Comprising of three papers :

  • Paper-I : Human Rights Theory

  • Paper-II : International Human Rights Law

  • Paper –III : Human Rights and Civil Liberties in India

Human Rights Theory


  1. Philosophy of Human Rights: Theoretical Foundation and Historical Development - Magna Carta, the British Bill of Rights and the French and American declarations.
  2. Human Rights in Western Legal Systems
  3. Ancient Indian Legal Systems
  4. Three Generations of Human Rights
  5. Civil and Political Rights
  6. Socio-Economic and Cultural Rights
  7. Rights of Communities
  8. Concept of Legal Rights - Constitutional and Fundamental Rights
  9. Theories of Rights
  10. Natural Rights Theory
  11. Legal/Positive Theory of Rights
  12. Marxist Theory of Rights
  13. Sociological Theory of Rights
  14. Cultural Theory of Rights
  15. Universality verses Particularity
  16. Asian DebateCommunist Debate
  17. Genesis and Evolution, distinction between Individual and Group Rights
  18. Right to Environment
  19. Right to Development



Paper II 
International Human Rights Law

  1. International Human Rights Norms
  2. General Background
  3. Sources of Human Rights Norms
  4. Emerging Jurisprudence of International Norms - Human Rights in relation to Peace and Development
  5. Human Rights Instruments
  6. International Models of Human Rights
  7. The Universal Declaration, 1948
  8. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966
  9. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1968
  10. Regional Models
  11. American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man
  12. European Convention
  13. Africa ChapterAsian Chapter (NGO Initiative)
  14. The United Nations and Enforcement and Implementation of Human Rights
  15. The United Nations Commission on Human Rights
  16. The Human Rights Committee State Responsibility for Violations
  17. International Development Agencies and Human Rights - IMF and World Bank
  18. Supervisory procedure for violations of Human Rights
  19. Derogation of Human Rights
  20. During public emergencies
  21. Through Reservations Clauses
  22. Incorporation of International Human Rights in Municipal Legal Systems Legislation Judicial Activism




Paper - III 
Human Rights and Civil Liberties in India

  1. Definition of Human Rights and Civil Liberties
  2. Historical Development of Human Rights in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh
  3. Philosophy of Rabindranath Tagore: 'Yatra Visvam Bhavatyekanidam' ('Where the world makes a home in a single nest')
  4. Civil Liberties under the Indian, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh Constitution
  5. Distinction between Fundamental Rights and Human Rights
  6. Distinction between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles
  7. Guarantee of Rights against the State
  8. Meaning of State under Article 12 of the Indian Constitution
  9. Basic Doctrines
  10. Doctrine of Eclipse
  11. Doctrine of Severability
  12. Doctrine of Waiver
  13. Right to Equality (Articles 14-18)
  14. Meaning of Equality
  15. Absolute and Relative Equality
  16. Reasonable Classification
  17. Non-Arbitrariness
  18. Right to Freedom
  19. Freedom of Speech and Expression
  20. Right to Information
  21. Freedom of Assembly
  22. Freedom of Movement
  23. Freedom of Association
  24. Rights of Accused and Prisoners (Articles 20-22)
  25. Protection from ex-post-facto Laws
  26. Protection against Double Jeopardy
  27. Right against Self-incrimination
  28. Right to be produced before a First Class Magistrate
  29. Right of People under Preventive Detention
  30. Right to Life
  31. Meaning of 'Personal Liberty' and 'Procedure Established by Law'
  32. Public Interest Litigation & Judicial Activism
  33. Right to Travel AbroadRight to Livelihood
  34. Right to Privacy
  35. Right to HealthRight to Clean Environment
  36. Right Against Torture
  37. Protection Against Terrorism
  38. Other Rights
  39. Right to Religion
  40. Doctrine of Essentiality
  41. Writs (Articles 32 and 226) Powers of Supreme Court and High Court
  42. Meaning, Nature and Scope of Writs
  43. Role of the Judiciary in the Protection of Human Rights in India
  44. Role of National Institutions
  45. National Human Rights Commission of India
  46. State Human Rights Commissions
  47. District Human Rights Courts
  48. Role of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs)
  49. Terrorism and Human Rights
  50. Globalisation and International Terrorism



  • PAPER –IV : Human Rights of women and children
  • PAPER – V : Human Rights of Tribal and Indigenous Groups
  • PAPER –VI : International Humanitarian & Refugee Law

