Pomeroy Twig

Search this site

The English in Ireland

        The reasons for the  so called ‘Irish Problem’ goes back many centuries and began with the forced subjugation of its native people,  the Celts who had a wonderfully complex culture centred on nature. The Celts regarded the Romans as barbarians because of their practice of murdering prisoners or selling them , including women and children, into slavery. Then came Christianity.

   Europeans Christians   invaded many countries seeking to impose their beliefs on peoples neither want it or needed it because they had a berlive system and a cultured in balance with the land, and it had sustained them   for centuries.   This was always the way Christians did things, hiding their greed for land and gold, spices and other commodities behind religion and it continued for centuries, all over the world.  Counties such as South America, North America, Australia, South Africa, India were invaded and claimed for one European King or another.   In many cases this involved the annihilation of the native populations either by war or by disease.


Ireland received much the same treatment, despite being  close to England's shores. Under the Gaelic system from earliest times, the Celts were largely farmers/herders with common rights of ownership of the soil, their landlord was a chief or king who was elected by them.  That was until one king invited Norman mercenaries to Ireland to help him with his local problems, from then on things began to change.

    The newly arrived Normans seized large tracts of land with each defeat of an Irish chief in battle.  This was not helped by the fact that the Irish people regularly rose up in revolt. The incomers, the gentlemen leaders of the  army, were given grants of land  as reward for their military service. Uprisings continued throughout the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries until by 1640, thirty five percent of all the tillable land in Ireland was owned by outsiders or English soldiers/settlers.

  The Tudor 16th century re-conquest of Ireland took place under the  Tudor dynasty. It following a failed rebellion  against the crown by the Geraldines in the 1530s.  Henry VIII was declared King of Ireland by statute of the Irish parliament, with the aim of restoring such central authority as had been lost throughout the country during the previous two hundred years.

By bloody and merciless repression the conquest continued for sixty years, until 1603, when the entire country came under the nominal control of James I exercised through his privy council at Dublin. This control was perfected upon the Flight of the Earls in 1607.

 The conquest was complicated by the imposition of English law, language and culture, as well as by the extension of the English Protestant Reformation. The Roman Catholic Spanish Empire intervened several times at the height of the Anglo-Spanish War (1585-1604), and the Irish found themselves caught between their widespread acceptance of the Pope's authority and the requirements of allegiance demanded of them by the English Monarchy.

By the time this conquest was complet Gaelic Ireland had been largely destroyed and the Spanish were no longer willing to intervene directly. This left the way clear for extensive confiscation of the country by English, Scots, and Welsh colonists, and dispossession of former Irish landowners which culminated in the Plantation of Ulster.

 Plantations were the confiscation of land by the Government of England and the colonisation of this land with settlers from England and Scotland. They were established throughout the country by the confiscation of lands occupied by Gaelic clans and Hiberno-Norman dynasties, but principally in the provinces of Munster and Ulster. The lands were then granted by Crown authority to colonists ("planters") from Britain. This process began during the reign of Henry VIII and continued under Mary I and Elizabeth I. This was accelerated under James I, Charles I and Cromwell.

  In 1641, just before the English Civil War (1642-1651) the Irish mounted a nationwide war, the "Great Rebellion", a fight that dragged on for eleven years with wholesale death and destruction throughout Ireland

Then fanatical Oliver Cromwell brought his New Model Army to Ireland. They marched into every Irish town, slaughtering those who resisted. Drogheda, is a prime example of the ruthless ferocity with which the British executed their mission to subdue Ireland. In Drogheda they found a few defending soldiers and some three thousand unarmed civilians.
When the slaughter was over only thirty Irish people remained.

 

  By 1652, one third of the Irish Catholic population had been killed and thousands had been transported to the West Indies as slaves. Next came an order to either move to the barren lands of western Ireland or be killed, "to hell or Connaught"- By 1655 seventy five percent of land was owned by non-Irish (Protestants). Yet despite this an Irish nation still existed--separate, numerous and, not surprisingly, very hostile.

 English authorities now felt safe believing that Irish rebellions would cease because of savagery used in the suppression. They soon found out that they were wrong.


New trouble had begun when Charles II died in 1685 . He was succeeded by his brother James II, a Catholic. The Catholics of Ireland believed the new king would restore their lands and gave him their wholehearted support, however Britain's political and religious leaders became increasingly opposed him, he was too pro-French, too pro-Catholic and too much the absolute monarch.
However the Protestant nobles in England wished to their retain control and their religious observance, and maybe dreading a return to the bloody time of Mary Tudor, invited the Dutch Protestant William of Orange to come to England to be their king, his right to the throne coming from his wife Mary .the daughter of James II.
William accepted their offer and in 1688 James II, fled to France, thereby abdicating, and planned to regain his throne. William came to England to Brixham where he was welcomed by the populace.
James landed in Ireland in 1689 and won a series of battles before William’s army landed on 11 July 1690 when James was defeated at the Battle of the Boyne. However, feeling threatened by a Catholic army so close to their shores the English government enacted a series of laws aimed at reducing the threat and the Irish Catholics to almost nothing.


