Annexes used in Cebuano

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(Ang mga pulong nga pangdikit sa sinultihan nga Sebuwano)

by Edgie Polistico

  • prefix (unang dikit) - [n.] a syllable, group of syllables, or word joined to the beginning of another word or a base to alter its meaning or create a new word
  • suffix (ulahing dikit) - [n.] a letter, syllable, or group of syllables added at the end of a word or word base to change its meaning, give it grammatical function, or form a new word
  • infix (tungang dikit) - [n.] a morpheme that is added within a word to give the root word another form or meaning

PREFIXES (unang dikit) - joined to the beginning of another word or a base



ka – Is the short form and variation of the prefix "pagka-."


If “ka” is used as prefix to a proper noun, to refer to a particular place or venue owned by somebody.

Take note the use of hyphen (-) when combining this prefix to a proper noun, and the distinguished use of initial capital letter, to emphasize the proper noun and to easily identify who owns what.


ka + (hyphen) + Aguinaldo    = ka-Aguinaldo               (Aguinaldo's place)

ka + (hyphen) + Pedro          = ka-Pedro                    (Pedro's place)

ka + (hyphen) + Binak          = ka-Binak                     (Binak's place)


If this prefix is joined to root adjective, it transforms the adjective word into abstract noun or something that would name the description mentioned by the base word.


putli (pure                           ka + putli                     = kaputli               (purity \immaculateness)

buang (insane)                      ka + buang                  = kabuang             (insanity)

lisod (difficult)                       ka + lisod                    = kalisod               (difficulty)

gahi (hard)                            ka + gahi                     = kagahi                (hardness)


The prefix “ka” also denotes partnership or companionship.


dula (play)                           ka + dula                     = kadula                (a playmate)

klase (class)                       ka + klase                    = kaklase              (a classmate)

uban (company)                   ka + uban                    = kauban               (a companion)

dulog (sleeping with)            ka + dulog                    = kadulog              (a bedfellow)


This prefix also denotes sameness of degree.


dungan (together)                 ka + dungan                = kadungan          (a cotemporary, or something that goes along)

pareho (similar)                    ka + pareho                 = kapareho           (something of the same kind)



katagi – is limited to general or common place. It would denote that the subject is a fellow resident or residing in same place with others.


lungsod (town)                      katagi + lungsod          = katagilungsod   (town mate)

baryo (barrio)                        katagi + baryo             = katagibaryo      (fellow villager)

nasod (country)                     katagi + nasod            = kataginasod      (fellow countryman \compatriot \fellow citizen)



ga – is the short for the suffix "naga-". It is attached to a root verb. The new word formed in this combination would indicate progressive verb form. This shortened form is casually used in verbal communication; not advisable in formal writing. It is advised to use the standard  naga-“ or “nag-“when in formal communication.


dula (play)                              ga + dula                      = gadula  (nagadula; nagdula)         (playing)

kaon (eat)                              ga + kaon                     = gakaon  (nagakaon; nagkaon)      (eating)

sulat (write)                            ga + sulat                     = gasulat  (nagasulat; nagsulat)      (writing)

basa (read)                            ga + basa                     = gabasa  (nagabasa; nagbasa)      (reading)

lakaw (walk)                           ga + lakaw                   = galakaw  (nagalakaw; naglakaw)   (walking)



gi – is prefixed to root verb to indicate that an action has been done, and when used in a statement, it is advised that  the doer must be identified and mentioned in the statement.


gi + luto                                   = giluto                         (was cooked)

gi + sulat                                 = gisulat                       (was written)

gi + hunong                             = gihunong                    (was stopped)

gi + kanta                                = gikanta                      (was sang)

gi + kulata                               = gikulata                      (was mauled)



gika - indicates perfect tense in passive form.


gika + dula                             = gikadula                     (had played with)

gika + uban                            = gikauban                    (had been with)

gika + istorya                         = gikaistorya                 (had talked to)

gika + inom                            = gikainom                    (had been drinking with)

gika + away                            = gikaaway                   (had fought against)



gina - this prefix is used to form a passive voice indicating what is generally being done or going on


gina + baligya                         = ginabaligya               (being sold)

gina + basa                            = ginabasa                   (being read)

gina + ayo                              = ginaayo                    (being repaired)

gina + dali                              = ginadali                     (being done in a hurry)

gina + dili                               = ginadili                      (being forbidden)

gina + lisod                            = ginalisod                   (being made difficult)



gipa - this prefix is the combination of prefixes "gi" and "pa". It denotes that one was told to do something, or one has done something after following the command or wish of another. The action done or is being done is indicated by the root verb. This prefix is used both in present and in past tenses.


gipa + awit                             = gipaawit                    (is/was told to sing)

gipa + kaon                            = gipakaon                   (is/was told to eat)

gipa + sulat                            = gipasulat                   (is/was told to write)

gipa + kanaog                        = gipakanaog                (is/was told to go down)

gipa + sakay                          = gipasakay                  (is/was told to take a ride)



hin – is the variation of "hing-". It is joined to words that begin with d, s, or t and sometimes L and it would denote inclination to do or to become something. Take note that the initial consonant is omitted and replaced with the prefix “hin.” The word formed in this combination is an adjective that describes one's fondness over something.


hin + (d)agat                          = hinagat                      (fond of the sea)

hin + (s)abaw                         = hinabaw                     (fond of broth)

hin + (s)ugo                           = hinugo                       (fond of giving errand)

hin + (s)ulat                           = hinulat                       (loves to write)

hin + (t)ingog                         = hiningog                     (always making sound)



hing - this prefix denotes fondness, propensity, or habit . It is joined to the root word that begins with any of the vowels (a,e,i,o,u) & consonants like k, l, w and y. Similar to "hin-", the initial k is omitted and replaced by the prefix "hing."


hing + (k)anta                        = hinganta                    (always loves to sing)

hing + labaw                          = hinglabaw                  (protruding \extending out)

hing + yabag                         = hingyabag                  (goes out of tune)

hing + lingkod                        = hinglingkod                (going to sit down)

hing + kagiw                          = hingkagiw                  (has escaped)



i - this prefix is used in the passive mode, when combined with a root word it would have three meanings:


1. It indicates that the subject is the direct object of the action represented by the base word (root verb)


i + sulat                                = isulat                        (write it)

i + lakat                                = ilakat                        (walk it)

i + sumbong                          = isumbong                  (report it)


2. It indicates that the subject is the instrument or the thing to do in performing the action represented by the base word (root verb)


i + sulat                                 = isulat                       (write with)

i + lakat                                 = ilakat                       (walk with)

i + sumbong                           = isumbong                 (report something to)


3. It denotes action is done in favor of the subject (someone or something)


i + sulat                                  = isulat                        (write for)

i + lakat                                  = ilakat                        (walk for)

i + sumbong                            = isumbong                 (report something for)



ika - this prefix indicates numerical degree when attached to the base word of a number


ika + lima                                = ikalima                     (fifth)

ika+ usa                                  = ikausa                      (first)

ika + gatos                              = ikagatos                   (hundredth)


When this prefix is attached to a root verb or root adjective, it indicates possibility, adaptability, or suitability of purpose or action represented by the word base.


ika + hatag                             = ikahatag                    (can be given)

ika + ulaw                               = ikaulaw                     (can cause shame)

ika + dato                               = ikadato                     (can cause to become rich)



ikag - this is the variation of the prefix "ika." This is no longer casually used in present day communication, except for euphony


ikag + labay                            = ikaglabay                 (can be thrown out)

ikag + biyahe                          = ikagbiyahe                (can be used or brought along in the travel)



ig - this prefix is used to indicate the following:


1. Relationship among persons or things, similar to “igkasi-“ but is considered awkward when used nowadays.


ig + igsoon                              = ig-igsoon                  (siblings)

ig + dugo                                = igdugo                      (relative by blood)

ig + tiyo                                  = igtiyo                       (uncle and nephew or niece)

ig + agaw                                = ig-agaw                    (cousins)


2. In a conjunctive case


ig + hinagbo                            = ighinagbo                (would meet along the way)

ig + sukod                              = igsukod                   (would be used in taking measurement)



iga - this prefix would indicate the following:


1. Subjunctive case similar to prefix "ig"


iga + hinagbo                         = igahinagbo               (would meet along the way)


