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Water Recharging/Harvesting

Reading List:
http://sites.google.com/site/projectjhabua/Reading-List-Resources




State Profile


In Madhya Prades, there are 19 semi-critical, 5 critical and 24 over exploited blocks, where water level depletion is taken place.


Ground Water Scenario of Madhya Pradesh


Area (Sq.km)

3,08,000

Physiography

Six physiographic units

  • The Satpura Range      
  • The Vindhyan Range    
  • The Malwa Plateau
  • The Bundelkhand Region
  • The Mahakoshal Range
  • The River Valleys

Drainage

The rivers Chambal, Sindh, Ken, Betwa, Chotti Mahanadi and Son flows in the northern part; in the southern part of Vindhyachal ranges and west of Narmada, Tapi and Mahi rivers flow in the western direction, the river Wainganga joins the river Godavari drains the state.

Rainfall (mm) [Question: Avg rainfall in Jhabua]

Average 917 mm

  • High rainfall in the range of 1100 mm to 2200 mm occurs in Seoni, Balaghat, Umaria, Katni, Sidhi, Panna and Satna.
  • Low rainfall below 600 mm occurs in Ratlam, Ujjain, Barwani, Khargone, Rajgarh, etc.

Total Districts/ Blocks

48 districts  / 459 Blocks

Hydrogeology

The largest State of the country is underlain by formations in age ranging from Archaean to Recent. One fifth of the area is occupied by granite gneisses and meta-sedimentary rocks, whereas one tenth by Gondwanas comprising sand stones, lime stones & marbles. The Deccan Trap covers a larger part of the State whereas the Quaternary alluvium covers 6% of the State area. The alluvial deposits form prolific aquifers where tubewell can yield in the range of 50-80 m3/hr. The yield of tubewells in sand stones of Gondwanas ranges between 20-30 m3/hr; whereas in limestones of Gondwanas, it varies between 50-80 m3/hr. The yield of tubewells in basalts in select area ranges between 20-30 m3/hr.

Ground Water Exploration/Sources Findings


Dynamic Resources

Annual Replenishable Ground water Resource

37.19 BCM

Net Annual Ground Water Availability

35.33 BCM

Annual Ground Water Draft

17.12 BCM

Stage of Ground Water Development

48 %

Developmental Monitoring

Over Exploited

24 Blocks

Critical

5 Blocks

Semi- critical

19 Blocks

Exploratory Tube wells Constructed (as on 31.03.2009)

1184

No. of ground water observation wells

1325

Ground Water User Maps

45 districts

Artificial Recharge to Ground Water (AR)

  • Area identified for AR: 36335 sq km
  • Quantity of Surface Water to be     Recharged: 2320 MCM
  • Feasible AR structures: 5302 percolation tanks, 20198 nala bunds/ cement plug/ check dam, 23181 gravity head/ dug wells/tubewells/ recharge shafts, 69598 gully plugs, gabion structures

AR schemes completed during VIII Plan: 6
AR schemes completed during IX Plan: 5

   

Ground Water Quality Problems

Contaminants

Districts affected (in part)

Salinity  (EC > 3000 µS/cm at 25 ° C)

Bhind, Indore, Jhabua, Sheopur, Ujjain

Fluoride (>1.5 mg/l)

Bhind, Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Datia, Dewas, Dhar, Guna, Gwalior, Harda, Jabalpur, Jhabua, Khargaon, Mandsaur, Rajgarh, Satna, Seoni, Shajapur, Sheopur, Sidhi

Chloride  (> 1000 mg/l)

Bhind, Ujjain

Iron (>1.0 mg/l)

Balaghat, Betul, Bhind, Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Guna, Gwalior, Hoshangabad, Narsinghpur, Panna, Raisen, Rajgarh, Rewa, Sagar, Satna, Sehore, Seoni, Shahdol, Shajapur, Sidhi, Ujjain, Umaria, Vidisha, Dindori, East Nimar

Nitrate  (>45 mg/l)

Anuppur, Ashok Nagar, Balaghat, Barwani, Betul, Bhind, Bhopal, Burhanpur, Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Damoh, Datia, Dewas, Dhar,   Gwalior, Harda, Hoshangabad, Indore, Jabalpur, Jhabua, Katni, Khandwa, Khargaon, Mandla, Mandsaur, Morena, Narsimhapur, Neemuch, Panna, Raisen, Rajgarh, Ratlam, Rewa, Sagar, Satna, Sehore, Seoni, Shahdol, Shajapur, Sheopur, Shivpuri, Sidhi, Tikamgarh, Ujjain, Umaria, Vidisha

        
Enactment of Ground Water Bill to regulate and control the development of ground water:  A suitable legislation on the lines of Model Bill is under consideration of the State Govt. To be enacted.


