1642- 1651 -
the Interregnum or the Commonwealth from 1651 until the Restoration of Charles II in 1660
Charles I believed he was king by divine right and Royalists lead the campaign to retain the King's right to be absolute monarch and supreme ruler of England.
The Parliamentarians sought a constitutional monarchy with a more democratic rule, by 'the people' and, as everyone knows, elected Oliver Cromwell to lead them.
The Royalist or Cavaliers of the Civil War were an ill disciplined bunch who plundered and pillaged at every opportunity-Their opponents were Parliamentarians just as bad at the outset until Oliver Cromwell took charge and trained them from a rabble into the New Model Army. Nicknamed the Roundheads because of their helmets, they became far better disciplined.
The famous red coats of the British Army began at that time and the army that was formed then later became England's first standing army.
Being land owners the Pomeroys were evidently Royalist
Endorsed: "Robert Prince his demandes for quartering and plunder. This bill for quarteringe of souldiers amounts unto 41 11s 2d. I allow of this bill xxxs ivd. 30 Martii, 1646. Signed: John Pomeroy. 1 p. (Bills 210/19.)
Attached: 5 similar bills submitted by certain tenants at Rushton manor who were plundered by the opposing armies or forced to quarter their troops in 1642, 1643, 1644 and 1645. Military commanders mentioned in the bills are: Captain Hastings, Captain Dewes, Colonel Strangways, Sir Thomas Fairfax, Lord Hopton, Captain Ludlye (Ludlow), Lord Gourin (Goring) Colonel Ffines (Fynes) Major-General Vanrosse and Colonel Coker.
Note at bottom of one bill: "I allow the same to all tenants uppon Rack Rents as I have allowed to Walter Rogers beinge a 3rd part of Quarteringe and contribution if it exceed not the rent, but noe plunder." Signed: John Pomeroy.—20 October, 1646.
Map of Plymouth from that time.
When Prince Charles, the rightful king of England, was exiled in France and it seems Henry Pomeroy was one of his retinue
Calendar of State Papers Domestic: Charles II, 1679-80
....Sir Henry Pomeroy said to have been present at the King's marriage to Mrs. Barlow -, denies having said the King was married to Mrs. Barlow
Which Henry Pomeroy was this ?
He might have been one of the 9 children of Richard Pomeroy of Ingsdon and his wife Anne Coplestone- head of the family at that time was his brother Thomas Pomeroy, wife was Mary Drewe daughter of Sir Thomas Drewe of The Grange in Broadhembury . His other siblings were Hugh, Richard, Amy, Elizabeth, Anne & Barbara.( see his Will below)
Equally he could have been Henry of Tregony 4th son of Hugh Pomeroy ofTtregony & his wife Elizabeth Bonython. His brother Hugh was heir age 18 in 1620.
Charles II was led a dissolute life - particularly whilst in exile during the Civil War and the following Interregnum.
One scandal was about Lucy Barlow also called Lucy Walters, was a Welsh gentlewoman who became the mistress of Charles II whilst he was in exile in the Hague. He is said to have gone through a form of marriage with her which, when he was restored to his throne,could have made her queen but Charles denied the marriage.
Lucy was mother of Charles's only son, the illegitimate James Scott, born on 9 April 1649 shortly after Charles became king following his father's execution in January 1649. Charles acknowledged James as his son and later created him Duke of Monmouth and Duke of Buccleuch.
After Charles death in 1651 the Protestant Monmouth made an unsuccessful attempt to depose his uncle, the Catholic king, James II.
The Monmouth Rebellion failed and the king's son James, Duke of Monmouth, was executed for this treason in 1685.
Additional information from Alma La France Jan 2012
Sir Henry Pomeroy of the Holland Regiment. Prossibly Henry of Tregony 2nd son son of Hugh and his spouse Johanna Boweman. His brotherwas Hugh married Jane Tanner.
or possibly Henry his 4th son by Ellizabeth Bonython, who in Visititons had siblings Richard, John, Francis, Hugh the heir and a sister Elyanor.
