Dr. hab. A.Malynovsky, dr. L.Petrova, dr. M.Soroka,
dr. hab. prof. P.Tretyak
The ecosystems of the upper part of the Western Bug basin play an important role in formation of water flow. They represent a wide range of diversity of landscapes, ecosystems, biocenoses, communities and species, including rare and vanishing ones. This is an important link (in biogeographic sense) of ecologic corridor of plants and animals migrations. The river-bed and bogs located at river-beds, water-meadows, brushwoods and forests are important elements in the ecologic corridor. Unfortunately, during some centuries natural landscapes, especially in the Ukrainian part of the territory, suffered considerable agrocultural and technogenic transformations. First of all it concerns housing estates, economic and industrial infrastructure of Lviv city, the total area of which makes up 200 km2. The main mass of polluted water, which flows into the river Western Bug, is collected in this infrastructure. The other sources of the river pollution are the other towns and large villages, economic and industrial objects, in particular, the enterprises of mining industry, etc. That is why the ecologic conditions of the river basin evoke well-grounded worry of Poland and Ukraine.
The economic activity resulted into dangerous hydrological and biogeochemical situation in the region and, besides, it caused material changes in landscapes in general. The changes occurred not only within the territory of the river- bed but also in the considerable areas of the former forest landscape which faced agrocultural transformation. This transformation resulted into the soil degradation, changes in hydrologic regime and partial losses of biodiversity.
The problem of conservation of the Western Bug nature environment can be solved only on the ground of complex approach to its economic use and protection. Working out coordinated conceptions as to the nature protection and economic use of the lands in the Polish and Ukrainian sides of the river basin can help to solve the problem. In particular, it is necessary to establish unified system of rational management of nature and to carry out united complex monitoring of nature ecosystems conditions. But the differences in principles of forest, agriculture and water management, insufficient development of the system of nature protection objects, low standards of living and low level of ecologic conscious of the population can stand in the way of its solving.
The only thing to be done is to expand economic and nature protection collaboration of the neighbouring states on the principles of well-balanced development of national economies in accordance with the European standards. Such collaboration was envisaged by the program “Euroregion Bug”, in particular, by the project of establishment of joint biosphere reserve in Roztocha. However, international collaboration is carried out ineffectively. Besides, it is impossible to establish the Bilateral Biosphere Reserve because of huge military polygon in Roztocha, in which international military trainings permanently take place (fig.1). This polygon puts obstacles in the way of joining the National Parks and reservations, functioning in Poland and Ukraine, into one nature protection territorial system.
Optimum solving of the problem of the transboundary system of nature environment protection lies in the development of ecologic network within the upper reaches to the Western Bug basin. The development of this system is envisaged in the valid legislation of Ukraine. Such project is rather effectively realized in the boundary territory between Poland and Byelorussia. If the project’s activity expands to the territory of the upper part of the river Western Bug it will be possible to unite our protected territories in the main European watershed and in Minor Polissya into one ecologic network.
The territory of the upper part of the Western Bug basin had a long and complicated history of the civilization development. Historical, sacral, cultural and architectural heritage which has been kept here is common acquisition of Polish and Ukrainian people. Therefore the protection of nature environment of the region has to be closely connected with the protection of cultural values.
Fig 2. The scheme of territorial structure of ecosystem in the upper reaches to the Western Bug:
a- dry valley elements; b – river elements; c – protected objects; d - directions of the links with the other elements of the All-European and National ecosystem; e – the numbers of the protected objects indicated in the table 2.
The object of the given work was preliminary projection and argumentation of the expediency of joint transboundary system of nature environment protection “The Upper Bug”.
Taking into consideration the territorial peculiarities of the region, extant network of the protected areas and location of little changed forest and flood-land ecosystems, the project of territorial establishment of the eco-network within the upper reaches to the Dnister river basin has to involve the following elements:
A. Dry land elements
1. Watershed – ridge: Roztocha – Davydivska Ridge – Holohory – Voronyaky (width –5-20 kilometers, length – 150 kilometers).
2. Malopolis’ky: Ravsko-Oles’ky (width –5-10 kilometers, length – 110 kilometers).
B. River elements:
3. Flood-land of the Solokiya and the Vepsh rivers (width – 4 kilometers, length – 140 kilometers). It will join Minor Polissya of Ukraine with Southern–Roztocha Landscape Park and Roztocha National Park of Poland.
4. Flood -land of the Bug and the Poltva rivers (Fedorivka- Verkhn’obuzh) (width –2-5 kilometers, length – 170 kilometers). It will join preserved territories of Roztocha, Davydivs’ka Ridge, Hologory, Voronyaky, Minor Polissya and Volynian Hills.
5. The Svynya and the Rata rivers (width –2-5 kilometers, length – 130 kilometers). It will join preserved territories of Roztocha and Minor Polissya.
According to the principles of international partnership and colaboration the represented regional eco-network in the upper basin of the Western Bug has to provide the necessary conditions for:
• conservation and reproduction of biotic and landscape diversity of the region, including the territories of nature reserve fund;
• protection of the nature environment of animals and plants, and also the ways of their migration;
• support of ecologic balance within the transboundary territory;
• improvement of the standarts of living of the population in ecologicaly balanced environment;
• development of the material basis for recreation and health improvement of the population.
The transboundary system of nature environment protection “The Upper Bug” has to envisage international collaboration in such directions:
• determination of the priorities of nature environment protection and usage of natural recourses;
• establishment of joint transboundary system of monitoring of the environment of the Western Bug basin;
• development of the transboundary program of regeneration of nature environment,
recultivation of natural forests, improvement of water and air environment;
• formation and optimization of the network of nature protection territories and the eco-network in the whole basin of the Western Bug according to the European standards. On the basis of the network it will be possible to establish joint Polish-Ukrainian biosphere reserve the “Upper-Bug”;
• working out the joint principles of rational management of nature, namely , forest, agricultural and water management, regulations of constructing and exploitation of industrial complexes, in particular, mining complexes.
The realization of the project will facilitate steady development and efficient management in the region. In prospect it is planned to renew the ecologic balance in the region, to cut down the losses caused by high water during spring and high flood, to develop tourism and to attract investments. It will result into the improvement of social conditions, in particular, rise in the level of population employment, cultivation of ecologic conscious, conservation of nature and cultural-historical heritage, etc.
This material is directed in MAB Yunesko for consideration