Inclusion of Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting (RTRWH) in building by laws:

The State Govt. vide Gazette notification dated 26.8.2006, has made roof top RWH mandatory for all types of buildings having plot size of more than 140 sq.m. Govt. has also announced 6% rebate in property tax to individuals for the year in which the individual will go for installation of roof top RWH structures.

Central Ground Water Authority

Areas Notified for Regulation of ground water development

  • Dhar block of Dhar district
  • Manawar block of Dhar district
  • Mandsaur block of Mandsaur district
  • Sitamau block of Mandsaur district
  • Neemuch block of Neemuch district
  • Jaora block of Ratlam district
  • Indore Municipal Corporation, Indore district

Mass Awareness Programmes (as on 31.03.2009)

21

Water Management Training Programme (as on 31.03.2009)

19




Advantages of Artificial Recharge

The important advantages of artificial recharge are:

  1. Subsurface storage space is available free of cost and inundation is avoided

  2. Evaporation losses are negligible

  3. Quality improvement by infiltration through the permeable media

  4. Biological purity is very high

  5. It has no adverse social impacts such as displacement of population, loss of scarce agricultural land etc

  6. Temperature variations are minimum

  7. It is environment friendly, controls soil erosion and flood and provides sufficient soil moisture even during summer months

  8. Water stored underground is relatively immune to natural and man-made catastrophes

  9. It provides a natural distribution system between recharge and discharge points

  10. Results in energy saving due to reduction in suction and delivery head as a result of rise in water levels




Implementation of Artificial Recharge Schemes

What components are required for successful implementation of artificial recharge schemes

  1. Assessment of source water

  2. Planning of recharge structures

  3. Finalization of specific techniques and designs

  4. Monitoring and impact assessment

  5. Financial and economic evaluation

  6. Operation and maintenance


What is needed to design realistic plan for an artificial recharge scheme:

  1. Establishment of ground facts, which includes

    1. Need for artificial recharge

    2. Estimation of sub-surface storage capacity of the aquifers and quantification of water required for recharge

    3. Prioritization of areas for artificial recharge

    4. Source water availability

    5. Assessment of source water

    6. Source water quality

    7. Suitability of the area for recharge in terms of climate, topography, soil

    8. and land use characteristics and hydrogeologic set-up

  2. Appraisal of economic viability 

  3. Finalization of Physical Plan

  4. Preparation of a Plan document covering all the aspects mentioned above


Suitability of Artificial Recharge Structures for Different Hydrogeological Settings

Group I - Consolidated Formations: A geologic material whose particles are stratified (layered), cemented, or firmly packed together (hard rock); usually occurring at a depth below the ground surface.

This group covers the hard crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks, as well as hard massive indurate Pre-Cambrian sedimentary formations.
The late Mesozoic, early Tertiary and Deccan and Rajamahal Volcanics, which cover a large area of the country, are also included in this group.


Group-II: Semi Consolidated formations:
The sedimentary formations ranging in age between the Upper Carboniferous to Tertiary, which though lithified are relatively less consolidated and soft as compared to the consolidated formation have been included in this group.  The hydrogeologic characteristics of the group are intermediate between the consolidated and the unconsolidated groups


Group-III: Unconsolidated Formations : A sediment that is loosely arranged or unstratified (not in layers) or whose particles are not cemented together (soft rock); occurring either at the ground surface or at a depth below the surface.
In this group, the youngest geological formations of Pleistocene to Recent age, which are fluviatile or aeolean in origin, which have not been lithified and occur as loose valley fill deposits have been included.  Such formations hold good hydrogeologic potential.



Which studies are required for Planning Artificial Recharge Schemes




Artificial Recharge Techniques and Designs

What does the selection of a suitable technique for artificial recharge of ground water depend on?

  1. Quantum of non-committed surface run-off available

  2. Rainfall pattern

  3. Land use and vegetation

  4. Topography and terrain profile

  5. Soil type and soil depth

  6. Thickness of weathered / granular zones

  7. Hydrological and hydrogeological characteristics

  8. Socio-economic conditions and infrastructural facilities available

  9. Environmental and ecological impacts of artificial recharge scheme proposed


Categories of techniques of artificial recharge systems:

 Direct Methods

  1. Surface Spreading Techniques

    1. Flooding

    2. Ditch and Furrows 

    3. Recharge Basins 

    4. Runoff Conservation Structures

      1. Bench Terracing

      2. Contour Bunds and Contour Trenches 

      3. Gully Plugs, Nalah Bunds, Check Dams 

      4. Percolation Ponds

    5. Stream Modification / Augmentation

  2.  Sub-surface Techniques

    1. Injection Wells (Recharge Wells)

    2. Gravity Head Recharge Wells

    3. Recharge Pits and Shafts


Indirect Methods

  1. Induced Recharge from Surface Water Sources; 

  2. Aquifer Modification 

    1. Bore Blasting

    2. Hydro-fracturing


Combination Methods

In addition to the above, ground water conservation structures like Subsurface dykes (Bandharas) and Fracture Sealing Cementation techniques are also used to arrest subsurface flows.