Charles II November 1674 Hull: City of: Sir Henry Pomeroy 1674: Charles II
Nov. 1. Richard Gleadow to Williamson. Two ships bound for Virginia sailed hence yesterday, one a flyboat, the Thomas, of Hull, the other a small vessel, so that we have in all six ships gone thither since last spring, which makes this town and York to flourish much in that trade. Yesterday one Morgan, lieutenant to Sir Henry Pomeroy, being captain of the watch, falling out with a corporal, hit him under the ear, so that the blood issued out and he never spoke after and died to-day. [S.P. Dom., Car. II. 362, No. 47.]
1677: Parliamentarians: Jan. 1.
Whitehall. Commission to —???? of Cornwall to be captain of the company in the Holland regiment, whereof Sir Henry Pomeroy was captain.
Minute. [S.P. Dom., Entry Book 44, p. 41.]
Powley p 101:
"Sir Henry Pomeroy Received captaincy in Holland regiment of foot; assisted the earl of Bath at Exeter July 1666; Died 23 June 1683, and buried in St Margaret’s Westminster.
Wife Jane Prideaux is interred in the same grave. She died before Sir Henry."
There is a will for Sir Henry Pomeroy, Westminster, Middlesex Date 1683.
Online Document PROB 11/373 Will of Sir Henry Pomeroy Westminster, Middlesex Date: 1683, buried in Westminster.
ranked 4th Regiment of Foot
Sir Henry Pomeroy of Westminster;
Mentioned in the Will his brother of Hugh, sister Elizabeth, another brother ( Not in Visitations Pedigree ) and sister Maria Dorothie.
He had tenements in Whitefryers, London London. This Will, gives the names of this siblings and would suggest that he was the son of Richard Pomeroy and Anne Copplestone of Bowden and Uncle of William Pomeroy, Merchant Taylor of London and EIC.
The same Sir Henry Pomeroy,of the Holland Regiment, was implicated in the Lucy Barlow scandal.
History of The Holland Regiment
The Regiment originated from The Trained Bands of London, which were reviewed by Queen Elizabeth, in Greenwich Park, on 1 May 1572. After the review, Captain Thomas Morgan selected 300 men to form a company which he took to the Netherlands where they and their descendants continued to fight for the next 76 years until the power of Spain was broken. After the defeat of Spain, England and Holland began to quarrel and, in 1665, the Dutch called on the English units still in Holland to renounce their allegiance to the King of England. With few, exceptions both officers and men refused to swear allegiance to Holland and they were at once discharged and faced a life of almost certain ruin and destitution in a foreign country.
The English Ambassador, Sir George Downing, at his own expense arranged for the men to be returned to England and, on the 31st May 1665, King Charles II instructed that they be formed into a regiment to be known as The Holland Regiment, and he appointed Lieutenant Colonel Robert Sydney, a man from Kent, to be its first colonel. This regiment took its place as the fourth in the order of precedence behind The Royal Scots (1st), The Tangier Regiment (2nd), and The Lord High Admiral’s Regiment (3rd). It was originally designated, together with Lord High Admiral’s Regiment, as a “Maritime” regiment and as such took part in several naval actions. In 1667 the regiment became a land regiment. The uniform at that time consisted of a red tunic with buff lining, and the breeches, waistcoat and stockings were also buff.
In 1672, exactly one hundred years after Queen Elizabeth had reviewed the trained bands, the regiment was given a Royal Warrant allowing them to raise volunteers by beat of drum in the City of London. In those days recruiting parties carried a colour, and this is the origin of the privilege, which allowed The Buffs to march through the City of London with drums beating, bayonets fixed and colours flying.
The regiment received its nickname of "The Buffs" because it had been issued buff coats - armour made of soft leather - first when it served abroad in Holland and later when it was a Maritime Regiment of Foot. It was later given buff-coloured facings and waistcoats to distinguish itself from those of other regiments and had their leather equipment in buff rather than dyed the traditional white.
1572 Thomas Morgan's Company formed for service in Holland.
1605 expanded to brigade of four regiments.
1665 The Engish brigade, numbering three English and four Scottish regiments were required to take the oath of allegiance to the States-General or be cashiered. The English refused and disbanded in Holland. The Scots continued in Dutch service.
1665.05.31 The Holland Regiment formed in England from repatriated veterans of the three disbanded English regiments in Dutch service