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Sir Henry of the Holland Regiment

  1642- 1651
 the Interregnum or the Commonwealth  from 1651  until the Restoration  of Charles II in 1660
Charles II reign was dated from his father's death in 1647  ignoring the period of the Commonwealth
Charles  I  believed he was king by divine right and Royalists lead the campaign to retain the King's right to be absolute monarch and supreme ruler  of England.
The Parliamentarians sought a constitutional monarchy with a more democratic rule, by 'the people' and, as everyone knows, elected Oliver Cromwell to lead them.

The Royalist or Cavaliers of the Civil War were an ill disciplined bunch who plundered and pillaged at every opportunity-Their opponents were Parliamentarians just as bad at the outset  until Oliver  Cromwell took charge and trained them from a rabble into  the New Model Army. Nicknamed  the Roundheads because of their helmets,  they became far better disciplined.
The famous red coats 
of the British Army
began at that time and the army that was formed then later became England's first standing army.

 Charles I - volume 130 - Warrants for Issuing Letters of Marque ....
 William Topson and others, St. George, of Stonehouse. 160,  William Pomeroy. ".
 Her pinnace, not stated, Not stated. " 21…. .. Calendar of State Papers Domestic: Charles I, 1628-29 (1859)
Lieutenant William Pomeroy ,  one of the Brixham family, son of Edward Pomeroy & Wilmot Peryam ,married in May 1634, his wife Jane Wolfe ,
was  serving in the  King's Ships, of the Summer Guard  in  1642 on the merchant ship ’London ‘ under Captain  John Stephens. 
By 1661 - 1663   William Pomeroy had his own ship and was  Captain  William Pomeroy

 Being land owners the Pomeroys were evidently Royalist 
Endorsed: "Robert Prince his demandes for quartering and plunder. This bill for quarteringe of souldiers amounts unto 41 11s 2d. I allow of this bill xxxs ivd. 30 Martii, 1646. Signed: John Pomeroy. 1 p. (Bills 210/19.)
    Attached: 5 similar bills submitted by certain tenants at Rushton manor who were plundered by the opposing armies or forced to quarter their troops in 1642, 1643, 1644 and 1645. Military commanders mentioned in the bills are: Captain Hastings, Captain Dewes, Colonel Strangways, Sir Thomas Fairfax, Lord Hopton, Captain Ludlye (Ludlow), Lord Gourin (Goring) Colonel Ffines (Fynes) Major-General Vanrosse and Colonel Coker.
    Note at bottom of one bill: "I allow the same to all tenants uppon Rack Rents as I have allowed to Walter Rogers beinge a 3rd part of Quarteringe and contribution if it exceed not the rent, but noe plunder." Signed: John Pomeroy.—20 October, 1646.

Powley suggests a Devonshire origin for Sir Henry: Powley: P. 101:
"A HENRY POMEROY ( 1665-1683), in January 1665, received a captaincy in the Holland regiment of foot, (State Papers), assisted the earl of Bath, ** at Exeter, July 1666"a good officer and acceptable to that county (Devonshire) being a countryman of good family." (State Papers, Domestic, 1664-1666).

 From the latter part of 1642 until 1644 Plymouth was held for Parliament,   the townsfolk taking advantage of a brief absence by the King's Governor, Sir Jacob Astley, to seize the town and fortify it.  Sir Ralph Hopton appeared before Plymouth in December 1642  demanding its surrender but Plymouth resisted. In September of the following year Colonel Digby was sent to blockade making his headquarters at Plymstock, with batteries at Oreston and Mount Batten.   Shortly afterwards, Prince Maurice with his army advanced on the Town and made his headquarters at Widey House.
 The inhabitants took a solemn vow to stand together and to sur
render nothing 'without the authority and consent of both houses of Parliament'.

 After much skirmishing  with the taking and re-taking of the forts, news came that the Earl of Essex was bringing an army to relieve the Town and the blockade was finally abandoned on Christmas Day 1644.  It was reputedly the longest and fiercest siege of its time.

Map of Plymouth from that time.

