Bell X-1

The Bell X-1, originally XS-1 was the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound in controlled, level flight. It was the first of the so called X-planes, a series of aircraft designated for testing of new technologies and usually kept highly secret.
On October 14, 1947, Charles "Chuck" Yeager of the United States Air Force flew aircraft #46-062, which he had named 'Glamorous Glennis', after his wife. The rocket-powered aircraft was launched from the belly of a specially modified B-29 and glided to a landing on a runway.

Bell X-1

The German pilot Hans Guido Mutke claimed to be the first person to break the sound barrier, on April 9, 1945 in a Messerschmitt Me 262, but this claim is disputed. Many also contend that George Welch broke the barrier on October 1, 1947 in his XP-86 Sabre during a dive, just two weeks before the X-1. Because of "Wheaties" Welch's claim, the official record held by the X-1 is "first aircraft to fly faster than sound in level flight."
Beginning in 1946, two XS-1 (for "Experimental, Supersonic") experimental research aircraft conducted pioneering tests at Muroc Army Air Field (now Edwards Air Force Base) in California to obtain flight data on conditions in the transonic speed range. These early tests culminated in the first piloted flight faster than Mach 1.0, the speed of sound.

Bell X-1

The XS-1 was the first high-speed aircraft built purely for aviation research purposes. The model was never intended for production.

She was designed largely in accordance with specifications provided by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) (now NASA), paid for by the Army Air Forces, and built by Bell Aircraft Inc.

The XS-1 #2 was flight tested by the NACA to provide design data for later production high-performance aircraft.

While her basic form was patterned on a .50 cal bullet, it is not widely known the X-1 owes a great deal of its design to the Miles M-52, a British jet powered design dating back to 1942. The M-52 design was handed to the Americans during WWII as part of what was supposed to have been a technology sharing agreement (although the British complained that there was no technical reciprocation on the part of the Americans once they got hold of the M-52 plans).


The M-52's "all-flying" tail design solved some problems with the X-1 concerning stability as the craft approached the sound barrier. Please note that in the widely used publicity photo of the Bell X-1 at the top of this article, the aircraft is using the standard configuration of tail control surfaces.

The addition of the "all-flying" tail was one of the major breakthroughs that allowed the X-1 to break the sound barrier under control, and no photographs showing the new tail were allowed to be published for many years in an effort to keep its existence secret from Soviet aircraft developers.

The research techniques used in the X-1 program became the pattern for all subsequent X-craft projects. The NACA X-1 procedures and personnel also helped lay the foundation of America's space program in the 1960s. The X-1 project defined and solidified the post-war cooperative union between U.S. military needs, industrial capabilities, and research facilities. The flight data collected by the NACA in the X-1 tests then provided a basis for American aviation supremacy in the latter half of the 20th century.

As a result of the X-1's initial supersonic flight, the National Aviation Association voted its 1948 Collier Trophy to be shared by the three main participants in the program.

Honored at the White House by President Truman were Larry Bell for Bell Aircraft, Captain Yeager for piloting the flights, and John Stack of NACA for the NACA contributions. Years later, Yeager reported that his father, a staunch Republican, refused to shake hands with President Truman (a Democrat).

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Specifications (X-1)
General characteristics
Crew:
1
Length: 30 ft 11 in (9.4 m)
Wingspan: 28 ft 0 in (8.5 m)
Height: 10 ft 10 in (3.3 m)
Wing area: 130 ft² (12 m²)
Empty: 7,000 lb (3,175 kg)
Loaded: 12,225 lb (5,545 kg)
Maximum takeoff: 12,250 lb (5,557 kg)

Powerplant:
Reaction Motors XLR-11-RM3 rocket engine, 6,000 lbf (26.7 kN) thrust

Performance:
Maximum speed:
957 mph (1,541 km·h-1)
Range: 5 minutes powered endurance
Service ceiling: 71,900 ft (21,900 m)
Wing loading: 94 lb/ft² (463 kg·m-1)
Thrust/weight: 0.49



Bell X-1E





The X-1E
After the loss of the 3rd X-1 and the X-1D. The need remained for a higher performance performance X-1 for the NACA to conduct testing in. The 2nd X-1 (46-063) was almost completely rebuilt and redesignated as the X-1E. Significant modifications include and updated canopy, ultra-thin wings (4% thickness/cord ratio) and a rocket assisted ejection seat.

Bell X-1E
The maximum altitude achieved by the X-1E was 75,000 ft, and the top speed was Mach 2.24 (1,450 mph). The plane was retired from service in November of 1956 after 26 flights.

BELL X-1A, B, C, D

Bell X-1A

Mission: Designed to double the flight abilities of the original X-1, these planes were meant to fly at speeds exceeding Mach 2, with maximum altitudes above 90,000 ft. The X-C (not completed) was to be a test platform for USAF weapons. The X-D was to be used for high speed heat testing.

Bell X-1B
Major Accomplishments: Accomplishments were limited, due to the early destruction of the X-1D and the cancellation of the X-1C. The X-1A made a total of 15 glide and powered flights (14 for USAF and 1 for NACA). The X-1B, the most productive of the planes, made a total of 27 flights (glide and powered). The X-1A was instrumental in research into 'inertia coupling', the inability of aircraft to maintain stability at high speeds.

Bell X-1B


Power Source: One (1) Reaction Motors XLR-11-RM-5 (E6000-D4 rocket). 6,000 lbs thrust (2,722 kg) Fueled by ethyl alcohol/water mix and liquid oxygen.
Wing Span: 28' 0"
Length: 35' 8"
Weight (Loaded): 16,487 lb
Maximum Achieved Speed: Mach 2.44 (1,650 mph)
Maximum Achieved Altitude: 90,000'

Bell X-1A
Additional Information:
The second generation X-1s where designed to double the speed of sound and set altitude records in excess of 90,000 ft. The only productive models where the X-1A and X-1B. The X-1C, which was designed to test high speed flight armaments, was cancelled before completion. The X-1D was destroyed during what was to be its first powered flight.
The X-1A was later jettisoned and destroyed following an in-flight explosion.


Links:
http://www.codeonemagazine.com
http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov
http://www.edwards.af.mil
http://www.globalaircraft.org
http://www.drivearchive.co.uk
http://users.dbscorp.net
http://www.fas.org

Video 1: Bell X-1

Video 2: Chuck Yeager Broke Sound Barrier 60 Years Ago



(This text was adapted from http://www.wikipedia.org/ )(GFDL)
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