2. to indicate what it used to be


iga + bilin                               = igabilin                     (used to be left behind)

iga + luto                               = igaluto                      (used to be cooked)



igkasi - this prefix would indicate the relationship between persons or thing


igkasi + agaw                        = igkasi-agaw              (being cousins)

igkasi + igsoon                      = igkasi-igsoon            (fellow siblings)

igkasi + kadugo                     = igkasikadugo            (fellow relatives)

igkasi + pareho                      = igkasipareho             (being the same)



in - this prefix is added to a base word to create an adverb that functions as verbal adjective deriving from a root-noun


in + igsoon                             = inigsoon                   (brotherly)

in + ato                                  = inato                        (our own way)



inig - this prefix indicates time, join to dependent cause of time. This prefix is properly used with future tense. Its past tense form is "pag-"


inig + abot                             = inig-abot                   (when somebody or something arrives)

inig + ingon                            = inig-ingon                 (when somebody says)



inigka - a prefix used with future tense. it is also used to form neuter verbs. For present and past tenses, use "pagka"


inigka + dako                       = inigkadako                (when grown up)

inigka + himugso                  = inigkahimugso           (when born)



ipa - is the combination of prefix "i-" and causative "pa." This combination indicates order or command.


ipa + kanaog                          = ipakanaog                (bring something down)

ipa + larga                              = ipalarga                   (allow to depart or go)

ipa + sulat                              = ipasulat                   (have it written)

ipa + kanta                             = ipakanta                  (have it sang)



isig - is similar to "masig," indicating individual action. This prefix is the variation and has the same use and meaning as that of "masig"


isig + bayad                           = isigbayad                 (pay individually)

isig + lakaw                            = isiglakaw                 (walk on each other way \each one must go alone)

isig + kuha                             = isigkuha                   (each must get for himself)

isig + basa                             = isigbasa                   (each one must read for himself)

isig + hugas                           = isighugas                 (each one must wash)



isigka - this prefix denotes the individuality of members belonging to the same group or class


isigka + lungsod                     = isigkalungsod           (respective town)

isig + katawo                         = isigkatawo                (each person)



ma - this prefix, in its adverb form, is limited to root words that are related to time. This is the short form of "matag-."


ma + dominggo                      = madoiminggo            (on Sundays)

ma + hapon                           = mahapon                  (on afternoons)


This prefix is also used to elaborate the descriptive value of some root adjectives.


      ma + pait                                = mapait                     (bitter)

ma + pula                               = mapula                    (red)


Though pait is enough to describe the taste, by adding "ma-" the bitterness is now emphasized.

The color pula is emphasized here by the prefix "ma-"


The prefix "ma" is also used as prefix to let the verb indicate that the subject will be or have the possibility of becoming what has been indicated by the root noun or root adjective


ma + bato                               = mabato                    (will or may turn to stone \will or may be hit by a stone)

ma + buang                            = mabuang                  (will or may become insane)


If "ma" is prefixed to root verb, it denotes possibility that an action can be performed.


ma + lakaw                             = malakaw                   (can be walked)

ma + alsa                               = maalsa                     (can be lifted)

ma + human                           = mahuman                  (can be finished)

ma + himo                              = mahimo                     (can be done)



maka - indicates potentiality of something in the following forms:


1. The verb is in the future tense, expressing the capability of one’s ability to do something.


maka + tindog                        = makatindog              (can stand)

maka + mao                          = makamao                 (can learn)

maka + biyahe                       = makabiyahe             (can travel)

maka + sugakod                    = makasugakod           (can withstand)


2. It is in the future perfect tense.


maka + gikan                         = makagikan               (shall be leaving)

maka + maneho                     = makamaneho           (will be able to drive)


3. When prefixed to root word that starts with "li" and "bi" in the first syllable, and if this syllable is reduplicated, the transformation denotes inherent quality.


maka + bihag                         = makabibihag           (captivating)

maka + libog                          = makalilibog             (confusing)

maka + libat                           = makalilibat              (can cause squinting of the eyes)


4. That the object in the statement can cause to happen what is indicated by the root word


maka + tubol                          = makatubol                 (can cause constipation)

maka + libog                          = makalibog                 (can cause confusion)

maka + busog                        = makabusog               (can fill the stomach)

maka + basa                          = makabasa                 (can cause something to get wet)



makapa - is the combination of prefixes "maka" and "pa," and would indicate the means or agency in effecting something.


makapa + tulog                      = makapatulog            (can induce sleep)

makapa + baskog                  = makapabaskog         (can make one healthy)

makapa + tulin                       = makapatulin             (can speed up)



maki - indicates addiction, inclination to something


maki + utan                            = makiutan                 (vegetarian)

maki + amerikano                   = maki-amerikano        (pro-American)

maki + dula                            = makidula                  (always loves to play)

maki + babaye                       = makibabaye              (fond of girls)

maki +artista                          = makiartista               (fanatic to movie actors or actresses)



makig - indicates willingness to participate or to be with the company of another


makig + kuyog                       =makigkuyog              (willing to be in accompany with)    

makig + gukod                       =makiggukod              (willing to race against)

makig + pusta                        =makigpusta               (willing to bet with)             

makig + giyera                       =makiggiyera              (willing to wage war against )



makigpang = indicates companionship, or to with another. Notice that when affixed to root word that start with consonant "k," this letter "k" is removed.


makigpang + lakaw                =makigpanglakaw      (likes to go with)

makigpang + luto                   =makigpangluto         (likes to cook foods with)

makigpang + kaligo                =makigpangaligo       (likes to on swimming with)

makigpang + kaon                 =makigpangaon         (likes to dine with)



makigpan = is the short form of "makigpang-" .


makigpan + lakaw                 =makigpanlakaw        (likes to go with)

makigpan + luto                    =makigpanluto           (likes to cook foods with)

makigpan + luto                    =makigpanluto           (likes to cook foods with)



mag = is the short for "maga". It denotes progressive or continuing action in the future.


mag + sulat                           = magsulat                 (will write)

maga + sulat                         = magasulat                (will be writing)

mag + trabaho                       = magtrabaho              (will go to work)

maga + trabaho                     = magatrabaho            (will be working)


This prefix also indicates the following:


1. Profession, duplicating first syllable


mag + bugas                          = magbubugas           (rice dealer)

mag + sulat                            = magsusulat             (writer)

mag + dula                             = magdudula              (player\actor)


2. Relationship - "mag" here is in the short form of "manag-"


mag + agaw                          = mag-agaw              (cousins)

manag + agaw                      = manag-agaw           (cousins)

mag + higala                         = maghigala              (friends)

manag + higala                     = managhigala            (friends)


3. What is going to have, to do, or to wear


mag + pormal                        = magpormal              (to behave \ to weafr formal attire)

mag + barong                        = magbarong              (wear barong)

mag + dilana                         = magdilana               (wear wollen dress

mag + dala                            = magdala                 (bring something)

mag + barog                          = magbarog               (stay standing)


4. Obligatory work


mag + daginot                        = magdaginot             (must be thrifty)

mag + tuon                            = magtuon                 (must study)

mag + biyahe                         = magbiyahe              (must travel)

mag + hulat                           = maghulat                 (must wait)



magka – when attached to a root word, it would indicate the following:


1. The gradual occurrence when attached to an adjective word


magka + pula                        = magkapula               (will turn into red)

magka + dako                       = magkadako              (will become larger)

magka + taas                        = magkataas               (will grow taller)


2. A subjunctive mood when attached to a verb word or to some noun words.


magka + kita                         = magkakita                (when meet each other)

magka + sabot                      = magkasabot             (when understand each other)

magka + higugmaay              = magkahigugmaay      (will love each other)



magpa - combination of "mag" and "pa" indicating command or order, or to let continuing action be done upon oneself.


magpa + palit                        = magpapalit              (ask to buy)

magpa + kaon                       = magpakaon             (ask to feed)

magpa + tawag                      = magpatawag           (ask to call)

magpa + kuwenta                  = magpakuwenta        (ask to compute)



magpaka – Is the combination of "mag" and “paka" and would indicate the following situation:


1. The assumption of certain quality, feature or characteristics.


magpaka + tawo                   = magpakatawo         (be a man)

magpaka + adunahan            = magpakaadunahan (be rich)

magpaka + tarong                 = magpakatarong      (be upright)


2. The pretension of character or personality.


magpaka = hari                     = magpakahari         (pretend to be a king)

magpaka = sundalo               = magpakasundalo   (pretend to be a soldier)

magpaka = buotan                = magpakabuotan     (pretend to be a good fellow)



magpaki – this is the combination of "mag" and "paki", and would denote that one is imploring for something (asking for help, support or assistance from others)


magpaki + luoy                      = magpakiluoy          (beg for mercy)

magpaki + tabang                  = magpakitabang      (ask for help)

magpaki + unong                   = magpakiunong       (request for loyalty)



maha – indicates in most cases reflex action, or unexpected occurrence


maha + lukso                        = mahalukso              (jump reflexively)

maha + sum-ok                     = mahasum-ok           (come to a new place unexpectedly)



mahi – is the variation of  "maha"


mahi + lukso                          = mahilukso               (jump reflexively)

mahi + sum-ok                       = mahisum-ok            (will come unexpectedly)


Usually, "mahi" indicates unexpected happening



mam and man – are  the variance and have the same meaning as to that of prefix "mang."