Colonel Ruthin, with the aforesaid Four Troops of Horse, and about One Hundred Dragooners, about Three of the Clock in the Morning, marched from Plymouth, over Ruberdowne, being a Bye-way to Modbery, where were gathered together, by the Sheriff's Command, Three or Four Thousand Men, some with Arms and some without; and we came so privately, that they did not discover us until we came within a Mile of the Town, which did so amaze them, that, after Sir Ralph Hopton drew up the Force he could presently get, he, with Sir Nicholas Slayning, ran away and escaped; and, after a small Skirmish with those that stood to it, with the Loss of One Man, and Two hurt, and Three or Four Horses,  we took Prisoners the Sheriff Sir Edmund Forscue and his Brother, Sir Edward Seymour and his Son, Mr. Bassett, Captain Pomeroy, Mr. Shopcut, Captain Wood, Captain Bidlocke Barnes of Exon, Lieutenant Penrose, Mr. Short, &c.

From thence, we marched that Day with our Prisoners to Dartmouth, to the glading of the Hearts of the good People there (having had a long March, Sixteen Hours on Horseback); for, while we were upon our March towards Madbery, one Mr. Thomas Leigh was in Treaty with Sir Ralph Hopton about the delivering up of the Town, as we are informed, and, by his Confession, he had got a Warrant, to free his House from plundering;
which Mr. Leigh we have also taken, and, with the rest of the Prisoners, have sent to Plymouth, this Morning in a Frigate called The Cressett, by one Captain Plunckett.
We ran a great Hazard in this Service, as your Honours may judge, for the Enemy lay on both Sides with all their Force, Part at Plinton(  Plympton) and Part at Tottneyes;( Totnes)  but the Lord carried us along in our Way, and delivered the Enemies of His Truth and our Liberties into our Hands, and made many more to fly before us.'

When Prince Charles, the rightful king of England, was exiled in France and it seems Henry Pomeroy was one of his retinue

Calendar of State Papers Domestic: Charles II, 1679-80
....Sir Henry Pomeroy  said to have been present at the King's marriage to Mrs. Barlow denies having said the King was married to Mrs. Barlow
Which Henry Pomeroy was this ?
He was most probably one of the 9 children  of Richard Pomeroy of Ingsdon and his wife Anne Coplestone- head of the family at that time was his brother Thomas Pomeroy, wife was Mary Drewe daughter of Sir Thomas Drewe of The Grange  in Broadhembury . His other siblings were Hugh, Richard, Amy, Elizabeth, Anne & Barbara.( see his Will below)

Charles II was led a dissolute life - particularly whilst in exile during the Civil War and the following Interregnum. 
One scandal was about  Lucy Barlow also called Lucy Walters, was a Welsh gentlewoman  who became the mistress of Charles II  whilst he was in exile in the Hague. He is said to have gone through a form of marriage with her which, when he was restored to his throne,could have made her queen but Charles denied the marriage. 
 Lucy was mother of Charles's only son,  the illegitimate  James Scott, born on  9 April 1649  shortly after Charles became king following his father's execution in January 1649. Charles acknowledged James as his son and later  created him  Duke of Monmouth and Duke of Buccleuch.
After Charles death in 1651 the Protestant Monmouth made an unsuccessful attempt to depose his uncle, the Catholic king, James II.
The Monmouth Rebellion failed and the king's son James, Duke of Monmouth, was executed  for this treason in 1685.

General Monke -of Great Torrington in Devonshire , a soldier to his bones - who fought on both sides in the Civil War 
           He  instigated the invitation to Charles II to return to claim his throne after Cromwell died.

Richard Cromwell  son of Oliver  inherited  the mantle of power  when his father died on 3 September 1658. He however had no wish to be a statesman, he was neither Puritan nor a soldier and did not have the power of command his father had. With Parliament putting pressure on him he rejected the unlooked for position of power and retired to private life.

The army was caught unawares by his precipitous abdication and recalled the Rump Parliament. A quarrel between Parliament and the leaders of the army now ensued with both sides arguing about how England should be ruled. The fear was that England  would quickly descend into the anarchy of civil war  once more.