Harvesting Techniques in Rural Areas

  1. Gully Plug

  2. Contour Bund

  3. Gabion Structure

  4. Percolation tank 

  5. Check Dam / Cement Plug / Nala Bund

  6. Recharge shaft

  7. Dugwell Recharge

  8. Groundwater Dams / Subsurface Dyke


Artificial Recharge Structures Suitable Under Combination of Different Topographic Slopes, Hydrogeologic Groups and Rainfall Distribution.



 Note: Rainfall is considered ‘adequate’ if annual precipitation is more than 1000 mm.
* Indicate availability of source water supply through canals, trans-basin transfer or treated wastewater.
(Modified After: Manual on Artificial Recharge of Ground Water, CGWB (1994).





WATER HARVESTING – PRESENT PRACTICES

Rooftop Harvesting

  1. What is it:

    1. The roof top rainwater can be conserved and used for recharge of ground water. This approach requires connecting the outlet/drop pipe from roof of the building to divert the rainwater to either existing wells/tubewells/bore well or specially designed structure.

  2. Why it is required

    1. Meet demand for water

    2. Reduce runoff

    3. Augment ground water, reduce ground water pollution (if roof top harvesting is used for ground water recharge)

    4. Useful mainly for drinking water purposes

    5. Useful at the individual household level in remote hilly areas with high rainfall and also in semi-arid ares in the plains

  3. What are the advantages

    1. Idea solution of water problems where there is inadequate ground water supply and/or surface resources are not sufficient

    2. Utilize rainfall runoff

    3. Rainwater contains no bacteria and is pure, free from organic matter

    4. Improve the quality of existing ground water through dilution (may be useful since groundwater in Jhabua has high levels of Flouride - one of the solutions is diluting the water)

    5. structures required for harvesting the rainwater are simple, economical and eco-friendly (COST?)

  4. How to do it

    1. Roof top rainwater can be used to recharge ground water through the following:

      1. Abandoned dug well

      2. Abandoned/running hand pump

      3. Recharge pit/recharge trench

  5. Design Guidelines

    1. Abandoned dug well: 

      1. rt1.gif (21041 bytes)

      2. Recharge water is guided through a pipe to the bottom of the well or below the water level

      3. Dug well should be cleaned before use

      4. Recharge water should be silt free

      5. Suitable for large building having the roof area more than 1000 sq meters.

    2. Individual household areas

      1. Storage tanks can be constructed above ground or under ground.  The size of the tank will depend on the daily demand, duration of the dry spell, catchment area, and rainfall.  It can be built from locally available materials.

  6. What is needed to build and maintain it

    1. Volume of the tank: V = (t x n x q) x et, where  V = volume of the tank (litres) , t = lenght of the dry season (days), n = number of people using it, q = consumption per capita per day (litres), et = evaporation loss in dry period ( = 0 if in a closed area).

    2. ADD general design details later

    3. Periodic maintenance and management necessary

    4. the whole system needs to be checked before and after each rain and cleaned after every dry period exceeding a month

    5. water use should be managed so there is sufficient supply to last through the dry season.

  7. What is the cost

  8. Where is it used

    1. Some states where it is used: Northeastern states: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur and Nagaland. Also in Bikaner, Jaiselmar, and Jodhpur districts in Rajasthan.

  9.  Caution Areas/Disadvantages

    1. Before using the dug well, its bottom should be cleaned.

    2. It should be cleaned regularly

    3. Periodic chlorination of water should be done to prevent bacterial infection

    4. Failure to clean and manage it regularly means the water will not be available for hence the community members will have to go back to traveling large distances for water.

    5. If very little water is provided/rationed, then the user may be dissatisfied with this and not want to maintain it anymore.

  10. Other


Tanka/Kund/Kundi

  1. What is it


  2. Why it is required

    1. For drinking purposes

    2. Built for individual houses as well as villages by using local materials hence some are built with stones and, others are built with cement etc. [Question: Can this be used in Jhabua - what materials are locally available?]

