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English Civil Wars & after

  1642- 1651
 the Interregnum or the Commonwealth  from 1651  until the Restoration  of Charles II in 1660
Charles  I  believed he was king by divine right and Royalists lead the campaign to retain the King's right to be absolute monarch and supreme ruler  of England.
The Parliamentarians sought a constitutional monarchy with a more democratic rule, by 'the people' and, as everyone knows, elected Oliver Cromwell to lead them.

The Royalist or Cavaliers of the Civil War were an ill disciplined bunch who plundered and pillaged at every opportunity-Their opponents were Parliamentarians just as bad at the outset  until Oliver  Cromwell took charge and trained them from a rabble into  the New Model Army. Nicknamed  the Roundheads because of their helmets,  they became far better disciplined.
The famous red coats 
of the British Army began at that time and the army that was formed then later became England's first standing army.

 Charles I - volume 130 - Warrants for Issuing Letters of Marque ....
 William Topson and others, St. George, of Stonehouse. 160,  William Pomeroy. ".
 Her pinnace, not stated, Not stated. " 21…. .. Calendar of State Papers Domestic: Charles I, 1628-29 (1859)
Lieutenant William Pomeroy ,  one of the Brixham family, son of Edward Pomeroy & Wilmot Peryam ,married in May 1634, his wife Jane Wolfe ,
was  serving in the  King's Ships, of the Summer Guard  in  1642 on the merchant ship ’London ‘ under Captain  John Stephens. 
By 1661 - 1663   William Pomeroy had his own ship and was  Captain  William Pomeroy

 Being land owners the Pomeroys were evidently Royalist 
Endorsed: "Robert Prince his demandes for quartering and plunder. This bill for quarteringe of souldiers amounts unto 41 11s 2d. I allow of this bill xxxs ivd. 30 Martii, 1646. Signed: John Pomeroy. 1 p. (Bills 210/19.)
    Attached: 5 similar bills submitted by certain tenants at Rushton manor who were plundered by the opposing armies or forced to quarter their troops in 1642, 1643, 1644 and 1645. Military commanders mentioned in the bills are: Captain Hastings, Captain Dewes, Colonel Strangways, Sir Thomas Fairfax, Lord Hopton, Captain Ludlye (Ludlow), Lord Gourin (Goring) Colonel Ffines (Fynes) Major-General Vanrosse and Colonel Coker.
    Note at bottom of one bill: "I allow the same to all tenants uppon Rack Rents as I have allowed to Walter Rogers beinge a 3rd part of Quarteringe and contribution if it exceed not the rent, but noe plunder." Signed: John Pomeroy.—20 October, 1646.

 From the latter part of 1642 until 1644 Plymouth was held for Parliament,   the townsfolk taking advantage of a brief absence by the King's Governor, Sir Jacob Astley, to seize the town and fortify it.  Sir Ralph Hopton appeared before Plymouth in December 1642  demanding its surrender but Plymouth resisted. In September of the following year Colonel Digby was sent to blockade making his headquarters at Plymstock, with batteries at Oreston and Mount Batten.   Shortly afterwards, Prince Maurice with his army advanced on the Town and made his headquarters at Widey House.
 The inhabitants took a solemn vow to stand together and to sur
render nothing 'without the authority and consent of both houses of Parliament'.

 After much skirmishing  with the taking and re-taking of the forts, news came that the Earl of Essex was bringing an army to relieve the Town and the blockade was finally abandoned on Christmas Day 1644.  It was reputedly the longest and fiercest siege of its time.

Map of Plymouth from that time.

Colonel Ruthin, with the aforesaid Four Troops of Horse, and about One Hundred Dragooners, about Three of the Clock in the Morning, marched from Plymouth, over Ruberdowne, being a Bye-way to Modbery, where were gathered together, by the Sheriff's Command, Three or Four Thousand Men, some with Arms and some without; and we came so privately, that they did not discover us until we came within a Mile of the Town, which did so amaze them, that, after Sir Ralph Hopton drew up the Force he could presently get, he, with Sir Nicholas Slayning, ran away and escaped; and, after a small Skirmish with those that stood to it, with the Loss of One Man, and Two hurt, and Three or Four Horses,  we took Prisoners the Sheriff Sir Edmund Forscue and his Brother, Sir Edward Seymour and his Son, Mr. Bassett, Captain Pomeroy, Mr. Shopcut, Captain Wood, Captain Bidlocke Barnes of Exon, Lieutenant Penrose, Mr. Short, &c.

