Solutions can be found
here.
 7.01
(**) Eight queens problem
 This is a classical problem in computer science. The objective is to
place eight queens on a chessboard so that no two queens are attacking
each other; i.e., no two queens are in the same row, the same column,
or on the same diagonal.
Hint: Represent the positions of the queens as a list of numbers 1..N.
Example: [4,2,7,3,6,8,5,1] means that the queen in the first column
is in row 4, the queen in the second column is in row 2, etc.
Use the generateandtest paradigm.
 7.02
(**) Knight's tour
 Another famous problem is this one: How can a knight jump on
an NxN chessboard in such a way that it visits every square exactly
once?
Hints: Represent the squares by pairs of their coordinates of
the form X/Y, where both X and Y are integers between 1 and N.
(Note that '/' is just a convenient functor, not division!)
Define the relation jump(N,X/Y,U/V) to express the fact that a
knight can jump from X/Y to U/V on a NxN chessboard. And finally,
represent the solution of our problem as a list of N*N knight
positions (the knight's tour).
 7.03
(***) Von Koch's conjecture
 Several years ago I met a mathematician who was intrigued by
a problem for which he didn't know a solution. His name was Von Koch,
and I don't know whether the problem has been solved since.
Anyway, the puzzle goes like this: Given a tree with N nodes
(and hence N1 edges). Find a way to enumerate the nodes from 1 to N
and, accordingly, the edges from 1 to N1 in such a way, that for
each edge K the difference of its node numbers equals to K.
The conjecture is that this is always possible.
For small trees the problem is easy to solve by hand. However, for
larger trees, and 14 is already very large, it is extremely difficult
to find a solution. And remember, we don't know for sure whether there is
always a solution!
Write a predicate that calculates a numbering scheme for a given
tree. What is the solution for the larger tree pictured above?
 7.04
(***) An arithmetic puzzle
 Given a list of integer numbers, find a correct way of inserting
arithmetic signs (operators) such that the result is a correct equation.
Example: With the list of numbers [2,3,5,7,11] we can form the
equations 23+5+7 = 11 or 2 = (3*5+7)/11 (and ten others!).
 7.05
(**) English number words
 On financial documents, like cheques, numbers must sometimes be
written in full words. Example: 175 must be written as onesevenfive.
Write a predicate full_words/1 to print (nonnegative) integer numbers
in full words.
 7.06
(**) Syntax checker

 In a certain programming language (Ada) identifiers are defined
by the syntax diagram (railroad chart) opposite.
Transform the syntax diagram into a system of syntax diagrams
which do not contain loops; i.e. which are purely recursive.
Using these modified diagrams, write a predicate identifier/1 that can
check whether or not a given string is a legal identifier.
% identifier(Str) : Str is a legal identifier
 7.07
(**) Sudoku

Sudoku puzzles go like this:
Problem statement Solution
. . 4  8 . .  . 1 7 9 3 4  8 2 5  6 1 7     6 7 .  9 . .  . . . 6 7 2  9 1 4  8 5 3     5 . 8  . 3 .  . . 4 5 1 8  6 3 7  9 2 4 ++ ++ 3 . .  7 4 .  1 . . 3 2 5  7 4 8  1 6 9     . 6 9  . . .  7 8 . 4 6 9  1 5 3  7 8 2     . . 1  . 6 9  . . 5 7 8 1  2 6 9  4 3 5 ++ ++ 1 . .  . 8 .  3 . 6 1 9 7  5 8 2  3 4 6     . . .  . . 6  . 9 1 8 5 3  4 7 6  2 9 1     2 4 .  . . 1  5 . . 2 4 6  3 9 1  5 7 8
Every spot in the puzzle belongs to a (horizontal) row and a (vertical)
column, as well as to one single 3x3 square (which we call "square"
for short). At the beginning, some of the spots carry a singledigit
number between 1 and 9. The problem is to fill the missing spots with
digits in such a way that every number between 1 and 9 appears exactly
once in each row, in each column, and in each square.
 7.08
(***) Nonograms

Around 1994, a certain kind of puzzles was very popular in England.
The "Sunday Telegraph" newspaper wrote: "Nonograms are puzzles from
Japan and are currently published each week only in The Sunday
Telegraph. Simply use your logic and skill to complete the grid
and reveal a picture or diagram." As a Prolog programmer, you are in
a better situation: you can have your computer do the work!
The puzzle goes like this: Essentially, each row and column of a
rectangular bitmap is annotated with the respective lengths of
its distinct strings of occupied cells. The person who solves the puzzle
must complete the bitmap given only these lengths.
Problem statement: Solution:
________ 3 _XXX____ 3 ________ 2 1 XX_X____ 2 1 ________ 3 2 _XXX__XX 3 2 ________ 2 2 __XX__XX 2 2 ________ 6 __XXXXXX 6 ________ 1 5 X_XXXXX_ 1 5 ________ 6 XXXXXX__ 6 ________ 1 ____X___ 1 ________ 2 ___XX___ 2 1 3 1 7 5 3 4 3 1 3 1 7 5 3 4 3 2 1 5 1 2 1 5 1
For the example above, the problem can be stated as the two lists
[[3],[2,1],[3,2],[2,2],[6],[1,5],[6],[1],[2]] and
[[1,2],[3,1],[1,5],[7,1],[5],[3],[4],[3]] which give the
"solid" lengths of the rows and columns, toptobottom and
lefttoright, respectively. Published puzzles are larger than this
example, e.g. 25 x 20, and apparently always have unique solutions.
 7.09
(***) Crossword puzzle

Given an empty (or almost empty) framework of a crossword puzzle and
a set of words. The problem is to place the words into the framework.
 The particular crossword puzzle is specified in a text file which
first lists the words (one word per line) in an arbitrary order. Then,
after an empty line, the crossword framework is defined. In this
framework specification, an empty character location is represented
by a dot (.). In order to make the solution easier, character locations
can also contain predefined character values. The puzzle opposite
is defined in the file p7_09a.dat, other examples
are p7_09b.dat and p7_09d.dat.
There is also an example of a puzzle (p7_09c.dat)
which does not have a solution.
Words are strings (character lists) of at least two characters.
A horizontal or vertical sequence of character places in the
crossword puzzle framework is called a site.
Our problem is to find a compatible way of placing words onto sites.
Hints:
 1) The problem is not easy. You will need some time to
thoroughly understand it. So, don't give up too early! And remember
that the objective is a clean solution, not just a quickanddirty hack!
(2) Reading the data file is a tricky problem for which a solution
is provided in the file
p7_09readfile.pl. Use the predicate
read_lines/2.
(3) For efficiency reasons it is important, at least for
larger puzzles, to sort the words and the sites in a particular order.
For this part of the problem, the solution of
1.28 may be very helpful.