  3. What are the advantages

    1. these structures provide enough drinking water to last through the summer months and more (some last all year) [Question: dependent on the rainfall - how much is needed to last a whole year and how much rainfall does Jhabua get?]

    2. Since rainwater flows over gently sloping (3 to 4% slope) sandy terrain, very little sediment flows into the storage tank.

    3. This method is cheap, environment-friendly, and effecting and can be used widely

  4. How to do it

    1. They are built in the main house or in the courtyard. They were circular holes made in the ground, lined with fine polished lime, in which raiwater was collected.

  5. Design Guidelines

    1. Tanka is constructed by digging a circular hole of 3.00 to 4.25 m diameters and plastering the base and sides with 6-mm thick lime mortar or 3mm thick cement mortar (individual households).

    2. The catchment of tankas are made in a variety of ways using locally available sealing materials like pond silt, murram, wood, coal ash, gravel etc

    3. Site area must be such that human activity and cattle grazing can be prevent in these areas during the monsoon to avoid polluting the water.

    4. Land surface should be firm and sandy with a slope of about 3% (fall of 3 cm per 1 meter length)

  6. What is needed to build it

    1. The catchment of tankas are made in a variety of ways using locally available sealing materials like pond silt, murram, wood, coal ash, gravel etc

    2. History

      1. Land/Surface Characteristics:

        1. should be gently sloping or flat

        2. sandy and firm

        3. moderate absorption of water (Note:  Definition of 'moderate', i.e. specific range)

        4. easy to excavate up to 6.5 meter depth for community tanka and 3.5 meter depth for household tanka

        5. Availability of material for catch treatment (Get details later)

        6. Monthly rainfall for last 10 years (from District Statistical Organization)

        7. Percentage of utilizable rainfall, i.e. runoff coefficient (from State Water Resources Organization or Central Water Commission)

  7. What is the cost

  8. Where is it used

    1. In the desert and arid areas of Rajasthan: people build underground structures to collect rainwater

    2. Can be built in any region where the land slopes are gentle and the surface is sandy and/or rocky without any harmful salts/minerals

    3. not sueful in areas with steep slopes and where land surfce had clayey soils

  9. Caution Areas/Disadvantages

    1. Before the monsoon, it has to be cleaned manually to remove all possible pollutants.

    2. Requires constant monitoring to prevent pollution (cattle or human activity) during monsoon

    3.  

  10. Other

    1. Pengwa village in Qinan County in China has solved their water problem of 1820 persons by building 359 similar structures each with a capacity of 20-30 m (for village communities). During the severest drought of 2000 when all other neighboring villages had no harvest, this village had almost normal yield of 110 kg wheat/mu. The net income per capita rose from 680 to 1020 Yuan after construction.


Ponds/Tanks

  1. What is it

    1. to collect and store rainwater in dug ponds or tanks.

  2. Why it is required

    1. Use

  3. What are the advantages

    1. option to design and build a pond of a desired size to meet the water requirements of the community.

  4. How to do it

    1. workout the water requirements for the needs

    2. determine catchment area, above the pond site, from where the monsoon runoff would be available to fill the pond

  5. Design Guidelines

    1. What is a good site:

      1. narrow gorge?

      2. capacity catchment ratio should be such that the pond can fill up in about 2-3 months of rainfall. 

      3. the pond should be located where it can serve a major purpose, e.g. if for irrigation, it should be above the irrigated fields.

  6. What is needed to build it

    1. it is possible to construct a stable and economical earthen bund on any foundation

  7. What is the cost

  8. Where is it used

  9. Caution Areas/Disadvantages

  10. Other


Groundwater Harvesting

  1. in hilly areas of Uttaranchal Pradesh, people harvest ground water by making stone wall across groundwater streams.

  2. Decline in this method because underground streams are drying up due to large scale deforestation and increased human activities in the hills [Note: this is a problem in Jhabua as well - What is the status of groundwater harvesting in Jhabua?]

Khadin

  1. What is it

    1. construction designed to harvest surface runoff water for agriculture (developed in the 15th century in the Jaisalmer district of western Rajasthan

    2. The khadin system is based on the principle of harvesting rainwater on farmland and subsequent use of this water-saturated land for crop production.

    3. Its main feature is a very long (100-300 m) earthen embankment built across the lower hill slopes lying below gravelly uplands. Sluices and spillways allow excess water to drain off.