William III, King Billy, was fighting on at least two fronts and at the same time he was marching onto Irish soil a sea battle was in progress off Beachy Head in the English Channel between England and her Dutch allies against the French.  GEORGE POMEROY Captain commanding HMS Rupert from  24 June 1690 until July 1690, died of his wounds received in the Battle of Beachy Head on 10th July 1690 a battle which the French won . Following their victory the French fleet made a symbolic and futile pillaging and burning of the English coastal fishing village of Teignmouth on 26th July, now regarded as the last attempt to invade the English shores.


In Ireland the Penal Laws forbade the Irish Catholic’s education, they could not serve in the military, or be employed in professional vocations. They were not allowed civic responsibilities, nor could they attend Catholic Church services. They were not permitted to purchase land and for those already in possession of land the normal rule of primogenitor was voided. The eldest son could not inherit and estates had to be equally among all the sons--unless one of them renounced his Catholic faith and became a Protestant, in which case he took the lot.
The Catholics were not permitted to own horse valued more than £25, and if a Protestant offered a Catholic that £25 for his horse, he was obliged to sell it to him. This resulted in bizarre events such as one Irish catholic farmer who shot his favourite horse rather than sell it to a Protestant incomer.
 One of the most hated provisions of these laws obliged all Catholics (but not Protestants) to pay tithes to the Church of England. Since Ireland was more than ninety five percent Catholic, the Protestant ministers received their income from people who never came to their church making the annual income of many ministers in Ireland three times that of one in England.
 
There is one irony to this law.  The names of all the heads of households who paid their tithes were dutifully recorded and today these lists have proven to be an excellent source of genealogical information for people tracing their Irish roots.and was succeeded by his brother James II, a Catholic. The Catholics of Ireland believed the new king would restore their lands and gave him their wholehearted support, however Britain's political and religious leaders became increasingly opposed him, he was too pro-French, too pro-Catholic and too much the absolute monarch. Protestant nobles in England wishing to retain control and their religious observance, and maybe dreading a return to the bloody time of Mary Tudor, invited the Dutch Protestant William of Orange to come to England to be their king, his right to the throne coming from his Mary the daughter of James II.
William accepted their offer and in 1688 James II, fled to France, thereby abdicating, and planned to regain his throne. William came to England to Brixham where he was welcomed by the populace.
James landed in Ireland in 1689 and won a series of battles before William’s army landed in July 1690 and defeated him at the Battle of the Boyne. However, feeling threatened by a Catholic army so close to their shores the English government enacted a series of laws aimed at reducing the threat and the Irish Catholics to almost nothing.
The Penal Laws forbade the Irish Catholic’s education, they could not serve in the military, or be employed in professional vocations. They were not allowed civic responsibilities, nor could they attend Catholic Church services.
They were not permitted to purchase land and for those already in possession of land the normal rule of primogenitor was voided. The eldest son could not inherit and estates had to be equally among all the sons--unless one of them renounced his Catholic faith and became a Protestant, in which case he took the lot.
The Catholics were not permitted to own horse valued more than £25, and if a Protestant offered a Catholic that £25 for his horse, he was obliged to sell it to him. This resulted in bizarre events such as one Irish catholic farmer who shot his favourite horse rather than sell it to a Protestant incomer.
 One of the most hated provisions of these laws obliged all Catholics (but not Protestants) to pay tithes to the Church of England. Since Ireland was more than ninety five percent Catholic, the Protestant ministers received their income from people who never came to their church making the annual income of many ministers in Ireland three times that of one in England.
 
There is one irony to this law.  The names of all the heads of households who paid their tithes were dutifully recorded and today these lists have proven to be an excellent source of genealogical information for people tracing their Irish roots.     Irish roots.


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

 Notes on Pomeroys in Ireland


1184 AD ~Pipe Rolls of Henry II;  Record of a/c for 60/- for passage to Ireland of Joscelin de Pomeray.   Powley’s  history of the Pomeroy states that Henry II offered the Kingdom of Limerick to Joscelin de la Pomerai in 1177 but either he did not accept or failed to subdue it.

1641. Lieutenant Samuel Pomeroy came to Ireland with the Army and later came into possession of a property called Pallice about 5 or 6 miles west of Mallow in Co.Cork.
His two sons died before him and the estate was inherited by his grandson Thomas Holmes who added the name Pomeroy. Of Thomas’ 4 sons, (1 and 2 )Mathew and Samuel died without male issue, (3) William had a daughter Amelia who inherited Pallice, and (4)George Holmes Pomeroy went to USA , married 1729/30 died 1776  and had descendants.  Amelia  married Richard Phaire and the lands in North Cork are mentioned in a marriage settlement deed of her son Robert Phaire dated 1811, saying that these lands came to the Phaire family through marriage of Amelia Pomeroy.


6.1672. Very Rev. Arthur Pomeroy came to Ireland as chaplain to the Lord Lieutenant, Arthur Capel, Earl of Essex, and obtained the Deanery of Cork. His son Ven. John Pomeroy was Archdeacon of Cork 1717. John’s son Arthur was raised to the peerage as 1st Viscount Harberton .  This line is well documented. George Francis 3rd son of 4th Viscount Harberton took the name Colley.  1880



Comments