Rajinda (Raji) Senaratne

Electrical Engineer
Power Transmission and Distribution

Residence: Southbank, Melbourne, Australia

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Raji is an electrical engineer with 8 years of work experience in power transmission and distribution. He has carried out extensive studies on 11 kV and LV arc flash analysis for distribution substations. He has designed protection settings for 11 kV RMUs and distribution substations, and also revised protection settings for a zone substation. He has carried out earthing tests and earthing studies. He has also carried out load flow studies to construct new 11 kV feeders. He has designed trenches for 33 kV cable installations. He has been a project manager of major 33/11 kV substation upgrade projects, new 33 kV and 11 kV overhead line projects, 33 kV underground cable installation projects, and 33 kV overhead line condition assessment projects.

He has carried out conceptual designs for several utility, mining, and gas field projects, which included designing substations (primary system and protection) and reticulation, and preparing specifications. He has prepared conceptual power and protection single line diagrams, prepared general arrangement, layout and elevation drawings, and drafted several for substations up to 132 kV. He has assisted in condition assessment of 110 kV cables, and 66 kV cable installation design. He has been involved with low voltage reticulation designs for coal mine sites and road lighting. 


  • Ph.D. in Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Australia (2008)
  • M.Eng. in Electronics and Telecommunication, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka (2004)
  • B.Sc. in Electrical Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka (2002)

