COBAEOIDEAE (D. Don) Arn.
Encycl. Brittanica ed. 7 v.5, p.121, 1832. Cobeaceae D. Don, Edinburgh Philos. J. 10: 109, 1824.
Vines, small trees, shrubs, or rarely herbs. Leaves alternate, simple and entire to pinnately lobed or compound. Calyx lobes nearly free (e.g., Cobaea) or fused, wholly herbaceous or hyaline between vasculature (e.g., Cantua). Corolla campanulate to tubular or salverform, medium to large, with epipetalous stamens inserted at corolla base or on tube. Seeds narrowly to broadly winged, rarely wingless (Bonplandia). (Phylogenetic definition—The least incorporative monophyletic group of species that includes Bonplandia geminiflora, Cantua buxifolia, and Cobaea scandens.) Type: Cobaea Cav.
Membership.— Bonplandia, Cantua, and Cobaea (three tribes, three genera, ~33 species).
Key to the tribes of Cobaeoideae
1. Vines (lianas); leaves pinnately compound, the terminal lobe modified to form a branched tendril…Cobaeeae
1. Herbaceous, woody-based perennials, shrubs or trees, but never vines; leaves simple, entire, dentate, crenate or pinnate-lobed…2
2. Inflorescences pseudoracemes, flowers appearing in lateral pairs; pollen reticulate, the elements broad and flat with spinule processes; seeds oblong rounded in cross-section, wingless or nearly so…Bonplandieae
2. Inflorescences cymose thyrses, flowers in terminal or lateral cymes or sub-capitate heads; pollen pertectate with insulous verrucae, the insulare often supra-striate; seeds narrowly elliptic, flattened, with a wing at one end, or small triogonous or angular and wingless…Cantueae
Hist. pl. v.10, p.342, 1890.
Herbaceous to woody perennials, flowering the first year. Leaves alternate, broad, serrate or pinnately lobed, to linear and entire. Flowers axillary and paired. Calyx and corolla bilaterally symmetric. Seeds narrowly winged to wingless. (Phylogenetic definition—The most incorporative monophyletic group of species that includes all populations of species assignable to Bonplandia, and shares a more recent common ancestor with B. geminiflora than with Acanthogilia gloriosa, Cantua buxifolia, Cobaea scandens, Gilia laciniata, Loeselia ciliata, Phlox glaberrima, or Polemonium caeruleum.) Type: Bonplandia Cav.
Pflanzenfam. IV 3a, p.45, 1891.
Branching shrubs to rarely small trees. Leaves alternate or fasciculate, coriaceous to fleshy, entire to deeply pinnately divided. Flowers tubular to salverform, imbricate or convolute in aestivation, calyx wholly herbaceous, or hyaline between vasculature. Seeds broadly winged. (Phylogenetic definition—The most incorporative monophyletic group of species that includes Cantua buxifolia and Cantua coerulea, and that shares a more recent common ancestor with Cantua quercifolia than with Acanthogilia gloriosa, Bonplandia geminiflora, Cobaea scandens, Gilia laciniata, Loeselia ciliata, Phlox glaberrima, or Polemonium caeruleum.)— Type: Cantua Juss. ex Lam.
Cobaeeae (D. Don) Meisn.
Pl. vasc. gen., Tab. Diagn. 273, 180, 1840.
Vines. Leaves alternate, pinnate-compound with terminal leaflet modified into a tendril. Calyx lobes nearly free, herbaceous. Capsules with septicidal dehiscence. Seeds broadly winged. (Phylogenetic definition—The most incorporative monophyletic group of species that includes Cobaea minor and Cobaea scandens, and that shares a more recent common ancestor with Cobaeapenduliflora than with Acanthogilia gloriosa, Bonplandia geminiflora, Cantua buxifolia, Gilia laciniata, Loeselia ciliata, Phlox glaberrima, or Polemonium caeruleum.)—Type: Cobaea Cav.
Phylogenetic estimate of Cobaeoideae (click on image to enlarge) based on Bayesian inference of concatenated chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. Posterior probabilities are provided for the branches.
Representative of Tribe Bonplandeae, the monospecific genus Bonplandia, native to Mexico and Central America.
Representative of Tribe Cantueae: Cantua, illustrated is one of several unusual forms of Cantua pyrifolia, from Ecuador.
Representative of Tribe Cobeeae: Cobaea rotundiflora.