3. paraphrasing

H. (relevant:) Oral Defense and Academic Presentation
# videos: below the notes
(Notes by Huifang Peng)
# When to use paraphrase?
--When you want to incorporate information from outside sources into your writing to strengthen your arguments.
--Instead of quoting directly, you might choose to paraphrase a sentence from an outside source when the sentence is not expressed in any special way and you only want to use its information.

# Basic characteristics of a good paraphrase:
1. restating the sentence or passage in your own words
2. not changing the meaning
3. not leaving out any important information
4. not adding any information
5. providing an in-text citation for its source

# How to paraphrase:
* before paraphrasing: be sure you understand the passage well enough so that your paraphrase won't mislead your readers
* common techniques involved in paraphrasing:
1. changing the sentence structure:
--changing among the three basic sentence types: simple, compound, and complex
--changing clauses to phrases, or vice versa
--changing active voice to passive voice, or vice versa
2. changing words
--using synonyms
--changing the type of words (or parts of speech): e.g,, changing a noun to a verb form

Boardman, Cynthia A. Writing to Communicate 3: Essays and the Short Research Paper. NY: Pearson Education, Inc., 2009. 93-99.

Academic Integrity: Paraphrasing
source: Shannon Mersand  2013-08-30

English Writing - Paraphrasing
source: RebeccaESL 2009-08-10

How to write a good essay: Paraphrasing the question
 Learn English with Emma [engVid] 2016-9-12
QUIZ: http://www.engvid.com/how-to-write-a-...

Practical Skills: Paraphrasing
source: WUWritingCenter  2013-06-18