Prefix "mam" is attached to word that begins with consonant b, m, or p. Take note that the initial letter is deleted and replaced with the prefix “mam”.


mam + bugha                        = mamugha                (will hew)

mam + bato                           = mamato                  (will throw stone)

mam + pisat                          = mamisat                  (will squeeze flat)

mam + pusta                         = mamusta                 (will bet)


"man" is also attached to word that begins with consonant d, n, s, or t. Take note also that the initial letter is deleted and replaced with the prefix “man”.


man + dila                             = manila                     (will lick)

man + tingog                         = maningog                 (will produce sounds)

man + sulo                            = manulo                    (will light a torch)

man + tungas                        = manungas                (will climb up the mountain)



mang – plural of "mo-'. If attached to a word that begins with consonants "k" (which will be deleted and replaced with the prefix “mang”). This denotes that the action is done by plural subject or object.


mang + abot                          = mangabot                 (will arrived in group or in succession)

mang + kaon                         = mangaon                  (will eat in group or one after another)

mang + gahi                          = manggahi                 (will harden together or one by one)

mang + hilabot                       = manghilabot             (will meddle alone or with the others)

mang + lupad                         = manglupad               (will fly together or one by one)

mang + wasay                       = mangwasay              (will attack with an ax alone or as a group)

mang + yabo                         = mangyabo                (will spill out together , alone, or one after another)

mang + sirit                           = mangsirit                 (will squirt together or one by one)



manga – is the plural of "ma-." While prefix "mang" indicates what the subject does, the prefix "manga" denotes what will happen to the subject. It is attached to any word without deleting the first letter. This denotes that what will happen would affect more than one subject or object.


manga + amang                    = mangaamang          (They would be speechless)

manga + gisi                         = mangagisi               (a plural count of something will be torn into pieces)

manga + dunot                      = mangadunot            (a plural count of something will rot)



mapa – denotes where something may possibly go.


mapa + lungsod                     = mapalungsod          (going towards town)

mapa + balay                         = mapabalay             (to the house)

mapa + US                            = mapa-US                (will go to the US)


Denotes to whose ownership something will belong


mapa + ako                            = mapaako               (will be mine)

mama +imo                            = mapaimo               (will be yours)



masig - is similar to "isig," indicating individual action. It used as prefix to indicate individual action of each member in a group.


masig + bayad                      = masigbayad            (pay individually)

masig + lakaw                       = masiglakaw            (walk on each other way \each one must go alone)

masig + kuha                        = masigkuha              (each must get for himself)

masig + basa                        = masibasa                (each one must read for himself)

masig + hugas                      = masihugas              (each one must wash)



masigka – is used as prefix to denote respective ownership or individual reference to something that belongs to same type or group.


Note that this prefix is not the same with "masig" that is joined with word that begins with "ka".


masigka + lungsod               = masigkalungsod        (respective town)

masigka + grupo                  = masigkagrupo            (respective group)

masigka + tinun-an               = masigkatinun-an        (each fellow student)

masigka + pasahero             = masigkapasahero      (each fellow passenger)



mi – this prefix is in active voice, forming the present and past tense of "mo-". It is used in intransitive verb.


mi + larga                               = milarga                     (departs or departed)

mi + kaon                               = mikaon                     (eats or ate \has eaten or had eaten)

mi + sabot                              = misabot                    (understands or understood)

mi + lipang                             = milipang                    (flourishes or flourished \thrives or thrived)

mi + sulod                              = misulod                     (enters or entered)


mo – is a prefix used in active voice. This indicates future tense of "mi-" denoting that the subject will or shall do something.


mo + larga                              = molarga                    (will depart \shall be leaving)

mo + abot                               = moabot                     (will arrive\shall arrive)

mo + kaon                              = mokaon                    (will eat \shall eat)

mo + sabot                             = mosabot                   (will understand \shall understand)



na – is the present and past tense of "ma-" It indicates the following:


1. The state or condition of transformation or eventuality.


na + buang                             = nabuang                  (became insane)

na + babaye                           = nababay                   (became a girl)

na + pobre                              = napobre                   (became poor)

na + adunahan                        = naadunahan             (became rich)


2. It tells that an action was done, or that a situation has occurred.


na + hulog                              = nahulog                    (was fallen \feel down)

na + lingaw                             = nalingaw                   (was entertained \fascinated)

na + libog                               = nalibog                     (was confused)

na + luto                                = naluto                       (was cooked)


3. That the subject or object in the statement has been included in the inventory or group when used as the short form of "naha-"


na + lista                                 = nalista                     (has been listed)

na + lakip                                = nalakip                     (has been included)

na + apil                                  = naapil                      (has been included)

na + angin                               = naangin                    (has been involved)



naka - is used in the following situations:


1. It is attached to root word to denote the present and past tense of "maka-".


naka + tindog                         = nakatindog              (is now standing \has stood up)

naka + mao                            = nakamao                (is now learning \has learned )

naka + biyahe                         = nakabiyahe             (is now travelling \has travelled)

naka + sugakod                      = nakasugakod          (is now withstanding \has withstood)

naka + gikan                          = nakagikan               (is now leaving \has left)

naka + maneho                      = nakamaneho            (is now driving \has drove)


2. It is used a prefix to tell that the subject had its potentiality or capability and was able to perform the action or be in the situation mentioned by the root word.


naka + tindog                         = nakatindog               (able to stand)

naka + mao                            = nakamao                 (able to learn)

naka + biyahe                        = nakabiyahe              (able to travel)

naka + sugakod                     = nakasugakod            (able to withstand)

naka + gikan                          = nakagikan                (able to leave)

naka + maneho                      = nakamaneho             (able to drive)



nakag – The variation of “naka-“. This is rarely used nowadays except for euphony.


nakag + tindog                      = nakagtindog             (able to stand)

nakag + mao                         = nakagmao                (able to learn)

nakag + biyahe                      = nakagbiyahe            (able to travel)

nakag + sugakod                   = nakagsugakod          (able to withstand)

nakag + gikan                        = nakaggikan              (able to leave)

nakag + maneho                    = nakagmaneho          (able to drive)



nakapa - is the combination of "naka" and "pa" and would suggest past event, denoting that what has been employed has taken its effect.


This prefix is the present and past tense of “makapa-“


nakapa + tindog                    = nakapatindog          (caused something to stand)

nakapa + mao                      = nakapamao             (caused somebody to learn right)

nakapa + biyahe                   = nakapabiyahe          (caused somebody the travel)

nakapa + sugakod                = nakapasugakod       (caused something to witstand)



nakig – is the present and past tense of ”makig-“ It indicates that one is associating with another.


nakig + dula                          = nakigdula                (plays or played with)

nakig + hinabi                       = nakighinabi              (talks or talked with)

nakig + himamat                   = nakighimamat          (gets or got acquainted with)

nakig + paambit                    = nakigpaambit           (shares or shared something to)



nag - is the short for “naga-“ indicating a continuing or progressive action


nag + lakaw                           = naglakaw                (walking)

nag + damgo                         = nagdamgo               (dreaming)

nag + agulo                           = nag-agulo                (moaning)

nag + maneho                       = nagmaneho             (driving \managing)



nagka - is the present and past tense of "magpa" and it indicates the following:


1. When attached to an adjective word, it denotes that something is gradually happening.


nagka + pula                          = nagkapula                (turns into or became red)

nagka + dako                         = nagkadako               (becomes or became larger)

nagka + taas                          = nagkataas                (grows or grew taller)

nagka + kalayô                      = nagkalayô                 (getting far)