From thence, we marched that Day with our Prisoners to Dartmouth, to the glading of the Hearts of the good People there (having had a long March, Sixteen Hours on Horseback); for, while we were upon our March towards Madbery, one Mr. Thomas Leigh was in Treaty with Sir Ralph Hopton about the delivering up of the Town, as we are informed, and, by his Confession, he had got a Warrant, to free his House from plundering;
which Mr. Leigh we have also taken, and, with the rest of the Prisoners, have sent to Plymouth, this Morning in a Frigate called The Cressett, by one Captain Plunckett.
We ran a great Hazard in this Service, as your Honours may judge, for the Enemy lay on both Sides with all their Force, Part at Plinton(  Plympton) and Part at Tottneyes;( Totnes)  but the Lord carried us along in our Way, and delivered the Enemies of His Truth and our Liberties into our Hands, and made many more to fly before us.'

When Prince Charles, the rightful king of England, was exiled in France and it seems Henry Pomeroy was one of his retinue

Calendar of State Papers Domestic: Charles II, 1679-80
....Sir Henry Pomeroy  said to have been present at the King's marriage to Mrs. Barlow -, denies having said the King was married to Mrs. Barlow
Which Henry Pomeroy was this ?
He might have been one of the 9 children  of Richard Pomeroy of Ingsdon and his wife Anne Coplestone- head of the family at that time was his brother Thomas Pomeroy, wife was Mary Drewe daughter of Sir Thomas Drewe of The Grange  in Broadhembury . His other siblings were Hugh, Richard, Amy, Elizabeth, Anne & Barbara.( see his Will below)

Equally he could have been Henry of Tregony 4th son of Hugh Pomeroy ofTtregony & his wife Elizabeth Bonython. His brother Hugh was heir age 18 in 1620.
Charles II was led a dissolute life - particularly whilst in exile during the Civil War and the following Interregnum. 
One scandal was about  Lucy Barlow also called Lucy Walters, was a Welsh gentlewoman  who became the mistress of Charles II  whilst he was in exile in the Hague. He is said to have gone through a form of marriage with her which, when he was restored to his throne,could have made her queen but Charles denied the marriage. 
 Lucy was mother of Charles's only son,  the illegitimate  James Scott, born on  9 April 1649  shortly after Charles became king following his father's execution in January 1649. Charles acknowledged James as his son and later  created him  Duke of Monmouth and Duke of Buccleuch.
After Charles death in 1651 the Protestant Monmouth made an unsuccessful attempt to depose his uncle, the Catholic king, James II.
The Monmouth Rebellion failed and the king's son James, Duke of Monmouth, was executed  for this treason in 1685.

General Monke -of Great Torrington in Devonshire , a soldier to his bones - who fought on both sides in the Civil War 
           He  instigated the invitation to Charles II to return to claim his throne after Cromwell died.

Richard Cromwell  son of Oliver  inherited  the mantle of power  when his father died on 3 September 1658. He however had no wish to be a statesman, he was neither Puritan nor a soldier and did not have the power of command his father had. With Parliament putting pressure on him he rejected the unlooked for position of power and retired to private life.

The army was caught unawares by his precipitous abdication and recalled the Rump Parliament. A quarrel between Parliament and the leaders of the army now ensued with both sides arguing about how England should be ruled. The fear was that England  would quickly descend into the anarchy of civil war  once more.

On 1 January 1660 General George Monck marched his army of Roundheads, a small, a well-disciplined force, entirely loyal to him, towards London. He arrived on 3 February  and his intentions were unclear for a while but 1 May he reinstated the House of Lords and the Parliament of 1640, recommending that Parliament should invite Charles II to return.  Monck’s declaration was received with general joy, and celebrated by bonfires, in which the Rump Parliament was burnt in effigy all over London. 

Additional information from Alma La France Jan 2012

 Sir  Henry Pomeroy  of  the Holland Regiment. Prossibly Henry of Tregony 
2nd son son of Hugh and his spouse Johanna Boweman. His brotherwas Hugh married Jane Tanner. 
or possibly Henry his 4th son by Ellizabeth Bonython, who in Visititons had siblings Richard, John, Francis, Hugh the heir and a sister Elyanor.

