THE HUMAN BRAIN

Brodmann Area

Name

Function

1, 2 & 3

Primary Somatosensory Cortex - frequently referred to as Areas 3, 1, 2 (rostral, intermediate and caudal postcentral areas)

Analyze sensory input concernig crude and fine touch; stereognosis; proprioception; thermoception; nociception; point discrimination and localization. Mapped by Penfield, Rasmussen and Jasper as homunculus.

4

Primary Motor Cortex (gigantopyramidal area of precentral gyrus)

Initiation of muscle movement / motor output.

5

Somatosensory Association Cortex (preparietal area)

Processing sensory input (including tactile).

6

Pre-Motor and Supplementary Motor Cortex (angular frontal area)

Planning of anticipated movements.

7

Somatosensory Association Cortex (superior parietal area)

Reflective self-awareness; visual recognition of movements/ hand gestures; guiding visual motor tasks; transformation of visual input; memory retrieval (e.g., names of friends); mapping / locating objects in space; proprioception.

8

Includes Frontal Eye Field (intermediate frontal area)

Saccadic eye movement; tracking eye movement (pursuit); planning complex movements; management of uncertainty; encoding "hope"; ecphory of affect-laden autobiographical information; episodic memory retrieval.

9

Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (granular frontal area)

Regulate, organize and plan motor movements; working memory; executive function = cognition control; sustaining attention (compare to BA # 46).

10

Frontopolar area (most rostral part of superior and middle frontal gyri)

Strategic processes involved with memory retrieval; executive function.

11

Prefrontal = Orbitofrontal area (orbital and rectus gyri, plus a portion of the rostral part of the superior frontal gyrus)

Planning; reasoning; decision-making.

12

Prefrontal = Orbitofrontal area (refers to the area between the superior frontal gyrus and the inferior rostral sulcus; previously considered part of BA # 11)

Planning; reasoning; decision-making.

13 & 14

Insular cortex

Processing subjective emotional experiences; "feelings"; embodied cognition; visceroception; nociception; handling fear and disgust; controlling mood (happy and sad); empathy for others; cravings (food and drug); olfactory association; aggregating autonomic functions.

15

Anterior Temporal Lobe

Visceroception; analyzing input from carotid and aortic bodies and sinuses; maintenance of blood pressure, volume and chemistry (pH, O2, CO2).

16

Calcarine cortex

Unknown; may not be in humans. Not visible on surface or in mid-sagittal brain.

17

Striate (Primary Visual) Cortex (V1)

Analysis of visual images; pattern recognition; mapping direction and speed of moving objects.

18

Parastriate (Visual Association) Cortex (V2)

Mapping and reconstruction of visual fields; color analysis; spatial orientation; making sense of "the what" (ventral stream) and "the where" (dorsal stream) from visual data.

19

Extrastriate = Peristriate (Prelunate area of Visual Association) Cortex (V3, V4 and V5)

Analysis of large motion patterns; form recognition; motion perception; shape analysis; spatial orientation.

20

Inferior Temporal gyrus

Face recognition; high level visual processing; memory.

21

Middle Temporal gyrus

Auditory processing; understanding spoken word.

22

Superior Temporal Gyrus (rostral part connects to Wernicke's area = BA # 41 and 42)

Language comprehension; understanding speech (left side) and music (right side); distinguishing pitch, melody and sound intensities (compare to BA # 38, 39, 40).

23

Ventral Posterior cingulate cortex

Analyzing social interactions; planning social behavior; "bonding"; "trusting"; making social decisions; error detection in behavior; limbic processing .

24

Ventral Anterior cingulate cortex

"Free will"; self-image; rational cognition; reward anticipation; empathy; pain perception; forming emotions; initiative; learning; memory; visceroception; irrational thought processing (compare with BA # 32)

25

Subgenual cortex

Behavior (personal and social); mood regulation; depression; limbic integration and association.

26

Ectosplenial area

Limbic integration and association.

27

Presubiculum area (rostral parahippocampal gyrus)

Memory processing (short term declarative). Not visible on surface or in mid-sagittal brain.

28

Posterior Entorhinal Cortex (Entorhinalis area)

Mapping spatial environment; "sense of direction"; pre-processing of familiar memories; consolidation of memories; olfactory association.

29

Retrosplenial cingulate cortex (granular retrolimbic area)

Limbic integration and association.

30

Part of cingulate cortex (agranular retrolimbic area)

Limbic integration and association.

31

Dorsal Posterior cingulate cortex

Limbic integration and association.