  2. Why it is required

    1. (Even though this is site specific), with good management it can make arid wasteland productive

  3. What are the advantages

    1. it can make arid wasteland productive

    2. though it is primary runoff agriculture, a lot of water gets stored on the land, partly going down deep, sideways

  4. How to do it

  5. Design Guidelines

  6. What is needed to build it

  7. What is the cost

  8. Where is it used

  9. Caution Areas/Disadvantages

    1. much is lost through evaporation.
  10. Other

    1. there are as many as 500 big and small khadins in Jaisalmer district, which are productive, even with 40mm rainfall [Note:  Talk to Ashis about Khadins to determine if this is feasible in Jhabua.  A similar system, known as a Haveli, is used in Madhya Pradesh].  Is this possible to do near farms so that excess water can flow directly onto the farms?



A khadin, also called a dhora, is an ingenious construction designed to harvest surface runoff water for agriculture. Its main feature is a very long (100-300 m) earthen embankment built across the lower hill slopes lying below gravelly uplands. Sluices and spillways allow excess water to drain off. The khadin system is based on the principle of harvesting rainwater on farmland and subsequent use of this water-saturated land for crop production.



 Check Dams

    1. What is it

      1. Check dams are concrete structures constructed across small streams having gentle slope. Goal is to to brake the flow of water during the monsoons, and allows it to seep into the soil.

    2. Why it is required

      1. Recharge groundwater


    3. What are the advantages

      1. store surface water for use both during and after the monsoon

      2. ground water recharge


    4. How to do it

    5. Design Guidelines

      1. While constructing a series of check dams on along stream course, the spacing between two check dams should be beyond their water spread. The height of the check dam should be such that even during the highest flood, water does not spill over the banks.

      2. Rainfall in the catchment should be less than 1000mm/year

      3. The width of the nala bed should be at least 5 meters and not exceet 15 meters and the depth should not be less than 1 meter.

      4. the soil downstream of the bund should have pH between 6.5 to 8.

      5. the rock strata should be adequately permeable to cause ground water recharge (Precise range?)

    6. What is needed to build it

      1. It is possible to build them out of easily available materials. It is even possible to build some of these dams at a very little cost. The most important decision to be taken when building such a dam is its location. (The cost of building a check dam for irrigation of one hectare of land can vary between Rs 5000 to 8000)

      2. Check dams can be of various sizes and built with a variety of materials including stone, clay and cement

    7. What is the cost

      1. The cost of building a check dam for irrigation of one hectare of land can vary between Rs 5000 to 8000

    8. Where is it used

    9. Caution Areas/Disadvantages

      1. Masonry and cement concrete structures require some degree of construction skills and high investment.

    10. Otherusually built by the State Government agencies such as Irrigation/Water Resources, Agriculture and Forests [Question:  Can NREGA be used for this work?]Individual farmers can build small check dams of clay


    1. http://www.lakecountyohio.org/soil/Construction%20pages/AH-Check%20Dam/Check%20Dam%20Detail-%20ODNR.bmp

Contour bunds

Contour bunding, which is a watershed management practice aimed at building up soil moisture storage involve construction of small embankments or bunds across the slope of the land.



Contour Bunds are effective method to conserve soil moisture in watershed for long duration.

These are suitable in low rain fall areas where monsoon run off can be impounded by constructing bunds on the sloping ground all along the contour of equal elevation.

Flowing water is intercepted before it attains the erosive velocity by keeping suitable spacing between bunds.

Spacing between two contour bunds depends on the slope of the area as the permeability of the soil. Lesser the permeability of soil, the close should be spacing of bunds.

Contour bunding is suitable on lands with moderate slopes without involving terracing.




Percolation Tanks:  ADD MORE LATER

    1. What is it

      1. Percolation tanks are generally constructed on the small streams with adequate catchment for impounding surface runoff. These tanks are used entirely for recharging the aquifer through percolation. (The downward movement of the water through the soil due to force of gravity is termed as Percolation)

    2. Why it is required

      1. dependable mode for groundwater recharge in the hard rock terrain (covering 2/3 of the country)

      2. Soil criteria: moderate to high porosity of soil and/or underlying rock strata

    3. What are the advantages

      1. In comparison to ponds, percolation tanks conserve water to a greater extent because the filling and recharge occur mostly during the monsoon when the evaporation rate is about the half of potential rate in summer through which ponds contain water.

      2. Studies in Maharasthra indicate that a properly located, designed, and constructed [Note:  Get precise conditions and see if this is possible in Jhabua] percolation tank can have an efficiency ranging from 78% to 91% with respect to recharge of ground water. (strong case for using this in hard rock areas since it serves a dual purpose of water harvesting and ground water recharging).