Human Rights of women and children

  1. ·       Women in Pre-Independence India
  2. ·       Social and Legal Inequality
  3. ·       Social Reform Movement in India
  4. ·       Gandhian Movement
  5. ·       Nehru's Views - Joint Family etc.
  6. ·       Karachi Congress - Fundamental Rights Resolution, Equality of Sexes
  7. ·       Women in Post-Independence India
  8. ·       Preamble to the Constitution - Provisions for women's equality
  9. ·       Negative Aspects of the Constitution
  10. ·       Different Personal Laws - Unequal Position of Women
  11. ·       Inheritance rights of women under Hindu Law
  12. ·       Inheritance rights of women under Muslim Law
  13. ·       Inheritance rights of women under Christian Law
  14. ·       Inheritance rights of women under Parsi Law
  15. ·       Different personal laws governing marriage and divorce
  16. ·       Personal laws governing Hindu marriage and divorce
  17. ·       Personal laws governing Muslim marriage and divorce
  18. ·       Personal laws governing Christian marriage and divorce
  19. ·       Personal laws governing Parsi marriage and divorce
  20. ·       Uniform Civil Code
  21. ·       Uniform Civil Code and gender right
  22. ·       Movement towards Uniform Civil Code
  23. ·       Guardianships
  24. ·       Women and criminal law
  25. ·       Adultery
  26. ·       Rape and sexual exploitation
  27. ·       Dowry prohibition
  28. ·       Harassment
  29. ·       Laws that protect Women in employment
  30. ·       Factory's Act
  31. ·       Equal Remuneration Act
  32. ·       Maternity Benefit Act
  33. ·       Social laws (PNDT and Amniocentesis)
  34. ·       Non implementation of protective labour legislation
  35. ·       Matrimonial property
  36. ·       Human Rights of the Child
  37. ·       Convention on the Rights of the Child
  38. ·       Declaration of Social and Legal Principles Relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children
  39. ·       Declaration of the Rights of the Child
  40. ·       Articles in the Indian, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh Constitution related to Children
  41. ·       Infanticide
  42. ·       Child Labour
  43. ·       Rights of Disabled



Human Rights of Tribal and Indigenous Groups

  1. Definition of Tribal and Indigenous Groups
  2. ILO Convention No. 169 (1989) Concerning Indigenous and Tribal Communities in Independent Countries
  3. Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (1992) and Agenda 21
  4. Convention on Biological Diversity
  5. UN Workshop on Traditional Knowledge and Biological Diversity, 1997
  6. TRIPS and Traditional Knowledge
  7. WTO
  8. Ad Hoc Working Group on the Implementation of Article 8(j) of the Convention on Biological Diversity
  9.   UN Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People
  10. Historical Developments of a UN Permanent Forum for Indigenous Groups
  11. The Workshops in Copenhagen (1995) and Santiago (1997)
  12. The Ad-Hoc Working Group on the Establishment of a Permanent Forum for Indigenous People, Geneva (1999)
  13. Other International Agencies Relevant to Indigenous Groups
  14. Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
  15. World Health Organisation (WHO)
  16. The World Bank
  17. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
  18. The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
  19. World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO)
  20. UNESCO - Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights
  21. Tribal and Indigenous Groups in India
  22. Rights Under the Indian Constitution
  23. Current Status
  24. Case Studies of Indigenous/Tribal Groups in India
  25. Van Gujjars
  26. Indigenous/Tribal Groups and Environmental Jurisprudence
  27. Community Forest Management













International Humanitarian & Refugee Law

Humanitarian Law

  1. Origin and development of International Humanitarian Law (IHL)
  2. The relationship between Humanitarian Law, Refugee Law and Human Rights Law
  3. International Humanitarian Intervention and the Right to Sovereignty
  4. Warfare rules relating to International armed conflict - The Hague Law
  5. Concept of War and General Constraint
  6. Definition of International Armed Conflict
  7. The Concept of Combatant - Combatant and Protected Person
  8. Definition of Armed Forces - Distinction with Civilians
  9. Limits on choice of methods and means of warfare
  10. Prohibition on means of warfare: general and special
  11. Prohibited methods of combat
  12. Prohibition of Perfidy/Quarter/Attack on Hors de Combat
  13. Limitation imposed by Custom of War
  14. Protection of the Defenseless in War - the Geneva Law
  15. General obligation of Humane Treatment Fundamental Guarantees under Art. 75
  16. Protection against Torture
  17. Judicial Guarantees
  18. Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Persons
  19. Protection and Care
  20. Collection of Bodies, Search for Wounded, Sick, Shipwrecked, and Missing persons
  21. Protection of Medical and Religious Personnel
  22. The International Red Cross, the Right of Assistance and Problem of Neutrality
  23. Protection of Civilian Persons
  24. Minimum Rules of Protection
  25. Aliens in Areas of Conflict
  26. Persons Living in Occupied Territories
  27. Treatment of Internees
  28. Aid to the Civilian Population
  29. Non - Voluntary Disappearances
  30. Writ of Habeas Corpus
  31. Application of IHL to Non-International Armed Conflict
  32. Definition, Nature and Types of Non-I.A.C.
  33. Applicable Laws, Treaties, and Conventions
  34. Wars of Liberation
  35. Internal disturbances and Civil War situations
  36. Obligations relating to:
    (a) Parties to conflict regarding conduct of hostilities
    (b) Treatment of Persons by Military and Civil Authorities






  1. Definition of 'Refugee'
  2. The History of International Refugee Law: Cold War origins to Rights of People who are not Citizens
  3. Determination of Refugee Status under the UNHCR, Convention and Protocol
  4. Problem of Economic refugees and other groups
  5. Refugee protection under International Law
  6. Right to Asylum and non-refoulment
  7. UNHR and refugee protection
  8. Special problems in protection of Women Refugees
  9. Refugee Protection in India
  10. Indian critique of UNHCR and Convention
  11. Protection without legislation: case law
  12. Status of refugees in India under UNHCR
  13. Solutions to Refugee Problem
  14. Resettlement in third country
  15. Repatriation: Voluntary or Forced?
  16. Local Integration
  17. International Law and Internally Displaced Persons
  18. Environmental Displacement
  19. Rights and Duties of the International Community in refugee protection-Concept of burden sharing
    -Finding durable solutions