2. It tells that that something occurred by chance or as expected between or among the subjects.


nagka + kita                          = nagkakita                 (meet or had met each other)

nagka + sabot                       = nagsabot                  (understand or understood each other)

nagka + higugmaay               = nagkahigugmaay       (love or loved each other)

nagka + abot                         = nagkaabot                (happened to met each other)


nagpa - The combination of “nag” and “pa” and denotes the present and past tense for "magpa," It indicates a request or command by addressing someone else to let perform the action.


nagpa + palit                         = nagpapalit                (asking somebody to buy for him)

nagpa + kaon                        = nagpakaon               (asks or asked to be feed)

nagpa + tawag                      = nagpatawag              (asks or asked somebody to make the call)

nagpa + kuwenta                   = nagpakuwenta          (requests or requested somebody to compute)

nagpa + hapuhap                   = nagpahapuhap         (asks or asked to be fondled by somebody else)

nagpa + bayad                      = nagpabayad             (asks or asked to be paid by someone else)



nagpaka – is the combination of "nag" and "paka." This is present and past tense of "magpaka". It indicates the following situation:


1. A certain quality, feature or characteristics is being assumed or has been assumed.


nagpaka + tawo                   = nagpakatawo           (assumes or assumed to be a man)

nagpaka + adunahan            = nagpakaadunahan   (assumes or assumed to be rich)

nagpaka + tarong                 = nagpakatarong        (assumes or assumed to be upright)

nagpaka + diyos                  = nagpakadiyos          (assumes or assume oneself as god)


2. Pretends or pretended to have that sort of character or personality.


nagpaka + hari                     = nagpakahari           (pretends or pretended to be a king)

nagpaka + sundalo               = nagpakasundalo     (pretends or pretended to be a soldier)

nagpaka + buotan                = nagpakabuotan       (pretends or pretended to be a good fellow)

nagpaka + amang                = nagpa-amang         (pretends or pretended to be mute)

nagpaka + buotan                = nagpakabuotan       (pretends or pretended to be upright)


3. Willingness or intention to become such


nagpaka + matay                  = nagpakamatay        (commits suicide)

nagpaka + gutom                 = nagpakagutom        (let or caused oneself to hunger)

nagpaka + limsog                = nagpakalimsog        (makes or made oneself healthy)

nagpaka + busog                 = nagpakabusog        (eats or ate to the full)



nagpaki – is the combination of suffixes "nag" and "paki" and is used as suffix to "sayod" and "susi" to mean the solicitation of information.


nagpaki + sayod                   = nagpakisayod          (soliciting information)

nagpaki + susi                      = nagpakisusi             (soliciting information)



nagpasi – caused to show or express a message around


nagpasi + bantog                  = nagpasibantog         (flaunting oneself)

nagpasi + baya                     = nagpasibaya            (neglected one's duty)

nagpasi + dayag                   = nagpasidayag          (expressed ones thought or emotion)

nagpasi + una                       = nagpasiuna             (started everything)



naha – denotes the following:


1. The usual reflex or involuntary movements


naha + lukso                          = nahalukso               (leaped with a start)

naha + kurat                          = nahakurat                (affected with a surprise)

naha + dusmo                        = nahadusmo             (bumped one's face)


2. When describing one’s affiliation or inclusion.


naha + lista                            = nahalista                 (has been listed)

naha + lakip                           = nahalakip                 (has been included)

naha + apil                             = nahaapil                  (has been included)

naha + angin                          = nahaangin                (has been involved)



nahag – is the variation of prefix "naha-". However, it is used only with few selected root words.


nahag + mata                        = nahagmata              (awakened)

nahag + duol                         = nahagduol                (placed closer)

nahag + sulat                        = nahagsulat               (written)



nahi – is the present and past tense of prefix "mahi-" and usually interchanged with "naha-" denoting the following:


1. That something happened as expected


nahi + lukso                           = nahilukso                (jumped reflexively)

nahi + sum-ok                        = nahisum-ok             (came as expected)

nahi + abot                            = nahiabot                  (arrived as expected)

nahi + sukamod                     = nahisukamod           (stumbles or sturmbled as expected)


2. It describes what happened to the subject


nahi + mata                           = nahimata                  (awakened)

nahi + salaag                         = nahisalaag               (astrayed)

nahi + layo                            = nahilayo                    (placed afar)


3. It describes one’s affiliation or inclusion.


nahi + lista                             = nahilista                  (has been listed)

nahi + lakip                            = nahilakip                  (has been included)

nahi + apil                              = nahiapil                    (has been included)

nahi + angin                           = nahiangin                 (has been involved)



nahig – is the variation of prefix "naha-" and is used only with few selected root words.


nahig + mata                         = nahigmata                (awakened)

nahig + duol                           = nahigduol                 (placed closer)

nahig + sulat                          = nahigsulat                (written)



nam - is the present and past tense of "mam." It denotes that a plural subject has performed the action.


nam + bugha                         = namugha                  (some have hewn or hewed)

nam + bato                            = namato                    (some have thrown or threw stone)

nam + pisat                           = namisat                    (some have squeezed flat)

nam + pusta                          = namusta                   (some made a bet)


When attached to a word that begins with letter b, or p, the initial letter is deleted and replaced with the prefix “nam


nam + (b)akwit                      = namakwit                  (are or were evacuating

nam + (b)abaye                     = namabaye                (are or were philandering)

nam + (p)asko                       = namasko                  (they ask or asked for Chritmas gift)

nam + (p)usta                       = namusta                  (they bet)

nam + (p)ahawa                    = namahawa                (were leaving)

nam + (p)ahulay                    = namahulay               (were resting)



nan - is the present and past tense of "man"


nan + dila                               = nanila                      (lick or licked)

nan + tingog                           = naningog                  (produce or produced sounds)

nan + sulo                              = nanulo                     (light or lighted a torch)

nan + tungas                          = nanungas                 (climb or climbe up the mountain)


It is also the variation of "nang –"


nan + lukso                            = nanlukso                 (were jumping)

nan + hawa                            = nanhawa                 (they left \were leaving)

nan + hakot                            = nanhakot                (were transporting)

nan + hambog                        = nanhambog             (were bragging about)



nanag – the plural of "nag-". It is used only with plural subject. Could be in the present or past tenses.


nanag + dula                         = nanagdula                (are or were playing)

nanag + tuon                         = nanagtuon                (are or were studying)

nanag + asawa                      = nanag-asawa            (are or were getting married)



nang – denotes the following:


1. The present and past tense of prefix "mang"


nang + abot                            = nangabot                (arrive or arrived in group or in succession)

nang + kaon                           = nangaon                 (eat or ate in group or one after another)

nang + gahi                            = nanggahi                 (harden or hardened together or one by one)

nang + hilabot                        = nanghilabot              (meddle or meddled alone or with the others)

nang + lupad                          = nanglupad                (fly or flew together or one by one)

nang + wasay                         = nangwasay              (attack or attacked with an ax alone or as a group)

nang + yabo                           = nangyabo                (spill or spilt out together , alone, or one after another)

nang + sirit                             = nangsirit                  (squirt or squirted together or one by one)


2. The plural of "mi-' and is used in the past tense


nang + lukso                          = nanglukso               (were jumping)

nang + hawa                          = nanghawa                (they left \were leaving)

nang + hakot                          = nanghakot               (were transporting)

nang + hambog                      = nanghambog            (were bragging about)



nanga – is the present and past tense of "manga-" and used with plural subject. Thus, it is the plural form of the prefix “na-“


nanga + amang                      = nangaamang           (become or became speechless)

nanga + gisi                           = nangagisi                (torn into pieces)

nanga + dunot                        = nangadunot             (rot)



nasig – is the present and past tense of "masig-" or "isig-" denotes identical action of in a group of subjects.


nasig + bayad                        = nasigbayad             (pays or paid individually)

nasig + lakaw                         = nasiglakaw             (walks or walked each other way or alone)

nasig + kuha                          = nasigkuha               (gets or got something for himself)

nasig + basa                          = nasigbasa               (reads or read for himself)

nasig + hugas                        = nasighugas             (washes or washed something for himself)



ni – this prefix is particularly used in the locality of Cebu, Davao, Misamis Oriental, Iligan City as well as some parts of western Leyte (from Baybay City to Ormoc City). The prefix “ni-“ is used as the variation of “mi-“ to indicate the present or past tense of the action. This prefix is fondly used in informal conversation shall be avoided in formal writing or communication. For formal communication, use the standard prefix “mi-“ instead. 