Electrical Engineering Projects

  • Comparison of 11 kV and LV Protection Devices (2017), Southland, NZ, PowerNet. Checked protection coordination and compared different brands of LV fuses and LV air circuit breakers. Wrote a report and made recommendations. Compared different 11 kV dropout fuses in terms of protection performance and arc flash clearance, and made recommendations.
  • Site 526 Protection Settings (2017), Southland, NZ, PowerNet. Calculated arc flash energy and determined fuses for LV board and protection settings for 11 kV RMU circuit breaker in a distribution substation.
  • ESL Network Protection Review (2017), Otago, NZ, PowerNet. Reviewed and revised protection settings of SEL relays in Remarkables zone substation. Carried out protection coordination between 22 kV feeders and 22 kV RMUs/switches. Designed protection settings for Woodward relays in several new distribution substations.
  • Northlake Protection Settings (2017), Otago, NZ, PowerNet. Designed protection settings for Entec relays in 11kV RMUs for distribution transformers. Negotiated with engineers in Delta to achieve appropriate protection coordination with upstream Aurora Energy’s network in order to improve safety in terms of earthing issues. Reviewed contractor’s LV cable installation designs and corrected several errors.
  • Northlake Distribution Earthing Study (2017), Otago, NZ, PowerNet. Carried out soil resistivity tests, calculations and modelling using AutoGroundDesign software to initially check touch and step potentials at distribution substations. Reviewed consultant’s design.
  • Arc Flash Studies (2016-2018), Southland, NZ, PowerNet. Calculated 22kV, 11 kV and low voltage arc flash energy levels at 386 distribution substations and overhead lines using IEEE and NESC standards, relay protection settings and fuse curves. Wrote a report, proposed solutions to reduce arc flash energy levels, and made recommendations.
  • Voltage Issues Investigation (2016-2017), Southland, NZ, PowerNet. Planned and inspected earth loop impedance tests to investigate neutral connection issues, analysed smart meter data, and planning data logger connections.
  • Distribution Earthing Review (2016), Southland, NZ, PowerNet. Prepared distribution earthing sketches to be incorporated in to standard construction drawings of pole mounted distribution transformers, circuit breakers, air break switches, regulators, etc.
  • Clinton Feeder Upgrade Study (2016), Otago, NZ, PowerNet. Carried out a load flow study using PSS/ADEPT software, proposed solutions to solve voltage drop issues on Clinton CB3 11kV feeder, and wrote a report.
  • Spey Street Substation Earthing Tests (2016), Southland, NZ, PowerNet. Carried out remote injection earthing tests and wrote a report.
  • Patearoa Substation Upgrade (2016), Otago, NZ, PowerNet. Carried out initial project management. Wrote the substation design scope, prepared design tender documents, evaluated design tenders, and managed the transformer procurement.
  • Clydevale Substation Upgrade (2015-2016), Otago, NZ, PowerNet. Carrying out project management of installation of a new 33/11 kV transformer, installation of a new outdoor 33 kV circuit breaker, procurement of control building, extension of earth mat, etc.
  • Puketoi 33 kV and 11 kV Overhead Lines (2015), Otago, NZ, PowerNet. Carried out project management. Wrote the construction scope, and managed the design and construction from beginning to completion.
  • Clarks Substation Earthing Study (2015), Otago, NZ, PowerNet. Coordinated earthing study. Wrote the earthing study scope, supplied necessary data to the consultant, and assisted the consultant on site to carry out the earthing tests.
  • Glenore Substation Upgrade (2015), Otago, NZ, PowerNet. Wrote the design scope and prepared a cost estimate for five options.
  • Waitati Tee Project (2015), Otago, NZ, PowerNet. Carried out project management; designed 33kV underground cable trench.
  • Kyeburn Network Extension Study (2015), Otago, NZ, PowerNet. Carried out load flow studies to investigate options for 11 kV feeder extension in Kyeburn area.  Modelled voltage drops of existing and new 11 kV feeders using PSS/ADEPT software. Wrote a report comparing the results and made recommendations.
  • PowerNet 33 kV Feeder Reconstruction (2014), Otago, NZ, PowerNet. Reviewed survey data of several existing 33 kV overhead lines, visited specific sites as necessary for additional data collection, modelled lines using CATAN software, prepared lists of remedial actions including pole replacements, and estimated their costs.
  • Ramu 2 Hydroelectric Project – Full Feasibility Study (2013), Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea, IPBC. Reviewed past studies, designed two 132 kV substations, prepared single line diagrams, layout drawings and cost estimates, and wrote the substation section of the report.
  • Whyalla Substation Gantry Design Review (2013), Whyalla, South Australia, Australia, Tenix. Reviewed short circuit force calculations on the 132 kV substation gantry.
  • Leichhardt Power Station Project (2013), Mount Isa, Qld, Australia, Leighton Contractors Pty Ltd. Calculated short circuit forces on 132 kV substation structures.
  • Energex Substation Projects (2012), Brisbane, Qld., Australia, Secondment to Energex for six months. Involved installing and upgrading several 11/33/66/110 kV Energex substations. Tasks included preparing power and protection single line diagrams; modifying protection logic; reviewing protection coordination, circuitry and layout drawings of low voltage AC and DC systems in substations; carrying out an earthing study using CDEGS software and writing a report; and preparing cost estimates with ±5% accuracy.
  • Burgos Wind Farm Due Diligence (2012), Philippines, Energy Development Corporation. Reviewed and modified 115 kV transmission line and tower design review report.
  • Wandoan Coal Project (2012), Surat Basin, Qld., Australia, Wandoan Coal Pty Ltd. Calculated short circuit forces on the span between 132 kV transmission line terminal structure and substation gantry.
  • Point Vernon to Toogoom 66 kV Power Line (2012), Hervey Bay, Qld., Australia, Ergon Energy. Calculated electromagnetic field to check corona formation, and revised final report.
  • Merredin Energy Power Station Project (2012), Merredin, WA, Australia, Merredin Energy. Checking the compliance of wiring identification method in motor control centre with Australian Standards.
  • Diamantina D 132 kV Switchyard (2011), Mount Isa, Qld., Australia, APA Group. Prepared specification for a 132 kV switchyard and associated transmission lines, power and protection SLD, GA and elevation drawings.
  • Power Development Concept Select Study (2011), Surat and Bowen Basin, Qld., Australia, Arrow Energy. Developed options for supplying power to gas fields. Tasks included analysing options for different substation configurations, comparing approaches for connecting 275 kV and 330 kV transmission lines to substations, preparing single line diagrams, cost estimates and multi-criteria options assessment.
  • Rate 3 Road Lighting Electrical Remedial Works (2010–2011), Qld., Australia, Department of Transport and Main Roads. Designed low voltage switchboard and reticulation.
  • RCR Energy Diamantina Project (2010), Mica Creek, Qld., Australia, RCR Energy. Prepared concept design for a new combined-cycle power plant. Tasks included designing generator, transformer and feeder protection.
  • Alpha Hancock Coal Feasibility Study (2010), Galilee Basin, Qld., Australia, Hancock Coal. Prepared single line diagrams and general arrangement layouts of 132/22 kV substations, and designed power reticulation of mine infrastructure area.
  • Cable Condition Assessment (2010), Ashgrove, Qld., Australia, Powerlink. Assessed condition of 110 kV underground power cables and ancillary equipment.
  • South Pine to Hays Inlet 110 kV Overhead Line (2010), Strathpine, Qld., Australia, Transfield Services. Visited site and measured earth resistivity for earthing study.
  • Nebo Road Water Treatment Plant (2010), Mackay, Qld., Australia. Mackay Infrastructure Alliance. Assisted in cable layout design for switchroom entry and specification preparation, Mackay, Queensland, 2010
  • United Project Pre-feasibility Study (2010), Singleton, NSW, Australia, United Collieries Pty Ltd. Involved power supply study into proposed expansion of existing mine site. Tasks included reviewing existing electrical loads, estimating required power capacity and preparing single line diagrams and general arrangement layouts of 66/22 kV substations and reticulation.
  • North West Queensland Electricity Demand Supply (2009), Qld., Australia, NWQ Major Energy User Group. Assisted in proposal preparation. Tasks included calculating electric field to check corona formation, and reviewing 275 and 330 kV transmission line systems study results.
  • Hidden Valley Project (2009), Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea, PNG Power. Reviewed    132/11 kV substation design, and prepared project correspondence.
  • Adelaide Central Reinforcement (2009), Adelaide, SA, Australia. Electranet. Involved designing 275/66 kV city west substation. Assisted in preparing scope and estimate report.
  • Smart Grid Blueprint Development (2008), Vic., Australia, SP AusNet. Assisted in developing blueprint. Tasks included designing the integration of smart grid modules, and preparing documents detailing the benefits achieved by different smart grid modules towards electricity distribution functions.