    4. How to do it

      1. In order to augment ground water storage, runoff water in several seasonal streams in a large watershed is impounded by constructing earthen bunds across the streams

      2. The recharged area down stream should have sufficient number of wells and cultivable land to benefit from the augmented ground water.

    5. Design Guidelines

      1. submergence area should be as uncultivated as possible

      2. the benefitted area should have sufficient number of wells, hand pumps, etc. (minimum denisty of 3-5 per square km).

      3. soil should preferably be of light sandy type to avoid silting.

      4. design should be based on:

        1. topography of the area to calculate the height and the length of the dam, its gradient, width and the depth of the structure, taking into account the nature of the underlying formation

        2. details of the cut-ff trench to reduce seepage losses

        3. upstream and downstream slopes should be moderate so that sheer stress is not induced beyond a permissible limit

        4. stability of the dam

    6. What is needed to build it

      1. Construction materials consist of a mixture of soil, silt, loam, clay, sand, gravely, suitably mixed and laid in layers and properly compacted to achieve stability and water tightness.

    7. What is the cost

    8. Where is it used

      1. popular in Maharashtra, Andra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Gujarat.


    9. Caution Areas/Disadvantages

      1. Require skills in hydrogeology and hence is usually taken up by the government.

    10. Other

      1. Catchment area : 10 to 50 sq  kms for storing Monsoon runoff.

      2. Size: Usually 50 m to 150 m long and about 6 to 8 m in height.

      3. Construction of percolation tanks (an earthen bund across a stream) in the drought-prone, semi-arid region during a drought year gives employment to about 1,000 to 1,200 men and women, for 6 to 8 months. [Question: Can we utilize schemes such as NREGA to do this during the summer, thereby reducing the migration rate?]

      4. In Maharashtra there is legislation to cover percolation tanks.

      5. The water is not used for surface irrigation. In Tamil Nadu, where there is over-exploitation of ground water, farmers are now volunteering to spare land for percolation tanks.

      6. In the Saurashtra region of Gujarat these tanks are constructed for recharging wells that support peanut production.

      7. When rainfall is high and water holding capacity of soil is less, the losses due to percolation are very great. Besides rapid percolation of water there is also a heavy loss of plant nutrients viz., Ca, Mg, S, K, etc., resulting in soil becoming acidic.



Case Studies

ADD LATER
  1. Artificial Recharge Structures (Sub surface Dykes) in Rajgarh district, M.P

    District: Raigarh, M. P.  

    Location  :  Barwa Kalan, Ajnar sub basin, Rajgarh district

    Type of Structure :  Subsurface Dykes

    Cost:  Rs. 2.0 lakhs  

    Implementing Agency:   Public Health Engineering Department, Govt. of M.P.

    Geology : Alluvium and basalt

    Subsurface Dykes Barwa Kalan, Ajnar sub basin, Rajgarh district

    Description:  To arrest the subsurface out flow of ground water to the river Ajnar, in the form of base flow, subsurface dykes were constructed near Barwa Kalan village.  

    Impact:   After the construction of the dykes, water level in the nearby dug wells registered a rise ranging from 0.80 to 3.80 metres. In the hand pumps, the rise was in the range of 6.0 to 12.0 meters. Due to rise in water level and the increased water column, the yield of dug wells showed a marked increase of 50% to 100%. Wells, which were dry by January end, now sustain pumping till April end. The Rabi crop area has increased from 97 to 121 Hectares. The number of irrigation wells, which were only 38, has increased to 102 irrigation wells.   

  2. Artificial Recharge Structures (Sub surface Dyke, Nala bund, contour trenches) in WALMI farm, Bhopal

    District   :  Bhopal, M. P.  

    Location  :  WALMI farm, Bhopal, M.P  

    Structures  :  Subsurface Dyke, Nala bund, contour trenches.

    Expenditure  :  Rs. 2.26 lakhs  

    Implementing Agency:  WALMI, Govt. of M.P.

    Geology  :  Basalt

    Description : WALMI had constructed a rainwater collection tank, for irrigation purposes, in its farm. However, due to unscientific site selection, water was seeping out from the vesicular basalt, which formed the base of the tank. A subsurface dyke has been constructed at the lower end of the rainwater collection tank to prevent the subsurface outflow of water. In addition, about 460 metres of contour trenches and a sand bag nala bund have been constructed in the catchment area of the rainwater collection tank to increase the inflow.  

    Impact:   Due to the construction of the subsurface dyke, the average rate of water depletion reduced from 10 cm/day to 6 cm/day, the nala bund retained 500 cubic meters of water and recharged the pheratic aquifer. 

