Philosophical Taoism is based on close observations and studies of nature. It is a fundamental tenet of Taoism that man is an integrated part of the cosmos. That our inner-world (microcosm) operates by the same principles that govern the outer universe (macrocosm), in fact that there ultimately is no difference between the two. Taoism is quite unique amoung world religions since it doesn’t try to hide it’s natural roots. Nature is in fact seen as the prime manifestation of the creative principle - that lives and expresses itself through all things. Including human beings.
A philosophical Taoist therefore makes no distinction between the individual entity and the ultimate reality. All living entities, although we experience ourselves as seperate, is regarded as the same single awareness expressing itself through different forms. Like clouds are created from water, so all living beings are temporary expressions of the one Tao. We are all fleeting formations that create new and wonderful combinations. A truly never ending story.
The first place to learn more about philosophical Taoism is the Tao Te Ching. Written over 2500 years ago by Lao Tzu, this work sets out his understanding of the Tao and how to find harmony within it.
The following links are a good place to start finding out more about Taoism. If you are looking to find a friendly group of like-minded people I can especially recommend the Reform Taoist Congregation.
http://www.taoteching.org/ A nice accessible translation of the Tao Te Ching
http://www.geocities.com/taoism101/ A good introduction to Taoism
http://www.reformtaoism.org/ The Reform Taoist Congregation - a friendly community of philosophical Taoists who support each others journey on the Way
http://www.yinyangnature.com/ Philosophical Taoism FAQ
http://path-of-water.blogspot.com/ The Path of Water - A blog giving exploring one perspective on modern western philosophical Taoism
http://taomanor.org/articles.html Interesting site discussing some of the concepts of Taoism