Work Experience
  • Primary Engineer, Infrastructure Services (Energy & Mining), Commercial Energy Services, AusNet Services, Level 31, 2 Southbank Boulevard, Southbank, 3006, Victoria, Australia.
  • Electrical Engineer/Project Manager/Network Asset Engineer, Network Assets and Major Projects Team, PowerNet Ltd. 92 Charlotte Street, Balclutha 9230, Otago, New Zealand.
  • Electrical Engineer, Asia-Australia Pacific Power Team, Parsons Brinckerhoff. Level 4, Northbank Plaza, 69 Ann Street, Brisbane QLD 4001, Australia.
  • Smart Grid Support Engineer, Smart Network Core Team, Networks Intelligence & Automation, Network Development Division, SP AusNet Pty Ltd. Level 31, 2 Southbank Boulevard, Southbank, 3006, Victoria, Australia.


Professional Affiliations

  • MIEAust (member of Engineers Australia), 2009 - 2015
  • AACS (prov) [provisional associate of Australian Computer Society], 2008 - 2010

Electrical Engineering Information

Computer Vision and Image Processing Research Projects


     Journal papers:

  • Rajinda Senaratne, Budi Jap, Sara Lal, Arthur Hsu, Saman Halgamuge, Peter Fischer, "Comparing Two Video-Based Techniques for Driver Fatigue Detection: Classification versus optical flow approach", Machine Vision and Applications, SpringerLink, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 597-618, 2011. (available online in SpringerLink)
  • Rajinda Senaratne, Saman Halgamuge, Arthur Hsu, "Face Recognition by Extending Elastic Bunch Graph Matching with Particle Swarm Optimization", Journal of Multimedia, Academy Publisher, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 204-214, 2009. (available online here
  • Rajinda S. Senaratne, Saman K. Halgamuge, "Optimal Weighting of Landmarks for Face Recognition", Journal of Multimedia, Academy Publisher, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 31-41, 2006. (available online here)

     Conference papers:

  • N. C. Maddage, R. Senaratne, L-S. A. Low, M. Lech, N. Allen, "Video-Based Detection of the Clinical Depression in Adolescents", Proceedings of the 31st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, IEEE, pp. 3723-3726, Minneapolis, September 2009. (available online in IEEE Xplore)
  • I. Saeed, A. Wang, R. Senaratne, S. Halgamuge, "Using the Active Appearance Model to Detect Driver Fatigue", Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Information and Automation for Sustainability, IEEE, pp. 124-128, Melbourne, December 2007. (available online in IEEE Xplore
  • Rajinda Senaratne, David Hardy, Bill Vanderaa, Saman Halgamuge, "Driver Fatigue Detection by Fusing Multiple Cues", Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Neural Networks, Nanjing, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, vol. 4492, part II, pp. 801-809, June 2007. (available online in SpringerLink)
  • R. Senaratne, S. Halgamuge, "Optimised Landmark Model Matching for Face Recognition", Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, IEEE Computer Society, Southampton, pp. 120-125, April 2006. (available online in IEEE xplore)
  • R. Senaratne, S. Halgamuge, "Face Localisation for Driver Fatigue Recognition", Proceedings of International Conference on Information and Automation 2005, IEEE, pp. 13-18, Colombo, December 2005. (available online here)
  • R. Senaratne, S. Halgamuge, "Using Particle Swarm Optimisation for Elastic Bunch Graph Matching to Recognise Faces", Proceedings of IEEE TENCON, IEEE, Melbourne, November 2005. (available online in IEEE Xplore)

     Above papers have been cited by other researchers in the following articles: click here


Leisure Activities

  • Participating in eight-precepts and other Buddhist programmes in Dunedin and Invercargill, New Zealand, 2014 - 2016.
  • Creating the website Southern New Zealand Buddhist Information in 2014, and maintaining it.
  • Singing devotional songs in Buddhist choir, Sri Lanka Buddhist Monastery, Ellen Grove, Qld, 2011 - 2014
  • Coordinating the annual Olcott commemoration alms-giving in Brisbane, Buddhist Vihara of Queensland, Goodna, Qld, 2013 - 2014
  • Volunteering for Nalanda Old Boys Association of Qld and assisting their activities, 2012 - 2014
  • President of Melbourne University Buddhist Studies Society 2006/07 (University site)
  • Treasurer of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Postgraduate Society 2005/06
  • Member of Meat-Pie Seminar Committee 2005/06 (committee that organised the departmental presentation series of postgraduates)
  • Travelled in Sri Lanka, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, England, Wales, France, China, and Mexico.

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Last updated: 01 July 2018