1. avoiding choppy and stringy sentences

VI. Advanced Academic Writing: Research Paper, Thesis & Dissertation
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H. (relevant:) Oral Defense and Academic Presentation
(Notes by Huifang Peng)
# choppy sentences
* What are choppy sentences?
Choppy sentences are two or more than two (usually short and simple) sentences in a row that lack proper connections to make the reading flow.
* How to rewrite choppy sentences?
Using proper transitions or coordinating conjunctions to make two independent sentences relate to each other in a better way. 

# stringy sentences
* What is a stringy sentence?
A stringy sentence is a sentence that is usually difficult to read and understand because it has too many clauses, often due to an overuse of  coordinating and/or subordinating conjunctions.
* How to rewrite a stringy sentence?
Dividing a stringy sentence into two or more than two sentences by 
a. using transitions to replace coordinating conjunctions. 
b. changing subordinate clauses into separate independent sentences.

# required grammatical ability:  
* knowing what coordinating conjunctions are and how to use them correctly  
* choosing proper transition words for adjacent sentences

Reference: 
Boardman, Cynthia A. Writing to Communicate 3: Essays and the Short Research Paper. NY: Pearson Education, Inc., 2009. 
14-15; 30-32.
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