On 1 January 1660 General George Monck marched his army of Roundheads, a small, a well-disciplined force, entirely loyal to him, towards London. He arrived on 3 February  and his intentions were unclear for a while but 1 May he reinstated the House of Lords and the Parliament of 1640, recommending that Parliament should invite Charles II to return.  Monck’s declaration was received with general joy, and celebrated by bonfires, in which the Rump Parliament was burnt in effigy all over London. 

 Sir  Henry Pomeroy  of  the Holland Regiment.
H/ the colonelcy of the regiment, vacant by the decease of 1668 Colonel Robert Sidney, on Major-General Sir Walter Vane.
There being only two infantry regiments in England 1669 at this period^ besides the foot guards, (viz. the Admiral's and Holland regiments^*) this corps was distributed in very extensive quarters.
 The following list, extracted from the military records in the State Paper Office, shows the stations it occupied on the 24th of March, 1670.
1670 The Holland Regiment.
Colonel Sir Walter Vane's Captain Sir Thos. Woodcock's Lieut.-Col. Sir Thos. Howard's Major Sir Thos. Ogle's Captain Henry Pomeroy's 1 y^.^^^^ Castle. " Plymouth.

Charles II November 1674 Hull: City of: Sir Henry Pomeroy 1674:  Charles II
Nov. 1.  Richard Gleadow to Williamson. Two ships bound for Virginia sailed hence yesterday, one a flyboat, the Thomas, of Hull, the other a small vessel, so that we have in all six ships gone thither since last spring, which makes this town and York to flourish much in that trade. Yesterday one Morgan, lieutenant to Sir Henry Pomeroy, being captain of the watch, falling out with a corporal, hit him under the ear, so that the blood issued out and he never spoke after and died to-day. [S.P. Dom., Car. II. 362, No. 47.]

1677: Parliamentarians:  Jan. 1.
Whitehall.            Commission to —???? of  Cornwall to be captain of the company in the Holland regiment, whereof Sir Henry Pomeroy was captain.
 Minute.  [S.P. Dom., Entry Book 44, p. 41.]

"Sir Henry Pomeroy Received captaincy in Holland regiment of foot; assisted the earl of Bath at Exeter July 1666;

He was probably son of Richard Pomeroy & Anne Coplestone whose children were
1.  Thomas Pomeroy ,Captain  of  St Erney & Landrake (.more here ) Born in 1579 in Ilsington, Devon. He married
age 19 on 1 May 1598 to his 1st wife Marie  GIFFRIE Jiffrie, Widow in St Erney
2.  Richard Pomeroy. Born on 7 Dec 1604 in Bickington, Devon. Richard died bef 1684;
3.  Henry PomeroyOf Westminster”. Born in 1606 in Devon. He  married Elizabeth Prideaux died in London, England, in 1681
4. Barbara. Baptised  ca 1610 in Bickington Devon
5  Ann Pomeroy Baptised  1 Sep 1610 in Bickington, Devon,
6. Agnes Pomeroy. Born 1612 Buckington On 19 Jul 1629 age  21, she married John Fortescue Gent. at St Andrews Plymouth.
7. Amy Pomeroy  a minor in 1616
On 17 Sep 1628 age 18 Amy married Percival Carwitham Lord Of Panston in Saint Pauls( The Cathedral)  Exeter. Percival died aft 1642
. Elizabeth Pomeroy. Born ca 1612 in Bickington Devon. living 1684 mentioned in the will of brother Henry
9. Hugh Pomeroy  “Royalist Captain” (1615->1684)  mentioned in the 1684 will of Henry

When he was knighted I have not yet discovered.
Sir Henry Pomeroy's 
Will was probated in 1683, and he was  buried in St Margaret’s Westminster with his w
ife Jane Prideaux, who died before him, interred in the same grave.
I dispute when the will was made. I think it was made in 1681 and probated in 1683 - NRA Document PROB 11/373/287
his Will reads ...'In witnesse whereof I have herevnto sett my hand and seale  the Fourteenth day of February in the Foure (this should read the First ) and Thirtieth yeare of the reigne of our Sovereigne Lord Charles the second by the grace of God of England  Scotland  France and Ireland  King  Defender of the Faith &c’.
 Annoq’ D’ni One thousand Six hundred eighty one 
the Latin probate reads Anno Dom’i Mill’imo Sexcen’mo Octog’mo tertio  which is  1683
AJP NOTE there is confusion here because 34 year of Charles II reign was 1683 but the date mentioned in 1681 .
I feel that the makers of the will might have got the year of the kings reign wrong or it might have been wrongly translated but the year date they would not have got wrong