ni + adto                                 = niadto (miadto)        (goes or went)  

ni + bunga                              = nibunga (mibunga)    (beras or bore fruit)

ni + gahi                                 = nigahi (migahi)          (hardens or hardened)

ni + tinguha                            = nitinguha (mitinguha) (strives or strived)



pa – when prefixed to a name of place, it denotes the direction or one’s destination towards that place


Note that hyphen is if pa attached to a proper noun


pa + Kanada                             = pa-Kanada              (going to or towards Canada)

pa + norte                               = panorte                   (northwards)

pa + dagat                              = padagat                   (towards the sea)

pa + kusina                            = pakusina                  (going to the kitchen)

pa + sulod                              = pasulod                    (inward \going in)


A hyphen is also used when pa is used as prefix to a foreign word, as in describing the manner or in telling how something would become.


pa + bourgeois (French)        = pa-bourgeois             (become bourgeoisie; be a  bourgeoisie)

pa + study (English)             = pa-study                    (going to syudy; let or allow to study)

pa + mañana (Spanish)         = pa-mañana                (by tomorrow; going to happen tomorrow)



paka – this prefix indicates the transformation or assumption of image or behavior


paka + buhi                           = pakabuhi                  (means of living)

paka + ulaw                          = pakaulaw                  (shameful act)

paka + bantog                       = pakabantog              (act of making popular)

paka + aron-ingnon                = pakaaron-ingnon       (pretension, theact of pretending to be)



paki – denotes the following situations:


1. When prefixed to root verb, it becomes a request or direct command. 


paki + kuha                            = pakikuha                  (please get)

paki + bunlt                            = pakibunlot                (please pull)

paki + hatag                           = pakihatag                 (please give to)

paki + sukod                          = pakisukod                (please measure)


2. When prefixed to "susi" and "sayod" it means the activity of soliciting information.


paki + susi                             = pakisusi                    (investigation \verification)

paki + sayod                          = pakisayod                 (information gathering)


Nowadays, “paki” is more often shorten to  pa” (see above, under prefix “pa”) 


pakig – it names the activity, struggle, or endeavor to do something towards another


pakig + away                          = pakig-away              (fight)

pakig + batok                         = pakigbatok               (contradiction)

pakig + dait                            = pakigdait                 (harmonious relationship)

pakig + higala                        = pakighigala               (offer of friendship)

pakig + gubat                         = pakiggubat               (waging of war)


Notice that the root word that begins with letter "g" does not lost it when prefixed by "pakig" because "gg" is needed to retain the proper syllabication of the word.



pag - This Cebuano prefix word functions similar to the preposition "to" in English. When prefixed to a word base, the newly formed word is meant to be a verb or action word; It also denotes condition or state of the action or how one thing is described.


pag + kaon                             = pagkaon                    (as a verb: to eat)

           ang pagkaon              (as a state or situation: how it is eaten,

   or the manner of eating, or the state of eating)


pag + basa                             = pagbasa                     (to read)

           ang pagbasa               (as a state or situation: how it is read,

   or how reading is performed)


pag + lakaw                           = paglakaw                    (to walk)

          ang paglakaw              (as a state or situation: the condition of walking,

   or the state of walking)


pag is also used in the following situations:


1. To form the infinitive verb


pag + dagan                           = pagdagan                 (to run)

pag + sulat                             = pagsulat                   (to write)

pag + kaon                             = pagkaon                   (to eat)

pag + huna-huna                     = paghuna-huna           (to think)

pag + gugma                          = paggugma                (to love)

pag + sayaw                           = pagsayaw                (to dance)


2. To give a direct command


pag + luto                               = pagluto                  (you cook)

pag + tuon                              = pagtuon                 (you study)

pag + sulat                             = pagsulat                 (you write)

pag + pinsar                           = pagpinsar               (you think)

pag + hugas                           = paghugas               (you wash)

pag + limpiyo                         = paglimpiyo              (you clean)


3. To form a noun.


pag + kaon                             = pagkaon                   (food)

pag + laom                             = paglaom                   (hope)


Infinitive verb can be transformed into noun by preceding it with the article "ang."


ang pag + dagan                   = pagdagan                 (the act of running)

ang pag + sulat                     = pagsulat                   (the act of writing)

ang pag + tan-aw                  = pagtan-aw                 (the act of watching or looking at)

ang pag + lugaw                   = palugaw                    (the the making of porridge)


4. When referring to the future actual occurrence of an action or event


pag + abot                            = pag-abot                  (upon arrival)

pag + kaon                           = pagkaon                  (upon eating)

pag + dagan                         = pagdagan                 (upon running)

pag + sugo                           = pagsugo                  (upon giving an order)



pagka – is used to form the following:


1. In expressing exclamation or when being surprised


pagka + nindot                      = pagkanindot!            (how beautiful!)

pagka + lami                         = pagkalami!               (it feels good!)

pagka + hungog                    = pagkahungog!           (how stupid!)


2. As an abstract noun, indicating state or condition


pagka + pangulo                   = pagkapangulo         (leadership)

pagka + manunulat               = pagkamanunulat      (being a writer)


3. As an abstract noun of one's quality. Similar to prefix "ka."


pagka + puti                         = pagkaputi                (whiteness)

pagka + hugaw                     = pagkahugaw            (dirtiness)

pagka + hamis                      = pagkahamis            (being how smooth)

pagka + humot                      = pagkahumot            (being how fragrant)


4. As an adverb of time


pagka + karon                       = pagkakaron             (by now)

pagka + ugma                       = pagkaugma             (by tomorrow)

pagka + sugod                      = pagkasugod            (upon starting)

pagka + human                     = pagkahuman           (when done)

pagka + gabii                        = pagkagabii               (by night)



pagpa – is used to cause something to happen.


pagpa + lupad                       = pagpalupad             (let fly)

pagpa + hulam                      = pagpahulam            (permit to borrow)

pagpa + sakop                      = pagpasakop            (to be a subordinate)

pagpa + dagan                      = pagpadagan            (operate to run)

pagpa + mabdos                   = pagpamabdos         (impregnate)

pagpa + mahal                      = pagpamahal            (increase the price \make expensive)


Or to let someone feel or expect something


pagpa + laom                        = pagpalaom             (let or allow to expect hope)

pagpa + gugma                     = pagpagugma           (let or allow to feel love)

pagpa + sakit                        = pagpasakit             (let or allow feel the pain \to hurt)

pagpa + batyag                     = pagpabatyag           (let or allow to sense the feeling)



pagpaka – is the combination of "pag" and "paka" to form a verb that allows the subject to perform the action.


pagpa + kilat                         = pagpakilat              (let lightning to flash or strike)

pagpa + kusog                      = pagpakusog            (increase the volume \make fast)

pagpa + kurog                       = pagpakurog            (cause to shake or shiver)

pagpa + daghan                    = pagpadaghan          (allow to multiply)


This prefix is used similar to "paka" which indicates the transformation or assumption of image or behavior, in this sense it is preceded by "ang"


ang pagpaka + buhi             = ang pagpakabuhi           (the means of living)

ang pagpaka + ulaw            = ang pagpakaulaw           (a shameful act)

ang pagpaka + bantog         = ang pagpakabantog        (the act of making popular)

ang pagpaka + aron-ingnon  = ang pagpakaaron-ingnon (theact of pretending to be)



pala – is similar to "para" when it forms a descriptive word that would describe the habitual behavior or tendencies of the subject


pala + hubog                        = palahubog                (drunkard)

pala + away                         = palaaway                  (troublemaker)

pala + kaon                          = palakaon                  (fond of eating)

pala + utot                           = palautot                    (frequently farting)

pala + sumbong                   = palasumbong            (always reporting complaint or information)



pam – is the informal variation of "pang-" It is attached to a word that begins with "b" or "p" to form the following:


1. As a noun, when prefix by "ang"


ang pam + bunal                  = ang pambunal        (bat)

ang pam + busog                 = ang pambusog       (something used to fill one's hunger)

ang pam + palo                   = ang pampalo           (ferule)

ang pam + pirito                  = ang pampirito          (something used in frying)


2. As an adjective, indicating the purpose or usage of the subject


pam + bunal                        = pambunal                (for beating)

pam + busog                       = pambusog               (for filling one's hunger)

pam + palo                          = pampalo                  (for spanking)

pam + pirito                         = pampirito                 (for frying)



pan – another informal variance of "pang" joined to words beginning with b or p to form the following:


