Notes and references

Radiation: The Facts

Green eye

             Opening eyes to the facts

Radiation is safe within limits.

Notes and references 

1   "mammogram exposure"
Radiation Doses and Cancer Risks from Breast Imaging Studies
by R. Edward Hendrick, PhD

2    "cancer is not observed at dose rates below 100 mSv/y"
The Linear No-Threshold Relationship Is Inconsistent with Radiation Biologic and Experimental Data
by Maurice Tubiana, MD, Ludwig E. Feinendegen, MD, Chichuan Yang, MD, and Joseph M. Kaminski, MD

3    "fruit flies exposed"
How the US National Academy of Sciences misled the world community on cancer risk assessment: new finding challenge historical foundations of the linear dose response
by Edward J. Calabrese
4    "MIT researchers observed"
A new look at prolonged radiation exposure
by Anne Trafton, MIT News

Integrated Molecular Analysis Indicates Undetectable Change in DNA 
Damage in Mice after Continuous Irradiation at ~ 400-fold Natural 
Background Radiation
by Werner Olipitz et al

5    "break rate"
Hormesis by Low Dose Radiation Effects: Low-Dose Cancer Risk Modeling Must Recognize Up-Regulation of Protection
by Ludwig E. Feinendegen, Myron Pollycove, and Ronald D. Neumann

6    "observed by scientists at Berkeley Labs"
Evidence for formation of DNA repair centersand dose-response nonlinearity in human cells
by Teresa Neumaiera et al

7    "10,423 died"
Radiation and Reason, p 89, Table 4, p 91 Table 5
by Wade Allison

Table 4 (leukemia)
 Dose range
 Survivors Observed deaths Expected deaths
   <5 37,407 92 85
    5 to 100 30,387 69 72
 100 to 200 5,841 14 15
 200 to 500 6,380 27 16
 500 to 1000 3,963 20 10
 1000 to 2000 1,972 39 5
 > 2000 737 25 2
 ____________ ___________ ___________ __________
 All 86,955 296 203

Table 5 (solid cancer)
 Dose range
 Survivors Observed deaths Expected deaths
   <5 38,507 4,270 4,282
    5 to 100 29,960 3,387 3,313
 100 to 200 5,949 732 691
 200 to 500 6,380 815 736
 500 to 1000 3,426 483 378
 1000 to 2000 1,764 326 191
 > 2000 625 114 56
 ____________ ___________ ___________ __________
 All 86,611 10,127 9,647

8    "no cancer deaths"
Radiation and Reason pp 89, 91, Tables 4 and 5, first two rows

9    "cancer incidence was sharply down"
Effects of Cobalt-60 Exposure on Health of Taiwan Residents Suggest New Approach Needed in Radiation Protection
by W.L. Chen et al
Papers in 2006 and 2008 by Hwang et al analyze the data differently, obscuring the facts that overall cancer rates decreased with radiation. Mohan Doss of Fox Chase Cancer Center analyzes these papers. 

Hemopoietic Response to Low Dose-Rates of Ionizing Radiation Shows Stem Cell Tolerance and Adaptation
by Theodor M. Fliedner et al

10    "contaminated with iodine-131, and 15 died"
Chernobyl’s Legacy: Health, Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts
by Chernobyl Forum

Observations on the Chernobyl Disaster and LNT
by Zbigniew Jaworowski

11    "death rate from all causes" 
Nuclear shipyard worker study (1980–1988): a large cohort exposed to low-dose-rate gamma radiation 
by Ruth Sponsler and John R. Cameron

12    "Diagnostic radiation doses are low"
Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams
by American College of Radiology and Radiological Society of North America

13    "Therapeutic doses are high"
Radiation therapy
by Wikipedia

14    "IAEA recommends > 220 mSv/y"
Actions to Protect the Public in an Emergency due to Severe Conditions at a Light Water Reactor
by UN International Atomic Energy Agency

15    "UN panel of expert scientists"
No Immediate Health Risks from Fukushima Nuclear Accident Says UN Expert Science Panel
by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation

16    "Evacuation stress"
Commentary on the Appropriate Radiation Level for Evacuations
by Jerry Cuttler

Fukushima evacuation zone November 2013 radiation, p 3
by Japan Nuclear Regulation Authority
Evacuation boundary line radiation 20 mSv/y, outside orange area <100 mSv/y