Sir Henry Pomeroy, knight,  of Westminster;  -Transcription made by David Bethell &  paid for  by Alma LaFrance.
Mentioned  in the Will his brother of Hugh, sister Elizabeth,  brother Hugh, His neice 
Elizabeth Risley gets his property  her sister 
Maria Dorothea Risley  and  Aunt Mary Freeman  & sisters  Elizabeth Hutton & Lettice Risley are all mentioned and get bequests. His brother Hugh is thought to have died around 1682 and for some reason he in left in the will, maybe because his bewuest is so small it wasnt worth changing the document .
( Lettece Risley died Probate 1690 St Margarets Westminster )

Date 14 Feb 1681 Probated & Published  9th June 1683
In the name of God Amen I Sr. Henry Pomeroy of Westminster in the county of Midd’x Knight being sick and weake of body but of sound and perfect mind and
memorie thanks be given to Almighty God for the same and calling to minde the certeintie of death and uncertenietie of this life Doe make and ordaine this my
present last Will and Testament in writing in manner and forme following that is to say  First and principally I committ and commend my soule into the mercifull
hands of Almighty God assuredly tristing through the meritts death and passion of my blessed Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ to receive full pardon and remission of
all my sinns and a joyfull resurrec’ion to eternall life, my body I co’mitt to the earth from whence it was taken to bee buried in such decent manner as to my Ex’rix
hereafter named seeme fitt  And as for and touching such worldly estate as it hath pleased Almighty God to bestow vpon mee after my debts paid and funerall
expences discharged, I give and dispose thereof as followeth that is to say
 First I give vnto my brother Hugh Pomeroy the summe of Forty shillings to buy him a mourning ring 
Item I give vnto my loveing sister Elizabeth Hutton Widdow the summe of One hundred pounds and also one of my tenements in White fryers  London  now in the
occupac’on of Richard Langworth
 Item I give and bequeath unto my loveing sister Lettice Risley Widdow the summe of one hundred pounds and also one of my Tenements in White fryers London
now in the occupac’on of William Marshall Hasty maker 
Item I give vnto my Loveing Niece Maria Dorothea Risley the summe of One hundred pounds and also one of my tenements in the said White Fryers London now
in the occupac’on of William Gamball 
Item I give and bequeath unto my loveing Aunt  Mary Freeman the summe of Five pounds to buy her mourning 
All the rest of my personall estate as ready mony  plate  Jewells  Bills  Bonds  Leases  householdstuffe  Linnen and all other my goods and chattells both
whatsoever or wheresoever I give devise and bequeath vnto my loveing neece Elizabeth Risley whom I make my full and whole Executrix of this my last will and
Testament hereby revokeing and makeing void all former Wills and bequests by mee at any time heretofore made
 And I doe entreate my loveing uncle William Freeman to bee Overseer of this my last Will and Testament desireing him to see the same duely and faithfully
And my desire is That in case I die in Westminster Dr. Lambe may preach my Funerall Sermon if hee bee then in Towne
 In witnesse whereof I have herevnto sett my hand and seale
 the Fourteenth day of February in the Foure and Thirtieth yeare of the reigne of our Sovereigne Lord Charles the second by the grace of God of England 
Scotland  France and Ireland  King  Defender of the Faith &c’.
 Anno ’ D’ni One thousand Six hundred eighty one 
 Henry Pomeroy    Signed Sealed
published and declared by the abovesaid Sr. Henry Pomeroy for his last Will and Testament in the presence of Tho: Meads  Mary Bidden her marke  Hugh Slade  R.

Probated 1683
This manner of testament was proved at London before the Venerable sir Thomas Exton knight, doctor of laws, surrogate of the Venerable and Egregious sir
Leoline Jenkins knight also doctor of laws, lawfully constituted master keeper or commissary of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, on the 9th day of the month
of June in the year of our Lord 1683, by the oath of Elizabeth Risley, executrix named in the said testament, to whom was committed administration of all and
singular the goods, rights and credits of the said deceased, sworn upon the Holy Gospels to well and truly administer the same.