Charles II November 1674 Hull: City of: Sir Henry Pomeroy 1674:  Charles II
Nov. 1.  Richard Gleadow to Williamson. Two ships bound for Virginia sailed hence yesterday, one a flyboat, the Thomas, of Hull, the other a small vessel, so that we have in all six ships gone thither since last spring, which makes this town and York to flourish much in that trade. Yesterday one Morgan, lieutenant to Sir Henry Pomeroy, being captain of the watch, falling out with a corporal, hit him under the ear, so that the blood issued out and he never spoke after and died to-day. [S.P. Dom., Car. II. 362, No. 47.]

1677: Parliamentarians:  Jan. 1.
Whitehall.            Commission to —???? of  Cornwall to be captain of the company in the Holland regiment, whereof Sir Henry Pomeroy was captain.
 Minute.  [S.P. Dom., Entry Book 44, p. 41.]

Powley p 101:
"Sir Henry Pomeroy Received captaincy in Holland regiment of foot; assisted the earl of Bath at Exeter July 1666; Died  23 June 1683, and buried in St Margaret’s Westminster.
Wife Jane Prideaux is interred in the same grave.  She died before Sir Henry."

There is a will for Sir Henry Pomeroy, Westminster, Middlesex Date 1683.
Online Document PROB 11/373  Will of Sir Henry Pomeroy Westminster, Middlesex Date: 1683, 
buried in Westminster.  

Sir Henry Pomeroy of Westminster; 
Mentioned  in the Will his brother of Hugh, sister Elizabeth, another brother ( Not in Visitations Pedigree ) and sister Maria Dorothie.
He had tenements in Whitefryers, London  London. This Will, gives the names of this siblings and would suggest that he was the son of Richard Pomeroy and Anne Copplestone of Bowden and Uncle of William Pomeroy, Merchant Taylor of London and EIC. 
The same Sir Henry Pomeroy,of the Holland Regiment, was  implicated in the Lucy Barlow scandal. 

History of The Holland Regiment
 ranked 4th Regiment of Foot

The Regiment originated from The Trained Bands of London, which were reviewed by Queen Elizabeth, in Greenwich Park, on 1 May 1572. After the review, Captain Thomas Morgan selected 300 men to form a company which he took to the Netherlands where they and their descendants continued to fight for the next 76 years until the power of Spain was broken. After the defeat of Spain, England and Holland began to quarrel and, in 1665, the Dutch called on the English units still in Holland to renounce their allegiance to the King of England. With few, exceptions both officers and men refused to swear allegiance to Holland and they were at once discharged and faced a life of almost certain ruin and destitution in a foreign country.
The English Ambassador, Sir George Downing, at his own expense arranged for the men to be returned to England and, on the 31st May 1665, King Charles II instructed that they be formed into a regiment to be known as The Holland Regiment, and he appointed Lieutenant Colonel Robert Sydney, a man from Kent, to be its first colonel. This regiment took its place as the fourth in the order of precedence behind The Royal Scots (1st), The Tangier Regiment (2nd), and The Lord High Admiral’s Regiment (3rd). It was originally designated, together with Lord High Admiral’s Regiment, as a “Maritime” regiment and as such took part in several naval actions. In 1667 the regiment became a land regiment. The uniform at that time consisted of a red tunic with buff lining, and the breeches, waistcoat and stockings were also buff.

In 1672, exactly one hundred years after Queen Elizabeth had reviewed the trained bands, the regiment was given a Royal Warrant allowing them to raise volunteers by beat of drum in the City of London. In those days recruiting parties carried a colour, and this is the origin of the privilege, which allowed The Buffs to march through the City of London with drums beating, bayonets fixed and colours flying.
The regiment received its nickname of "The Buffs" because it had been issued buff coats - armour made of soft leather - first when it served abroad in Holland and later when it was a Maritime Regiment of Foot. It was later given buff-coloured facings and waistcoats to distinguish itself from those of other regiments and had their leather equipment in buff rather than dyed the traditional white.

1572 Thomas Morgan's Company formed for service in Holland.

1605 expanded to brigade of four regiments.

1665 The Engish brigade, numbering three English and four Scottish regiments were required to take the oath of allegiance to the States-General or be cashiered. The English refused and disbanded in Holland. The Scots continued in Dutch service.

1665.05.31 The Holland Regiment formed in England from repatriated veterans of the three disbanded English regiments in Dutch service