Federalism

FEDERALISM / FEDERAL FORM OF GOVERNMENT IN THE UNITED STATES = two governments--national and state--sharing power and/or competing for power.

A.  FEDERAL LEVEL
(also called national Government, 
central government or simply 
"the government") 
Headquarters: Washington D.C.
X. LEGISLATIVE BRANCH
CONGRESS
     U.S. Senate                House of
                                 Representatives
        (100)                       ( 435)
      6 Years                    2 Years      {1}
Y.  EXECUTIVE BRANCH
PRESIDENT
Vice-President 
Cabinet 
 
 
   Law enforcement agents:              {2}
Z. JUDICIAL BRANCH
U.S. SUPREME COURT
(1 Chief Justice; 
8 Associate Justices) 
 
 
                                                              {3}
B.  STATE LEVEL
Headquarters for California:
Sacramento
STATE LEGISLATURE
      State Senate           State Assembly 
          (40)                                 (80) 
       4 Years                           2 Years        
  {4}
GOVERNOR
Cabinet
 
 
Law enforcement agents:                 {5}
STATE SUPREME COURT
(1 Chief Justice;
6 Associated Justices)
                                        
                                                              {6}
C.  COUNTY LEVEL
Headquarters for Los Angeles
County: City of Los Angeles
(County Seat)
58 counties in California
BOARD OF SUPERVISORS
                                       (5)

4 Years
                                                                            {7}
BOARD OF SUPERVISORS
         Chief Administrative Officer
 
 
Law enforcement agents:                 {8}
SUPERIOR COURT
 
 
 
                                                         {9} 
             D.  CITY LEVEL
(also called municipal government) 
Headquarters for Los Angeles: 
Civic Center (First and Spring 
Streets) 88 in LA county
CITY COUNCIL
(5 but 15 for City of L.A.)

4 Years 
                                              
    {10}
MAYOR AND/OR
CITY COUNCIL
City Manager 
 
 
    Law enforcement agents:           {11}
MUNICIPAL COURT
 
 
 
 
                                                           {12}
  E.  SPECIAL DISTRICT LEVEL
(for example, community college school district; air pollution control district)
Headquarters: various offices
5000 in California
 
 
GOVERNING BOARD OF THE DISTRICT
 
(may be the county Board of Supervisors)
for example: L.A. Community College Board of Trustees
(number varies)
4 Years
{13}
GOVERNING BOARD of District
or Board of Supervisors
(Administrative officials)
for example: Chancellor of the L.A. Community College District; Superintendent of the L.A. Unified School District
{14}



(Administrators make decisions
which may be appealed to Superior Court)

{15}
 
                                 Which is better--national uniformity of law or state diversity of law? (ADA, insurance)
 
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has mandated Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) and Regulations under the Motor Vehicle Safety Code, which manufacturers of motor vehicle and equipment items must conform and comply with. These regulations state minimum safety performance requirements for motor vehicle types and components. (http://mature.idrivesafely.com/course/outputContentHtml.pl?WST=1277859847

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Below is an excerpt revealing differences among Federalists and Republicans who served in George Washington's Cabinet
(from http://www.biography.com/people/thomas-jefferson-9353715#relationship-with-sally-hemings)

 

Hamilton (Federalist) and Jefferson (Democratic-Republican, called "Republican") in Washington's Cabinet

ferson arrived in Virginia in November 1789 to find George Washington waiting for him with news that Washington had been elected the first president of the United States of America, and that he was appointing Jefferson as his secretary of state. Besides Jefferson, Washington's most trusted advisor was Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton. A dozen years younger than Jefferson, Hamilton was a New Yorker and war hero who, unlike Jefferson and Washington, had risen from humble beginnings.

Incredibly rancorous partisan battles emerged to divide the new American government during Washington's presidency. On one side, the Federalists, led by Hamilton, advocated for a strong national government, broad interpretation of the constitution and neutrality in European affairs. On the other side, the Republicans, led by Jefferson, promoted the supremacy of state governments, a strict constructionist interpretation of the constitution and support for the French revolution.

Washington's two most trusted advisors thus provided nearly opposite advice on the most pressing issues of the day: the creation of a national bank, the appointment of federal judges and the official posture toward France. On January 5, 1794, frustrated by the endless conflicts, Jefferson resigned as secretary of state, once again abandoning politics in favor of his family and farm at Monticello.

Relationship with Sally Hemings

At home, Jefferson spent his time farming, managing his finances and making improvements to the estate. It was also at this time that Jefferson most likely had an affair with a slave named Sally Hemings, who was [the half-sister of Jefferson's wife, Martha, who had died in 1782]. Sally's mother, Betty Hemings, was a slave owned by Jefferson's father-in-law, John Wayles, who was the father of Betty's daughter Sally. While there is no definitive proof that Thomas Jefferson had children with Sally Hemings, the circumstantial evidence is all but conclusive: Jefferson was with Sally (either in France or at Monticello) nine months before the birth of all six of her children.

Furthermore, historical records corroborate the stories passed down orally through the Hemings family. Most compelling is recently produced DNA evidence showing that some male member of the Jefferson family fathered Hemings' children, and that it was not Samuel or Peter Carr, the only two of Jefferson's male relatives in the vicinity at the relevant times. It is therefore overwhelmingly likely, if not absolutely certain, that Thomas Jefferson fathered Sally Hemings' children.

Vice President

In 1797, despite Jefferson's public ambivalence and previous claims that he was through with politics, the Republicans selected Jefferson as their candidate to succeed Washington as president. In those days, candidates did not campaign for office openly, so Jefferson did little more than remain at home on the way to finishing a close second to then-Vice President John Adams in the electoral college, which, by the rules of the time, made Jefferson the new vice president. Besides presiding over the Senate, the vice president had essentially no substantive role in government. The long friendship between Adams and Jefferson had cooled due to political differences (Adams was a Federalist), and Adams did not consult his vice president on any important decisions.


 
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Bill Loiterman,
Aug 31, 2009, 2:55 PM
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