History of The Holland Regiment
4th Regiment of Foot

The Regiment originated from The Trained Bands of London, which were reviewed by Queen Elizabeth, in Greenwich Park, on 1 May 1572. After the review, Captain Thomas Morgan selected 300 men to form a company which he took to the Netherlands where they and their descendants continued to fight for the next 76 years until the power of Spain was broken. After the defeat of Spain, England and Holland began to quarrel and, in 1665, the Dutch called on the English units still in Holland to renounce their allegiance to the King of England. With few, exceptions both officers and men refused to swear allegiance to Holland and they were at once discharged and faced a life of almost certain ruin and destitution in a foreign country.
The English Ambassador, Sir George Downing, at his own expense arranged for the men to be returned to England and, on the 31st May 1665, King Charles II instructed that they be formed into a regiment to be known as The Holland Regiment, and he appointed Lieutenant Colonel Robert Sydney, a man from Kent, to be its first colonel. This regiment took its place as the fourth in the order of precedence behind The Royal Scots (1st), The Tangier Regiment (2nd), and The Lord High Admiral’s Regiment (3rd). It was originally designated, together with Lord High Admiral’s Regiment, as a “Maritime” regiment and as such took part in several naval actions. In 1667 the regiment became a land regiment. The uniform at that time consisted of a red tunic with buff lining, and the breeches, waistcoat and stockings were also buff.

In 1672, exactly one hundred years after Queen Elizabeth had reviewed the trained bands, the regiment was given a Royal Warrant allowing them to raise volunteers by beat of drum in the City of London. In those days recruiting parties carried a colour, and this is the origin of the privilege, which allowed The Buffs to march through the City of London with drums beating, bayonets fixed and colours flying.
The regiment received its nickname of "The Buffs" because it had been issued buff coats - armour made of soft leather - first when it served abroad in Holland and later when it was a Maritime Regiment of Foot. It was later given buff-coloured facings and waistcoats to distinguish itself from those of other regiments and had their leather equipment in buff rather than dyed the traditional white.

1572 Thomas Morgan's Company formed for service in Holland.

1605 expanded to brigade of four regiments.

1665 The Engish brigade, numbering three English and four Scottish regiments were required to take the oath of allegiance to the States-General or be cashiered. The English refused and disbanded in Holland. The Scots continued in Dutch service.

1665.05.31 The Holland Regiment formed in England from repatriated veterans of the three disbanded English regiments in Dutch service
The Holland Regiment, 23rd June 1665
The official date of the raising of the Holland Regiment for His Majesty's service was the 31st May 1665 the day of the Colonel's commission but the other officers received their commissions 3 weeks later on 23rd June. These 21 officers included Major Alexander Bruce who was the only officer of the Scots regiments to refuse the oath of allegiance to the Netherlands. The establishment was fixed at 6 companies of 106 NCOs and men each. The field officers acted as captains to the first 3 companies so that, as an example of the organisation the 1st Company had Colonel Sidney as captain, a lieutenant, an ensign, 2 sergeants, 3 corporals, one drummer and 100 private soldiers.
The 2nd Company was commanded by Lt-Col Thomas Howard,
The 3rd Company by Major Alexander Bruce,
The 4th Company by Capt Sir Thomas Ogle
The 5th Company by Capt Henry Pomeroy 
Was it a different man ? This was AFTER the Restoration of Charles II. IF it was the same man he evidently hadnt been knighted at the time 1665
The 6th Company by Capt Baptist Alcock

All the officers in the regiment had served in the English-Dutch regiments except the surgeon. It should be noted that when the officers and men refused to take the oath in Holland they faced a very uncertain future so their loyalty to the English crown had been proved. Another regiment, the Duke of York and Albany's Maritime Regiment of Foot (The Lord High Admiral's Regiment), had been raised the previous autumn. This, and the Holland Regiment, were primarily intended for service at sea.
On the 11th July the cost of these two regiments was ordered to be charged to the Navy. The Holland Regiment remained on the naval establishment until May 1667.