B. The Writing Process of a Research Paper

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A. General Introduction
1. What is and how to write a research paper, thesis, or dissertation?
2. research methodology
B. The Writing Process of a Research Paper
0. (general / mixed)
1. brainstorming
2. outlining
3. drafting
4. doing research (and the related)
5. revising, editing, and proofreading
C. Abstract & Proposal
D. Literature Review
E. How to Format
1. (relevant:) about intellectual property and plagiarism
2. formatting styles
F. Essential Skills: Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Using Quotations
G. More Language Sensibility
1. avoiding choppy and stringy sentences
2. avoiding run-on sentences, comma splices, and sentence fragments
3. how to reduce clauses to phrases and avoid dangling or misplaced modifiers
4. avoiding faulty parallelism; words of urgency
5. avoiding unclear comparisons
6. avoiding bias in writing
7. (others)
H. (relevant:) Oral Defense and Academic Presentation
# videos: see the subpages 
0.(general / mixed)
1.brainstorming
2.outlining
3.drafting
4.doing research (and the related)
5.revising, editing, and proofreading
(page 1: mixed)
(page 2: revising)
(page 3: editing)
(page 4: proofreading)

(Notes by Huifang Peng)
I. How to proceed to the first draft: (steps and guidelines for a possible way to proceed)
Step 1. understanding and evaluating your assignment/task(several aspects to be noted)
--the topic of the paper
--the purpose of writing it
--where to get information for the paper
--how long should the paper be
--when and how the paper should be submitted
Step 2.  choosing a topic and narrow it
--narrow down your topic to suit the required length of your paper
Step 3. brainstorming on your topic and writing out a working thesis
--brainstorming to get out all the ideas you have about the topic
--after brainstorming: using your brainstorming notes/diagram to write out a working thesis to further define your topic 
* It's a working, not finished, thesis because you probably will further refine it when you research. <= Your research may change your opinion(s) about your topic.
* might need to working out a working thesis among several possible topics: work on a topic that can generate different points of view and therefore a need for argumentation 
* Your first working thesis could be very simple: with only a topic and a controlling idea. Nevertheless, you definitely need a working thesis to know where/how to organize your ideas and direct your research even though you may change your viewpoints later on.
Step 4. organizing your ideas: choosing an organizational pattern and making an outline
--First, based on the kind of argumentative style/genre your topic and opinions are meant to develop to be, choose a suitable organizational pattern to organize your ideas.
--Second, based on your organizational pattern, make an outline; you may have to modify your outline while you are doing research. 
* Practice Focus: cultivate the ability to choose an appropriate organizational pattern for outlining your ideas. 
Step 5. writing your first draft
--writing your first draft before you start your research might be a good idea: The most important thing in a research paper should be your own ideas. Writing the first draft before you begin your research helps you focus on your own ideas and discover the areas that might need support. This may also prevent you from looking directly at outside information while you're writing and from plagiarizing passages accordingly.   
--No need to worry about the grammar or spelling in your draft since you will make many changes before finishing your final draft. 
--No need to write your first draft from beginning to end: many prefer to write the body paragraphs first, and work out the introductory and concluding paragraphs later. 
--At this stage, writing a clear topic sentence for each body paragraph may help you unify your paragraph argumentation. 
[Reference:
Boardman, Cynthia A. Writing to Communicate 3: Essays and the Short Research Paper. NY: Pearson Education, Inc., 2009. 112-21.]


III. Revising and Editing for the Short Research Paper
It is advisable to take a break from your writing before you do the revising and editing; this creates a bit of detachment and enables a more objective point of view in re-examining your own writing.
Before editing your paper for grammar, language, and format, always revise it for organization and content first.
1. checking the organization
a) the introductory paragraph
b) the body paragraphs
c) the order of your ideas
d) the concluding paragraph
2. checking the content
a) the logic and legitimacy of your arguments
b) the unity of your paragraphs
c) your concrete support
3. checking cohesiveness: whether one idea can flow into another, and your readers can easily follow from one paragraph to another.
Common devices: transition words, transition sentences (bridges), and a transition paragraph 
After finishing revising your paper, edit it by checking for grammar, punctuation, and spelling mistakes. Also make sure that your in-text citations and References list follow the appropriate format.
[Reference:
Boardman, Cynthia A. Writing to Communicate 3: Essays and the Short Research Paper. NY: Pearson Education, Inc., 2009. 137-54.]