1. As a noun, when preceded by "ang"


ang pan+ bunal                     = ang panbunal          (bat)

ang pan + busog                   = ang panbusog         (something used to fill one's hunger)

ang pan + palo                      = ang panpalo            (ferule)

ang pan + pirito                     = ang panpirito           (something used in frying)


2. As an adjective, wherein in indicates the purpose or usage of the subject


pan + bunal                           = panbunal                 (for beating)

pan + busog                          = panbusog                (for filling one's hunger)

pan + palo                             = panpalo                   (for spanking)

pan + pirito                            = panpirito                  (for frying)



pang – is the formal form of "pam" and "pan". It forms the following:


1. As a noun, when preceded by "ang"


ang pang+ bunal                   = ang pangbunal        (bat)

ang pang + busog                 = ang pangbusog       (something used to fill one's hunger)

ang pang + palo                    = ang pangpalo          (ferule)

ang pang + pirito                   = ang pangpirito         (something used in frying)


2. As an adjective that indicates the purpose or usage of the subject


pang + bunal                         = pangbunal               (for beating)

pang + busog                        = pangbusog              (for filling one's hunger)

pang + palo                           = pangpalo                 (for spanking)

pang + pirito                          = pangpirito                (for frying)


3. When attached to a word that begins with a, g, h, l, i,& u. In this sense, it names the activity being performed.


pang + andam                       = pangandam             (preparation)

pang + galam                        = panggalam              (care)

pang + galing                        = panggaling               (mill)

pang + luto                           = pangluto                   (cooking)

pang + lingaw                        = panglingaw              (entertainment)

pang + ihaw                          = panguhaw                (slaugthering)

pang + ilad                            = pangilad                  (deception)

pang + utang                         = pangutang               (loan \borrowing)

pang + utaw                          = pangutaw                (ironing)


4. If “pang” is prefixed to a root word that begins with ka, the first two letters (ka) are subsequently omitted and replaced with “pang.


pang + kalot                           = pangalot                  (scratching)

pang + kahoy                         = pangahoy                (gathering of firewood)

pang + kuykoy                        = panguykoy              (digging)

pang + kilat                            = pangilat                   (lightning)

pang + kidlap                         = pangidlap                 (flashing)



panga – this indicates the gradualness or succession of plural subjects.


panga + dalag                       = pangadalag             (changing into yellow)

panga + hulog                       = pangahulog             (gradual or successive fall)

panga + aghat                       = pangaghat               (enticements)



pasi – this indicates that intangible noun is given to the object in the statement


pasi + daan                            = pasidaan                (caution \warning)

pasi + una                              = pasiuna                  (introduction)

pasi + dungog                        = pasidungog             (honor)

pasi + baya                            = pasibaya                (negligence)

pasi + bantog                         = pasibantog             (flaunting)



sali – this is the variation of the prefix "tali." Its limited use is applied to indicate what is about to happen. This prefix is no longer used in modern communication, as “tali” is the most preferred by today’s speakers and writers. It is considered awkward nowadays to use the prefix “sali”


sali + abot                              = saliabot                 (approaching)

sali + adto                              = saliadto                 (about to go there)

sali + sugmat                         = salisugmat             (about to occur)



tag – if prefixed to a word that represents counting or number, it indicates the amount of content


tag + duha                              = tagduha                 (two each)

tag + siyete                            = tagsiyete                (seven each)

tag + duha                              = tagduha                 (two each)


If prefixed to an amount of money, it indicates the price or value of each item.


Take note that pisos is used regardless of the amount of Philippine piso that is more than one piso, while sentabos is also used regardless of the amount of Philippine centavo. Use piso to emphasize singularity of one peso and "usa ka dako" for the singularity of one centavo. The use of dako is attributed to the old Philippine big-sized one-centavo coin.


tag + gatos ka pisos              = taggatos ka pisos    (worth one hundred pesos each)

tag + usa ka pisos                = tag-usa ka pisos      (one peso each)

tag + tres pisos                    = tagtres pisos            (worth three pesos each)

tag + singko sentabos           = tagsingko sentabos  (five centavos each)

tag + libo                              = taglibo                    (worth a thousand each)

tag + pis                               = tagpiso                   (one peso each)

tag + usa ka dako                 = tag-usa ka dako       (one centavo each)


"tag" is also used as an alternative for "taga'" to indicate the doer of the action or one who is assign to perform a task.


tag + sulat                              = tagsulat                (writer)

tag + sulti                               = tagsulti                 (speaker)

tag + hugas                            = taghugas              (washer)

tag + gugol                             = taggugol               (financier)

tag + himo                              = taghimo                (maker)



taga – is used to indicate someone who is assign to perform a task. The variations for this prefix include "tig", "parag" and "tag."


taga + sulat                            = tagasulat               (one who is assigned to write)

taga + sulti                             = tagasulti                (one who is assigned to speake)

taga + hugas                          = tagahugas              (one who is assigned to wash)

taga + gugol                           = tagagugol               (one who is assigned to finance)

taga + himo                            = tagahimo               (one who is assigned to make)


If "taga" is prefixed to name of place, it denotes where one lives (place of residence) or its place of origin (where he came from or used to belong).


taga + Bohol                          = taga-Bohol               (resident from Bohol \a Boholano)

taga + siyudad                       = tagasiyudad             (city dweller)

taga + bukid                          = tagabukid                 (mountaineer \rural folk)

taga + probinsya                    = tagabrobinsya          (provincial folk \one who came from the province)



If prefixed to an unspecified group or association, denotes affiliation to that group either as a member or worker or in any other way identified with that group.


taga + militar                          = tagamilitar             (associated with the military \from the militar)

taga + medya                        = tagamedya             (member of the press \press people)

taga + simbahan                    = tagasimbahan         (member of the church)

taga + praternity                    = tagapraternity          (member of the fraternity)

taga + bangko                       = tagabangko             (worker from the bank)

taga + radyo                         = tagaradyo                (one who works in a radio station)


"taga" is also prefixed to indicate how high or deep is the thing.


taga + liog                             = tagaliog                  neck-deep \up to the neck)

taga + tuhod                          = tagatuhod               (knee-deep)

taga + lapa-lapa                     = tagalapa-lapa          (too shallow that it touches only the foot sole)

taga + atop                            = taga-atop                (as high as the roof)

taga + langit                          = tagalangit                (heaven-high)

taga + tinai                            = tagatinai                 (up to the intestine)

taga + tumoy                         = tagatumoy              (reaches to the tip)



tagi – denotes of being a fellow residents in a common locality where these persons are staying or residing


tagi + baryo                            = tagabaryo               (villager)

tagi + lungsod                         = tagilungsod             (townfolk)

tagi + nasod                           = taginasod                (citizen \countryman)


tali – This prefix indicates that an action is about to be performed or to happen.


tali + abot (arrival)                 = taliabot                      (approaching)

tali + adto (go there)              = taliadto                      (about to go there)

tali + sugmat (recur)              = talisugmat                 (about to recur)

tali + bukal (boil)                   = talibukal                    (about to boil)

tali + suko (angry)                 = talisuko                     (about to go angry)


It also names the small quantity of something


tali + dugo (blood)                = talidugo                     (blood coming in small quantity)

tali + huwad (spill)                = talihuwad                  (small amount of spillage)


tig – is used to indicate habitual action or fondness of something


tig + katawa (laugh)              = tigkatawa                  (given to laughing)

tig + kaon (eat)                     = tigkaon                     (fond of eating)


It also indicates function or designation of work similar to “tag-”, “taga-” and “parag-


tig + hugas (wash)                = tighugas                   (washer \assigned to wash)

tig + luto (cook)                   = tigluto                       (cook \assigned to cook)

tig + sulat (write)                  = tigsulat                     (writer \assigned to write)

tig + dalagan (run)                = tigdalagan                (runner \assigned to run)

tig + kompra (purchase)        = tigkompra                 (purchaser of goods \assigned to purchase goods)



ting – describes the kind of season


ting + ani (harvest)                = ting-ani                    (harvest season)

ting + ulan (rain)                    = ting-ulan                  (rainy season)

ting + tugnaw (cold)               = tingtugnaw               (cold season)

ting + init (hot)                      = ting-init                    (hot season)


