IV. Essential Connectors: Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Transitions

IX. Sentence and Clause: Types, Structure, and Common Problems
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(Prepositions)
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(Conjunctions) 
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(Transition words for different purposes)
# Videos: on the subpages

(Notes by Huifang Peng)
# Prepositions and conjunctions are the most important connecting words that combine or connect two linguistic elements in a phrase or sentence. 

A. What is "preposition"?
--"a function word that combines with a noun or pronoun or noun phrase to form a prepositional phrase that can have an adverbial or adjectival relation to some other word" (from http://www.onelook.com/...)
--"a function word that typically combines with a noun phrase to form a phrase which usually expresses a modification or predication" (from http://www.merriam-webster.com/...)
--"(linguistics) the placing of one linguistic element before another (as placing a modifier before the word it modifies in a sentence or placing an affix before the base to which it is attached)" (from http://www.onelook.com/...)
--"A word or phrase placed typically before a substantive and indicating the relation of that substantive to a verb, an adjective, or another substantive, as English at, by, with, from, and in regard to." 

B. What is "conjunction"?
"The part of speech that serves to connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences." (from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/...)
--three main types of conjunctions

C. What are transition words?
Transitions are words or phrases that show the relationship between paragraphs or sections of a text or speech. Transitions provide greater cohesion by making it more explicit or signaling how ideas relate to one another. Transitions are "bridges" that "carry a reader from section to section." Transitions guide a reader through steps of logic, increments of time, or through physical space. Transitions "...connect words and ideas so that your readers don't have to do the mental work for you." (from: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary...)
--four main types of transitions:
1. coordinating transitions: to show a link between equal elements
a. to show similarity or reinforce: 
b. to introduce an opposing point:
c. to signal a restatement: 
2. subordinating transitions:
a. to introduce an item in a series
b. to introduce an example
c. to show causality
d. to introduce a summary or conclusion
e. to signal a concession
f. to resume main argument after concession
3. temporal transitions:
a. to show frequency
b. to show duration
c. to show a particular time
d. to introduce a beginning, a middle, or signal an end (or beyond) 
4. spatial transitions:
a. to show closeness
b. to show long distance
c. to show direction   
(from: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary...)