  3. Artificial Recharge Structures (Sub surface Dyke, Nala bund, contour trenches) in WALMI farm, Bhopal

    District   :  Bhopal, M. P.  

    Location  :  WALMI farm, Bhopal, M.P  

    Structures  :  Subsurface Dyke, Nala bund, contour trenches.

    Expenditure  :  Rs. 2.26 lakhs  

    Implementing Agency:  WALMI, Govt. of M.P.

    Geology  :  Basalt

    Description : WALMI had constructed a rainwater collection tank, for irrigation purposes, in its farm. However, due to unscientific site selection, water was seeping out from the vesicular basalt, which formed the base of the tank. A subsurface dyke has been constructed at the lower end of the rainwater collection tank to prevent the subsurface outflow of water. In addition, about 460 metres of contour trenches and a sand bag nala bund have been constructed in the catchment area of the rainwater collection tank to increase the inflow.  

    Impact:   Due to the construction of the subsurface dyke, the average rate of water depletion reduced from 10 cm/day to 6 cm/day, the nala bund retained 500 cubic meters of water and recharged the pheratic aquifer.




Impact Assessment of Artificial Recharge Projects Implemented by Central Ground Water Board


S.  No.
Name of State
No. of schemes for which impact assessment done
Artificial Recharge Structures
Impact assessment
1.
Andhra Pradesh
6
Percolation Tanks 4500-5900 Cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year

 
3
Check dams 1000-1250 Cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year

 
1
Combination of recharge pits and lateral shafts 370 Cubic meter runoff recharged in one year
2
Arunachal Pradesh
1
Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting 7000 cubic meter runoff water harvested in one year
3.

Assam
1
Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting 5500 Cubic meter runoff water harvested in one year
4.
Bihar
1
Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting 4700 cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year
5.
Chandigarh
6
Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting 1440-13,000 Cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year

 
1
Rain Water Harvesting through Roof Top & Pavement catchments 34.50 lakhs cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year  

 
1
Recharge Trenches 9.50 lakh cubic meter rainwater runoff recharged in one year
6.
Gujarat
3
Rain Water Harvesting through Roof Top & Pavement catchments 11000-45000 runoff water recharged in one year
7.
Haryana
1
Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting 2350 Cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year

 
1
Combination of Recharge shafts and injection wells 3.50 lakh cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year. Declining rate reduced from 1.175 m/yr to 0.25 m/yr.
8.
Himachal Pradesh
3
Check dams 1.20-21.00 lakhs cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year.
9.
Jammu and Kashmir
2
Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting 300-1200 Cubic meter runoff water harvested in one year
10.
Jharkhand
1
Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting 4500 cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year.
11.
Karnataka
1
Combination of Percolation Tanks, Watershed Structures, Recharge wells, Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting 2-3.5 m. rise in water levels and 9-16 ha area benefited from percolation tanks 8.60 lakh cubic meter water recharged through recharge well. 3-5 m rise in ground water levels through watershed structures. 530 cubic meter recharged from Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting.  
12.
Kerala
1
Sub-surface Dyke Augmented 5000 Cubic meter of ground water in upstream side with 2 m rise in groundwater levels.

 
1
Recharge wells 2800 Cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year

 
3
Percolation tanks 2000-15000 Cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year

 
1
Tidal regulator 4000 Cubic meter runoff water conserved and a difference of 1.5 m was observed in upstream and downstream water level.

 
1
Check Dam 30,000 Cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year
13.
Lakshdweep
1
Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting 300 Cubic meter rainwater harvested in one year
14.
Madhya Pradesh
4
Sub-surface Dykes Rise in water level in dug wells in the range of 0.80-3.80 m and 6-12 m in hand pumps have been observed.

 
1
Percolation Tank Rise in ground water levels by 1-4 m. in command areas downstream of tanks has been observed.

 
1
Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting (1000 houses) More than 2 lakh cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year.

 
1
Combination of sub-surface dykes and check dam Rise in water levels in existing tubewells in upstream area by 0.30 m to 2.00 m has been observed.
15.
Maharashtra
2
Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting System 196-280 cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year

 
1
Combination of Percolation Tanks and Check Dams. Benefited area About 60 to 120 ha. per Percolation Tank,
3 to 15 hectare per Check Dam
Water level rise Upto 1.5 m.

 
1
Percolation tanks, Recharge Shaft, Dugwell Recharge.
Benefited area 400-500 hectare around the scheme.
16.
Meghalaya
1
Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting 6800 cubic meter runoff water harvested in one year
17.
Mizoram
1
Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting 50,000 cubic meter runoff water harvested in one year
18.
Nagaland
2
Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting 3700 12,800 cubic meter runoff water harvested in one year
19.
NCT Delhi
2
Check dams Water levels have risen upto 2.55 m in the vicinity of Check Dams and area benefited is upto 30 hectare from each check dam in JNU & IIT.
1.30-lakh cubic meter of rainwater was recharged in one year in Kushak Nala.