32

Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex

Limbic integration and association; rational thought processing (compare with BA # 24).

33

Pregenual area (anterior cingulate gyrus)

Emotional and cognitive processing.

34

Anterior Entorhinal Cortex (dorsal entorhinalis on the Parahippocampal gyrus)

Mapping spatial environment; scene recognition; understanding landscapes (compare to BA # 20 and 37).

35

Perirhinal Cortex (on the Parahippocampal gyrus)

Memory processing.

36

Parahippocampal cortex (Ectorhinal area on the Parahippocampal gyrus)

Memory processing; visual association .

37

Fusiform gyrus (occipitotemporal area)

Visual association; face, body, word and number recognition; processing colors.

38

Temporopolar area (rostral part of the superior and middle temporal gyri)

Behavior (personal and social); "making up your mind"; planning decisions (compare to BA # 22).

39

Angular gyrus, part of Wernicke's area

Language processing; auditory association; semantic representation; spatial orientation; tactile interpretation.

40

Supramarginal gyrus part of Wernicke's area

Language processing; auditory association; seondary somatosensory representation; texture discrimination; tactile learning and memory.

41 & 42

Primary Auditory Cortex and Auditory Association Area (anterior and posterior transverse temporal areas)

Sound perception; processing auditory signals; distinguishing musical instrument sounds; understanding lyrics; identifying pitch, harmony and melodic rhythms; understanding the spoken word.

43

Subcentral area (between insula and post/precentral gyrus)

Gustation; somatosensory association.

44

Pars opercularis of Broca's area

Motor speech; syntactic and phoenetic processing; semantics; understanding linguistics.

45

Pars triangularis of Broca's area

Motor speech; semantic retrieval; semantic working memory.

46

Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (middle frontal area)

Short term memory processing; making judgements; deciding relevancies; sustaining attention.

47

Inferior prefrontal gyrus (orbital area)

Syntax processing; music association.

48

Retrosubicular area (a small part of the medial surface of the temporal lobe)

Visual association (similar to BA # 36). Not visible on surface or in mid-sagittal brain.

49, 50 & 51

Parasubiculum areas

Analysis of head movements.

52

Parainsular area (at the junction of the temporal lobe and the insula)

Olfaction association.

BA # 13, 14, 15, 16, 27, 49, 50, 51 are not found in humans

Some vocabulary :
Anterior - toward the front / face
Alexia - inability to recognize words
Agnosia - inabilty to know meaning (compare to prosopagnosia)
Aphasia - without proper speech (a disturbance in language processing)
Apraxia - inability to execute a voluntary motor movement correctly
Audition - the ability to hear
Caudal - toward the tail
Cognition - to know
Conscious - to be aware (it may also mean to be awake, i.e., not asleep or "knocked out")
Cranial - toward the head
Deja vu - a sense of having done something before; a feeling of familiarity in an unfamiliar setting (compare to jamais vu)
Dorsal - away from the belly or bottom
Discriminate - the ability to distinguish differences in closely related items
Dyslexia - a deficit in word recognition that may cause reading and/or writing impairment
Ecphory - recollection of past event ("travelling back in time" mentally)
Episodic - occurring in bits and pieces
Gustation - the perception of taste
Harmonics - the analyses of the patterns of the frequencies of sound waves
Limbic - having to do with "gut" emotions
Jamais vu - a feeling of unfamiliarity in a familiar setting
Linguistics - the study of speech
Melodic - rhythmic succession or arrangement of sounds
Motor - muscle movement, e.g., skeletal muscle contraction and relaxation (controlled in part by the Basal nuclei)
Nociception - the perception of pain
Olfaction - the perception of smell
Perception - a conscious physical sensation
Phonetics - analysis of speech sounds and utterances (it may also mean to "sound out" syllables)
Pitch - the property of a musical tone base on frequency of sound wave
Posterior - toward the back
Prosopagnosia - an abilty to recognize familiar faces and/or objects
Proprioception - the mapping of the body's position based on muscle and tendon stretch
Rostral - toward the nose
Saccadic - moving both eyes simultaneously as in tracking a moving object
Semantics - the meaning of the word, phrase or sign
Sensoriomotor - both sensory and motor (i.e., afferent and efferent)
Somatosensory - senses of the body (especially tactile or touch)
Stereognosis - the ability to distinguish shape, size and 3-D structure
Syntax - understanding of the proper placement and arrangement of words in sentences (grammar)
Thermoception - the perception of temperature
Ventral - toward the belly or bottom
Visceroception - sensory information coming from the "guts" (e.g., smooth and cardiac muscles)

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