E. Characteristics of Good Paragraph Writing

(Notes by Huifang Peng)
1. Unity: 
An effective paragraph has unity when its body part closely relates to its topic sentence. In other words, all the supporting sentences in the body part should remain focused and relevant to the main (controlling) idea of one's topic. (Meanwhile, the concluding sentence usually restates and reinforce the main idea in the topic sentence.)
2. Coherence: 
"Coherence in a paragraph means that the ideas have a logical flow: the relationship between the sentences is clear, and one idea connects to the next" [emphases added] (EAW2, p.12). One  common way to achieve coherence in a paragraph is to organize one's ideas (in the supporting sentences) with an ordering principle, such as using chronological ordering for a narrative paragraph, spatial ordering for a descriptive paragraph, and logical reasoning for an expository paragraph.   
3. Cohesion: (This characteristic is considered an inseparable part of "coherence" by some who do not single it out as another characteristic of good writing.)
A paragraph has cohesion when all the supporting sentences are well connected to each other. There are four common cohesive devices to achieve this goal (i.e., to build a close and proper relationship between two sentences): 
a. connectors: such as 
1) coordinating conjunctions
2) subordinating conjunctions
3) transitions, and 
4) prepositions
b. the definite article "the" that relates to a preciously mentioned noun
c. personal pronouns that refer back to their previous nouns
d. demonstrative adjectives and pronouns: this, that, these, and those
References: (simplified)
Effective Academic Writing 2: pp. 9, 12  
Writing to Communicate 2: Chapter 2 

Unity in English Academic Writing
source: Smrt English    2012-11-15
Exercise: https://docs.google.com/document/d/10...

Cohesion & Coherence in Writing
source: australianetwork    2011-07-11
http://australianetwork.com/studyenglish

Cohesion
source: Sam Tabbakh    2009-07-13

English 101: Unity and Coherence
source: Richard P Carrigan     2011-09-20
http://classroom348.com

Develop with Unity in Mind
source: AthabascaUniversity     2012-07-11
http://www2.athabascau.ca/services/wr...

Creating Coherent Paragraphs: Topic Sentences, Echo Words, Transitions
source: CLIMBProgram      2011-02-01

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