It indicates the time or day when a particular activity is performed


ting + kaon  (eat)                   = tingkaon                  (time to eat)

ting + tulog (sleep)                = tingtulog                   (time to sleep)

ting + eskuwela (school)        = ting-eskuwela           (school day)

ting + suweldo (work pay)      = tingsuweldo              (pay day)



tulu – see infix “lu



ulu – this prefix implies doubtful or improper form


ulu + biyador                          = ulubiyador               (pseudo-aviator0

ulu + awtoridad                      = uluawtoridad            (pseudo-authority \presumed authority)



um used as a prefix to word base that begins with vowel, denoting past action that has been performed.


um + abot                              = umabot                    (reached)

um + usbaw                           = umusbaw                 (improved)

um + ihi                                 = umihi                       (urinated)



umadenotes a coming event or an expectation.


uma + abot                           = umaabot                  (expected to come \coming)

uma + asenso                       = umaasenso              (expected to be improving)



 inFIXES (tungang dikit) - used in the middle of the word





(The initial consonant of base word) + il + (all that remains of the base word after the initial consonant is retained) + suffix "an" or "on" - this combination of infix and suffix infused by a split base word would transform the base word into an adjective or noun.


minyo (marriage)            m + (il) + inyo (base word "minyo") + on        = milinyoon           (marriageable)

bitay  (hang)                   b + (il) + itay (base word "bitay") + on           = bilitayon            (sentenced to death)

silong (underneath)         s + (il) + ilong (base word "silong") + an        = sililongan           (shade or overhead cover)





This infix is inserted after the first consonant of a base word to indicate the following:


(1) Manner or form indicated by the word base


bulak  (flower)              b + in + bulak        = b (in) ulak       = binulak       (designed or formed like flowers)


(2) Derivatives from root adjectives


batid (expertise)           b + in + batid         = b (in) atid        = binatid        (in a skilled manner; done with expertise)



luthis infix is used limitedly to words that begins with “tu” and forms the prefix “tulu” after inserting “lu” between the first syllabic “tu” and the rest of the of the word base.


tuman (urge)                tu + lu + tumanon    = tu (lu) manon                   

       (tumanon and tulumanon both mean “program of activities”)


tungha (attendance)     tu + lu + tunghaan    = tu (lu) nghaan                  

     (tunghaan and tulunghaan both mean “school”)



um used in subjunctive mood inserted between the first two letters of the word base beginning with a consonant.


                (using word base: gikan)


gikan (from)                  g +um + gikan      = g (um) ikan    = gumikan     (because of)

bisita (visit)                   b +um + bisita      = b (um) isita    = bumisita     (would visit; visiting)

dala (handle)                 d + um + dala      = d (um) ala      = dumala       (handling or management)



sufFIXES (ulahing dikit) - attached at the end of a word



a - The speaker is giving a direct instruction to the person spoken to. The word created with this suffix is in the imperative mood. The imperative word suggests letting the subject change its state or condition as indicated by the root word.


This suffix is pronounced without an accent.


luto (cook)         luto + a          = lutoa  (cook it)


sample:  lutoa ang isda  (cook the fish)



The suffix "a" also forms the passive negative.


galing (grind)      galing + a       = galinga (you grind that) 


sample: Wala niya galinga ang mais     (He did not grind the corn)



an - is a variant of "i", when added to a root verb, it would indicate that:


(1) an action is to be done on a portion of something


hiwa (cut)                      hiwa + an                      = hiwaan               (cut or slice a portion of something)


(2) an action is to be done in favor of somebody


hatag (give)                   hatag + an                     = hatagan              (give something to)

tugot (allow)                  tugot + an                      = tugotan               (give permission to)

halok (kiss)                   halok + an                     = halokan              (give a kiss to)


(3) an action is to be done upon something or somebody


dagmal (beat)               dagmal + an                  = dagmalan           (beat something or somebody)

halok (halok)                halok + an                     = halokan              (kiss somebody)



ante – denotes doer of the action


Note that if the root word ends in vowel, it is removed. The gender is not identified. Hence, the doer can be either as a male or a female.


boto (vote)                     boto + ante                = botante              (voter)

ayuda (aid)                    ayuda + ante             = ayudante            (adjutant)

estudyo (study)             estudyo + ante           = estudyante         (student)

komedya  (comedy)       komedya + ante         = komedyante       (joker)

kumando (command)     kumando + ante         = kumandante       (commandant)

negosyo (buiness)         negosyo + ante           = negosyante       (businessperson)



era – (see “ero”)



ero – denotes doer of action.


Note that if root word ends in vowel, it is removed.


bomba (pump)             bomba +ero                   = bombero            (pumper \fireman)

kusina (kitchen)           kusina + ero                  = kusinero             (cook)

boso (scuba)                boso + ero                    = bosero               (scuba diver)

bote (rowboat)              bote + ero                     = botero                (a rower of flat-bottom rowboat \coxswain)

kaingin (slash & burn)   kaingin + ero                 = kainginero          (slash-and-burn farmer)

tapal (patch)                tapal + ero                     = tapalero             (patcher)

boksing (boxing)          boksing+ ero                  = boksingero         (boxer)


Note that the gender of doer is identified to be male. For female, use “era.”


bomba (pump)             bomba + era                  = bombera            (female pumper \firewoman)

kusina (kitchen)           kusina + era                  = kusinera             (female cook)

boso (scuba)               boso + era                     = bosera               (female scuba diver)

bote (rowboat)             bote+ era                       = botera                (female rower \lady coxswain)

kaingin (slash & burn)  kaingin + era                  = kainginera          (female slash-and-burn farmer)

tapal (patch)                tapal+ era                      = tapalera             (female patcher)

boksing (boxing)          boksing + era                 = boksingera         (lady boker)



ha - is a variant of "a", suffixed to root word terminating in open vowel. The word formed is

in imperative mode, asking or telling someone to do what is meant by the root word.


masa (mix)                   masa + ha                    = masaha             (mix it)

tulo (three)                    tulo + ha                      = tuloha                (make it three)

usa (one)                      usa + ha                      = usaha                (combine all to make one )

kanta (sing)                  kanta + ha                    = kantaha             (sing it )


use the suffix "a" for non-open vowel.


adto (over there)          adto + a                         = adtoa              (go there)

lukat (redeem)             lukat + a                        = lukata             (redeem it)



hon - suffix when added to base word ending with open vowels or vocalic


sauo (memorize)         saulo + hon                  = saulohon           (to memorize)

simba (worship)           simba + hon                 = simbahon          (to worship)

bag-o (new)                 bag-o + hon                  = bag-ohon          (to renew)

kutsara (spoon)           kutsara + hon               = kutsarahon        (to scoop with a spoon)


Also as descriptive word (adjective). (compare with “-on”)


bato (stone)                  bato + hon                 = batohon            (rocky)

kang-a (ajar)                 kang-a + hon              = kang-ahon        (gaping)

abo (ash)                     abo + hon                   = abohon             (ashy)

alambre (wire)              alambre + hon             = alambrehon       (wiry)


Described the “not so” characteristic of the adjective used


guwapo (handsome)     guwapo + hon              = guwapohon       (somewhat handsome)

guwapa (pretty)            guwapa + hon              = guwapahon       (somewhat pretty)



hon – used to form the following:


1. Estimated amount or value when the word base is derives from foreign word (Spanish, English, etc.). A hyphen is used when English word is used.


kurenta (forty)               kurenta + hon                = kurentahon        (forty something)

kinse (fifteen)                kinse + hon                   = kinsehon           (fifteen something)

nubenta (ninety)            nubenta + hon               = nubentahon        (ninety something)

twenty (20)                    twenty + hon                = twenty-hon         (twenty something \around twenty)

fifty-one (51)                  fifty-one + hon               = fifty-one-hon       (something like fifty-one)


2. Replicate when suffixed to words used in counting that ends in “e”


kinse (fifteen)               kinse + hon                   = kinsehon            (make eleven)

dose (twelve)                dose + hon                   = dosehon             (make twelve)

nuybe (nine)                 nuybe + hon                 = nuybehon           (make nine)

siyete (seven)               siyete + hon                 = siyetehon           (make seven)



i - this suffix is used for imperative mode of the base word (root verb), indicating the following:


(1) Action is to be done in favor of subject


tudlo (teach)                 tudlo + i                         = tudlo-i               (teach sometbody)


(2) Action is to be done on or upon the subject


hatag (give)                   hatag + i                       = hatagi                (give something to)


(3) Action is t be done on a portion of subject


hiwa (slice)                   hiwa + i                       = hiwai                   (slice a portion of something)



ing - is a ligature commonly represented by "y" when joined to words ending in vowels. SImilar to "nay"


wala (none)                 wala + ing                    = walay                 (has no \ have no \with no)

                                  wala + nay


aduna (has/have)        aduna + ing                   = adunay               (has \have \with)

                                 aduna + nay



ismo – names the doctrine or faith of a certain group.