 
7
Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting 800 5000 Cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year

 
8
Rain water harvesting through Roof Top & Pavement catchments 8500 20,000 cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year
20.
Orissa
1
Rain water harvesting through Roof Top & Pavement catchments 19,000 cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year
21.
Punjab
1
Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting 500 cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year

 
3
Recharge wells 9 15.50 lakhs cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year.

 
1
Trenches Average rise in water level to 0.32-0.70 m has been observed.

 
2
Combination of vertical shafts, injection wells & recharge trenches Recharge of 1.70 lakh cubic meter runoff water caused average rise of 0.25 m. in ground water levels around the scheme area.

 
1
Combination of recharge shafts and injection wells 14,400 Cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year.
22.
Rajasthan 88,000 Cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year. Water level rise - 0.65 m.

1


 
12
Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting 350-2800 Cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year.

 
3
Sub-surface Barriers 2000-11500 Cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year.
Water level rise from 0.25 to 0.60 m.
23.
Tamil Nadu
1
Sub-surface Dyke 39.25 ha. area benefited.

 
7
Percolation Tanks 10,000-2,25,000 runoff water recharged in one year.

 
1
Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting 3700 cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year
24.
Uttar Pradesh
5
Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting 350-1100 cubic meter runoff water recharged in one year
25.
West Bengal
1
Combination of Farm Ponds, Nala Bunds, Sub-surface Dykes Water level rise of 0.15 m. observed.

 
1
Sub-surface Dykes Rise in water levels by 0.45 m. observed





[Question:  Why isn't MP (specifically Jhabua) not using other schemes?  Are they not available or RGWM is the most useful for MP?]


        State                    District                    Area Covered    # of Micro-            Funding
                                                                                              watersheds         source
 










"Convergence of various sectors of rural villagers into a micro watershed for sustainable development of the rural poor
"




http://www.baif.org.in/aspx_pages/pdf/water/Watershed%20Experience%20of%20BAIF.pdf  (Bharatiya Agro Industries Foundation)


NEXT STEPS: What do we want to find out?

Village Information

  1.  District Tehsil Village Population Total area (ha) Total farming area (ha) Major rainy season crops Major non-rainy season crops  

Water situation of village (Attach a map)

 What is the major source of irrigation in village? 1-Groundwater, 2-Stream, 3-Tank water, 4-Pond
5-Other source (Code)
How many Dug wells? (No.)
Dug well in use (No.)
How many Bore wells? (No.)
Borewell well in use (No.) 
How many Dug wells were constructed in last year 2007-08? (Nos.)What was the groundwater level in village last year (ft) [Pre-monsoon]
 (GET HISTORY)
What was the groundwater level in village last year (ft) [Post-monsoon]
Do you have any of the following activities in your village? 1- check dam, 2-pond deepening, 3-roof top rainwater harvesting, 4-none of these.  



Groundwater recharge

 How many dug wells in village should recharge to get benefit? Nos. If all dug wells are recharged, then by how much will available water increase? in %
  If some money is given to village, how would you use it for water conservation? 1- construct  1-dug well recharge,  2-check dam, 3-one pond, 4-any other (specify)
      


Topography Information



Rainfall Information





There is a national program on dug well recharge in progress now.  # of organizations are coming together to figure out if we can revive dug wells in hard rock India through recharge.







What is required to construct a groundwater recharging structure?

http://www.rainwaterharvesting.org/Rural/Rural.htm


This is for urban areas, but some concepts might still be useful: http://www.rainwaterharvesting.org/Urban/Design_Recharge.htm


For selection of the site:

  1.   Define the sub-surface geology.

  2.   Determine the presence or absence of impermeable layers or lenses that can impede percolation

  3.   Define depths to water table and groundwater flow directions

  4.   Establish the maximum rate of recharge that could be achieved at the site.


For design of a recharge structure:

  1. Size of the catchment

  2. Intensity of rainfall 

  3. Rate of recharge, which depends on the geology of the site ("The capacity of the tank should be enough to retain the runoff occurring from conditions of peak rainfall intensity. The rate of recharge in comparison to runoff is a critical factor".)



Water Conservation Schemes:

  1. http://waterconserve.maharashtra.gov.in/english/schemeMainShow.php


Case Studies






Subpages (1): Draft
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