01.'Pollution & Climate Change Professional Group of Bangladesh (PCCPGoBD)'- Objectives

 

         Ship breaking activities in Bangladesh could be a major source of pollution                       Climate change would increase the frequency and severity of floods in Bangladesh

         including trace/heavy metals, PAH (oil) and a threat to marine life/biodiversity


Bangladesh is regarded as one of the highly polluted countries in the world (with regard to river pollution such as the Buriganga River) and is also most vulnerable to climate change (world climate risk ranks#1). There is a need to form a national and international professional group to help people of Bangladesh, it’s educational and research institutions with skills, knowledge, information to assess threats and risks posed by pollution and climate change on various sectors (e.g. impacts on water resources, agriculture, fisheries, ecosystems, biodiversity, public health, livelihoods, infrastructure) and measures to safeguard economic, social and environmental assets from pollution & climate change. The Pollution and Climate Change Professional Group of Bangladesh (PCCPGBD) would be a source of technical information on the following key aspects: 

POLLUTION & CLIMATE CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS- Bangladesh, Asia, Africa, Australia, and the World (Chapter 3)


BOOKs PUBLISHED ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND POLLUTION covering Asia, Africa, Australia (Chapter 5)


POLLUTION & CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS- Bangladesh (chapters 6, 7, 8)


POLLUTION "hot spots" -Bangladesh(chapter 9)


CLIMATE-RESILIENT DEVELOPMENT- Bangladesh (chapter 12)


ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS & EDUCATION- Australia (chapter 16)


(to access to each chapter, click on the relevant chapter in the left column)


Both pollution and climate change are major environmental stressors.  Pollution can be caused by inorganic chemicals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, U); organic chemicals (pesticides, EDCs, Dioxins (PCDD, PCDF), PCBs, PAH/oil, PBDEs, phthalates; biological pollutants (bacteria, viruses, algal biotoxins) and short and long-lived climate pollutants (black carbon, methane, carbon dioxide). Pollution are major threats to rivers, estuaries and coastal areas of Bangladesh since agricultural, domestic and industrial wastes are directly discharged into the waterways including wastes from tanneries, textile mills, ship-breaking activities, pulp and paper mills, fertiliser factories, dyeing industries, effluents from agriculture and aquaculture and shrimp and fish processing plants, pharmaceuticals plants, steel industries, oil refineries, sewage waste etc.


 

 Image 5

 

An international research of  monitoring of pollution ( heavy metals- Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn) in waterways  across  Bangladesh (Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna) was carried out using innovative artificial mussels technology.  The research was a collaboration of  RMIT Univ, Australia; Chittagong Univ, Bangladesh; Hong Kong Univ & FAO-BoBLME. The research identified several pollution "hot spots" and found that the Buriganga River in Dhaka was most polluted  (click on the web link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27614397


Pollution due to inorganic, organic and biological pollutants may deteriorate water quality and via changes in water quality would impact on drinking, irrigation and recreational water, water dependent food production (agriculture, livestock, fisheries, and aquaculture), and water dependent ecosystems and biodiversity. As a consequence of water pollution, the growth, survival and reproduction of aquatic species may be impaired, sensitive native species may be eliminated or reduced, food contamination/food poisoning may be enhanced (due to bio-accumulation and bio-magnification of some toxic pollutants such as mercury, lead, pesticides), food may be rejected (due to higher contamination with pollutants) and human health may be at risk to diseases. Furthermore, livelihoods of people associated with agriculture, fishing, aquaculture, tourism may be affected. There is a possibility that aquatic organisms such as fish would move away from the highly polluted estuaries and coasts of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh to a suitable environment, even outside Bangladesh territory thus impact on local seafood catch.


Many of the sources of black carbon are brick manufacturing (brick kilns), agricultural burning and use of fuel wood for cooking. Black carbon has 460-1500 times more warming potential  than carbon dioxide. About 40% of fine particulate air pollution in Dhaka, Bangladesh may be attributable to  brick making. Apart from climate change,  black carbon is also harmful to agriculture and human health. As part of research collaboration between Australian and Asian scientists, the group produced three books and several book chapters on climate change  (covering local, regional and global  impacts) (click on the web links: https://sites.google.com/site/pollutionwqbangladesh/12-ecological-environmental-risk-assessment-of-toxicants


The short-lived climate pollutants are black carbon and methane. Black carbon [sourced from incomplete combustion of biomass, wood and fossil fuel; lifetime few days; warming effect 460-1500 times stronger than carbon dioxide]; Methane [sourced from animal and plant wastes, rice cultivation, landfills, coal mines, gas fields; lifetime 12 years, warming effect 21 times more potent than carbon dioxide]; and Long-lived climate pollutants are carbon dioxide: [sourced from burning of fossil fuels and vegetation, deforestation/land clearance; lifetime 100-1000 years]. Both short and long lived climate pollutants have caused global warming/climate change and detrimental impacts on human health, agriculture and ecosystems. Climate change-related extreme events such as intense rainfall, floods, cyclones will increase run-off of contaminants/pollutants into waterways, as a consequence water quality would deteriorate. The rise of water temperature may enhance proliferation (blooms) of both marine and freshwater harmful algae, causing water quality problems for recreational activities, fisheries/fish farming, irrigation, and livestock and human drinking. Climate change related flooding and excessive rainfall facilitates entry of human and animal wastes and pathogens into waterways and drinking water supplies, which are potential for waterborne diseases and thus may increase water treatment costs. Where river flows are expected to decline due to climate change, water quality will deteriorate due to less dilution and higher concentrations of pollutants/effluents. Saline intrusion caused by rising sea level would cause chloride contamination of coastal freshwater and groundwater, agricultural land, aquaculture facilities, and loss of biodiversity etc.


Climate Change Vulnerability Index 2014 (Note: Bangladesh Ranks #1)
Climate Change Vulnerability Index 2015 (Note: Bangladesh Ranks #1)
C
1.Bangladesh; 2. Sierra Leone; 3.South Sudan; 4. Nigeria; 5. Chad; 6. Haiti; 7. Ethiopia; 8. Philippines;
9. Central African republic; 10. Eritrea


(Based on the sensitivity of populations, the physical exposure of countries, and governmental capacity to adapt to climate change over the next 30 years. Bangladesh (1st and most at risk), followed by other  nine countries facing
the highest levels of risk. These ten countries depend heavily on agriculture, with 65% of their combined working population employed in the sector, while 28% of their overall economic output relies on agricultural revenues. Changing weather patterns are already impacting food production, poverty, migration and social stability – factors that significantly increase the risk of conflicts and instability in fragile and emerging states; Source:
Maplecroft)


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Date
2nd update: 23 January 2017
1st update:  23 June 2016
First published/created: 13 December 2015

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© The website was designed by Dr Golam Kibria and managed by Dr Golam Kibria

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