4. using quotations

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H. (relevant:) Oral Defense and Academic Presentation
# videos: below the notes
(Notes by Huifang Peng)
# Using Quotations from Outside Sources
* when to use quotations
--when the author uses a unique way to say or describe something
--when something might be lost if you summarize or paraphrase the passage
* how to use quotations
--copying direct quotations in an exact and correct way
--using quotation marks and reporting words/phrases
* rules for using quotation marks
--Regardless of the position of your reporting phrase/sentence, use a capital letter to start the sentence you quote.
--When the sentence you quote is separated into two parts, set off by a reporting phrase and commas, the second part does not begin with a capital letter.
--Put periods and commas inside the quotation marks.
--When the length of your quotation is more than 3 lines (or more than forty words), indent your quotation in a separate section without using quotation marks. Above this quotation section, put a colon after your reporting phrase.
--Use single quotations marks to indicate a quotation within a quotation.
* using brackets ([ ]) to indicate something that you add to the quotation
--Put your own word(s) in brackets within the quoted material when you need those word(s) to explain something or for a grammatical reason.
* using ellipses (. . .) when you leave out a part of a quotation that is not essential to your writing
* Differences between in-text citations and a references list
: (consulting MLA and APA manuals, for example)

Reference:
Boardman, Cynthia A. Writing to Communicate 3: Essays and the Short Research Paper. NY: Pearson Education, Inc., 2009. 73-81. 


How to Use Quotations In Writing Essays-APA or MLA
source: David Taylor  2010-11-07

Lesson How to Quote and How to Use The Method
source: Jeff Sychterz  2013-09-30

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