The removal of last letters of the root word is pattern after the way the original English or Spanish word is derived.


Budha (Buddha)                Budha + ismo           = Budhismo      (Buddhism)

Katoliko (Catholic)             Katoliko + ismo        = Katolismo      (Catholicism)

Komunista (Communist)    Komunista + ismo     = Komunismo   (Communism)


it also denotes practices or attitude.


bandal (vandal)             bandal + ismo               = bandalismo     (vandalism)



on – used to form the following: (compare with “hon”)


1. Descriptive word or adjective


bato (rock)                    bato + on                      = batoon           (rocky)

lapok (mud)                  lapok + on                     = lapokon         (muddy)


2. Create noun words out of action words


sugo (order)                 sugo + on                     = sugoon            (would be ordered to do something)

trabaho (work)              trabaho + on                 = trabahoon        (work to do)


3. Future passive action word


gisi (tear)                    gisi + on                    = gision                 (to tear)

patay (dead)               patay + on                 = patayon               (to kill )

gakos (embrace)         gakos + gakoson       = gakoson              (to embrace)


3. Replicate when suffixed to words used in counting using the Visayan numbers usa, duha, tulo, etc.


duha (two)                     duha + on               = duhaon               (make two)

tulo (three)                    tulo + on                  = tuloon                 (make three)

upat (four)                     upat + on                 = upaton                (make four)



PREFIX and SUFFIX combined (magkalambigit nga unang dikit ug ulahing dikit)



ka + (root word) + an - if the root word is a noun, the formed word refers to plural and collective nouns


sundalo (army)            ka + sundalo + han       = kasundalohan     (armies)

bata (child)                 ka + bata + an              = kabataan            (children)

daghan (many)            ka + daghan + an         = kadaghanan        (majority)


ka + (root word) + an - if the root word is verb, the word formed has transformed the root word from its verb form into an adjective denoting possibility


salig (reliance)              ka + salig + an             = kasaligan          (reliable)

tuo (right)                     ka + tuo + han              = katuohan           (believable)

dagan (run)                   ka + dagan + an           = kadaganan        (approachable for quick help)


ka + (root word) + on - if the root word is a verb or a noun that is used in naming an action, the word formed expresses one's urge or wanting to do an action indicated by the root word.


sumbag (box)              ka + sumbag + on        = kasumbagon      (urged to box)

langoy (swim)              ka + langoy + on          = kalangoyon        (urged to swim)

dagan (run)                  ka + dagan + on          = kadaganon         (urged to run)



gim + (root word) + on - variety of "ging" or "gin" to form nouns with root word usually beginning with labial consonants


buhatr (work)              gim + buhat + on          = gimbuhaton       (work to do)

bug-at (heavy)             gim + bug-at + on        = gimbug-aton      (heaviness)

buot (will to do)           gim + buot + on           = gimbuoton         (discretion)

busog (full stomach)    gim + busog + on        = gimbusogon       (fullness of stomach)



hi + (root word) + an – will still be there when someone or something arrives and that an action can possibly be done upon


abot (deach)                 hi + abot + an             = hiabotan           (be seen still there)

sabot (now)                  hi + sabot + an            = hisabotan         (be known)

sulat (write)                  hi + sulat + an             = hisulatan          (be written with)

dagmal (beat)               hi + dagmal+ an          = hidagmalan       (be beaten)



hi + (root word) + on – be the subject of one's obligation


gugma (love)                hi + gugma + on          = higugmaon        (be loved by)



hin + (root word) + hon – is mostly used with root words that begin with "s" to indicate habitual inclination.


Note that the initial "s" is removed after the suffix.


sulti (talk)                    hin + (s)ulti + hon        = hinultihon           (talkative)

sulat  (sulat)                hin + (s)ulat + on         = hinulato             (loves to write)

sugo (order)                 hin + (s)ugo + on         = hinugo              (always giving orders)

sumbag (box)              hin + (s)umbag + on     = hinumbagon      (fond of giving a punch \loves to hit a punch)

suyop (suck)               hin + (s)uyop + on        = hinuyopon         (fond of sucking)



ig + (first syllable of the root word) + root word - This combination of prefix and infix would indicate as an agency in doing something


sulat (write)                 ig + (su) + sulat            = igsusulat           (tool for writing)

baligya (sell)               ig + (ba) + baligya         = igbabaligya        (goods for sale)

lukat (redeem)             ig + (lu) + lukat             = iglulukat            (money for redeeming what has been pawned or for

                                                                                                  buying a ticket)



ma + (root word) + on - indicates characteristics


tulon-an (something to study)   ma + tulon-an + on      = matulon-anon   (studious)

tinuod (true)                            ma + tinuod + on         = matinuodnon    (honest)

tinud-an (truth)                        ma + tinud-an + on      = matinud-anon   (honest)



mag + (root word) + ay - will show reciprocity.


tabang (help)                 mag + tabang + ay       = magtabangay    (help each other)

hungit (feed the mouth)  mag + hungit + ay         = maghungitay     (feed each other's mouth)

hulat (wait)                    mag + hulat + ay          = maghulatay       (wait each other)


Note that if root word ends with consonant "d", it will be replaced with "r"


tukmod (push)             mag + tukmo(d) + ay    = magtukmoray    (push each other)

hatod (send off)            mag + hato(d) + ay      = maghatoray       (send each other)

humod (wet)                mag + humo(d) + ay     = maghumoray     (wet each other)



pa + (root word) + a / ha – is a command or request that would let something to happen or permit someone to do.


sulod (inside)               pa + sulod + ra           = pasulora           (allow admittance \let enter)

saghid (sideswipe)        pa + saghid + ra         = pasaghira         (allow to side swipe)

kaon (eat)                    pa + kaon + a             = pakaona           (feed it \allow to eat)

andar (start to run)        pa + andar + a            = paandara          (let the engine start)

kanta (sing)                  pa + kanta + ha          = pakantaha        (allow to sing)

radyo (radio)                 pa + radyo + ha          = paradyoha        (ask to call on the radio)

kendi (candy)                pa + kendi + ha          = pakendiha        (allow to become a candy)


Notice that:


rootword that ends in "d" is changed to "ra"

rootword that ends in consonant, suffix "a" is added

rootword that ends in vowel, suffix "ha" is added



paga + (root word) + an – indicating obligation to perform something.


bayad (pay)                  paga + baya(d) + an     = pagabayaran    (will be paid by)

hatod (send off)             paga + hato(d)+ an      = pagahatoran     (will be delivered with)

sulat (write)                  paga + sulat + an         = pagasulatan     (will be written upon)

sakay (ride)                  paga + sakay + an       = pagasakayan   (will be ridden by)

hatag (give)                   paga + hatag + an       = pagahatagan    (will be given with)


Notice that root word that ends in "d" it is replaced with ":r"



paga + (root word) + on – indicates an action is required to be performed upon the object.


sumbag (box)               paga + sumbag + on    = pagasumbagon  (must be beaten by a punch)

hapuhap (caress)          paga + hapuhap +on    = pagahapuhapon (must be caressed)

huyop (puff)                  paga + huyop + on       = pagahuyopon    (must be blown by puffing)



pagka - is used with present and past tenses to state condition or situation


dako (big)                     pagka + dako              = pagkadako          (the amount or degree of one’s growth)

himugso (birth)              pagka + himugso        = pagkahimugso     (the delivery of one’s birth)



manggi + (root word) + on – will form an adjectives word indicating traits or characteristics


luoy (mercy)                 manggi + luoy + on      = manggiluoyon     (merciful)

buhat (work)                 manggi + buhat + on    = manggibuhaton   (loves to work; industrious)



ul + (root word) + on / hon – If the root word begins with “u” this combination of prefix and suffix indicates resources or tools to be utilized.


utang (loan)                  ul + utang + on             = ulutangon          (fond for loan)

utan (vegetable)            ul + utan + on               = ulutanon            (vegetable plant)

uma (farm)                   ul + uma + hon             = ulumahon           (piece of land to be farmed)             

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