed in the two sides. We had hurleys and a ball. The game was played on the white strand without shoes or stockings, and we went in up to our necks whenever the ball went into the sea. Throughout the Twelve Days of Christmas time there wasn't a man able to drive his cow to the hill for the stiffness of his back and his bones; a pair or so would have a bruised foot, and another would be limping on one leg for a month." --Tomás Ó Criomhthain reminiscing about his youth on Great Blasket Island in the years before the regularisation of hurling rules. From "The Islandman," by Tomas O'Crohan, pages 133-134.

Major hurling competitions


Further information: GAA_Competitions

Notable former players

Notable present players

References

  1. ^ Roger Hutchinson, "Camanachd! The Story of Shinty," pages 27, 28.
  2. ^ Seamus J. King, "The Clash of the Ash on Foreign Fields," page 85.
  3. ^ Seamus J. King, "The Clash of the Ash on Foreign Fields," pages 97-98
  4. ^ Seamus J. King, "The Clash of the Ash on Foreign Fields," pages 85-127.
  5. ^ Seamus J. King, "The Clash of the Ash on Foreign Fields," page 129.
  6. ^ Seamus J. King, "The Clash of the Ash on Foreign Fields," Chapter 7, "Hurling in Argentina," pages 129-137
  7. ^ Seamus J. King, "The Clash of the Ash on Foreign Fields," page 139.
  8. ^ Seamus J. King, "The Clash of the Ash in Foreign Fields," pages 139-140.
  9. ^ Seamus J. King, "The Clash of the Ash in Foreign Fields, Chapter 9 "The Game in South Africa," pages 147-151.
  • Seamus J. King, "A History of Hurling," Copyright 1996, New Edition 2005
  • Seamus J. King, "The Clash of the Ash in Foreign Fields; Hurling Abroad."

Links

Paul Coghlan (born June 1944) is an Irish politician and member of the 22nd Seanad Éireann for the Fine Gael party.

In 1997 he was elected to the 21st Seanad by the Industrial and Commercial Panel, and re-elected in 2002 to the 22nd Seanad, where he is Fine Gael spokesperson on Enterprise, Trade and Employment.

Born in Killarney and still resident in Kerry, he was previously a member of Kerry County Council, Killarney Urban District Council, Kerry Vocational Education Committee, and the Dingle Harbour Commissioners.

Sources

Colm Cooper

 


Colm Cooper (born June 3, 1983) is a Gaelic Footballer from County Kerry in Ireland. Colm has been the Kerry captain for the 2006 All-Ireland senior football championship, although he was dropped as captain in favour of his team-mate Declan O'Sullivan for the final in Croke Park, on September 17, 2006.

Football Career

He is known nationwide by his nickname "The Gooch". He burst onto the scene in '02 after a solid performance in a league final against Laois. He continued his rise in the following championship by singlehandedly tearing apart Wicklow, Kildare, Galway and Cork in the qualifiers before Kerry suffered a shock defeat to Armagh. Again he was the star man for Kerry in 2003 before Kerry were again caught out by Tyrone, this time in the semi final. However in 2004 he finally won the All-Ireland with Kerry after beating Mayo in the final with Colm putting in a remarkable show, scoring 1-05 including a superb individual goal where he fielded a high ball under pressure before taking on 3 defenders and slotting it into the Mayo net. In 2005, after a bright start to the final, Cooper was injured in a suspicious clash with Tyrone Keeper Pascal McConnell which limited his involvement. Kerry crumbled 1-16 to 2-10. Cooper played in his 4th All-Ireland final on September 17, 2006 against Mayo; a remarkable feat for a man of just 23. Kerry ended up beating Mayo by 13 points and despite Mayo's best efforts he was a thorn in their side, creating scores and winning frees. He was Kerry's joint top scorer with a tally of (1-02). He has now scored 4 goals in 3 games against Mayo.

Cooper was nominated but not selected for an All Star in 2006.

Trivia

  • He is equally as strong with both feet.
  • Despite his small stature, many of today's backs find him unmarkable due to his remarkable skills on the ball. It has been alleged that because of this he finds himself continually targeted for illegal rough treatment. An accusation levelled at the Armagh and Tyrone teams of recent years and Limerick and Cork teams in Munster.
  • Cooper has not enjoyed the best year in 2006 with many citing personal problems and the heavy burden of expectation on him. Despite this, many see his recent improvement in front of goal as a sign that he is slowly coming back to his best. This proved to be the case with a fine performance against Mayo including scoring a goal from an acute angle.
  • Since he has been involved with Kerry, Kerry have been the All-Ireland Champions or defeated by the eventual winners every year. Kerry won in 2004 and 2006, lost the final in 2005 and 2002 and lost to eventual winners Tyrone in 2003.

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