III. Modifiers (Articles / Adjectives / Adverbs) and Clauses

III. Articles
IV. Adjectives
VI. Adverbs
IX. Sentence and Clause: Types, Structure, and Common Problems
# videos: on the subpages
(# brief notes below)
III. Articles
A. indefinite articles: a / an
B. definite articles: the
IV. Adjectives
A. basic form, function, and usage
1.introduction (general/mixed)
2. compound adjectives
3. V-ing & V-ed as adjectives
4. order of adjectives
B. comparisons
1. comparative and superlative forms
2. (not) as + adj./adv. + as
3. modifying comparatives
4. double comparative
5. using the same as, similar to, different from, like, and alike
C. adjective clauses
VI. Adverbs
A. basic form, function, and usage
1.introduction (general/mixed)
2. adverbs of frequency
3. adverbs of manner & degree
4. adverbs of place & time
5. positions of adverb (where to put the adverb?)
B. comparisons
1. comparative and superlative forms
2. (not) as + adj./adv. + as
3. modifying comparatives
C. adverb clauses 

(Brief Explanatory Notes by Huifang Peng)
# What is a modifier (or qualifier)?
--A sentence element (word, phrase, or clause) that limits or qualifies the sense of another sentence element in the same construction. 
--Adjectives and adverbs are the two most important modifiers. 
--Modifiers give us more information about what they modify. Articles, dependent clauses and comparative expressions, sometimes prepositions and some conjunctions as well, may be seen as serving modifying functions too. 

# two main types of clauses:
1. independent clauses: an independent clause can stand alone as a complete sentence. 
2. dependent clauses (subordinate clauses): 
Unable to stand alone as a sentence, a subordinate clause usually begins with a subordinating conjunction, which shows its logical relation to the main/independent clause of a complex sentence.
* three types of subordinate clauses
a. noun clauses: work as "nouns," and are connected to main/independent clauses via the following relative adverbs; hence, noun clauses are sometimes also called relative adverb clauses.
1) that
2) if, whether
3) wh- words: how, what, when, where, which, who, whom, whose, why
4) wh- ever words: however, whatever, whenever, wherever, whichever, whoever, whomever     
b. adjective clauses: work  as "adjectives," and are connected to main clauses via the following relative pronouns; hence, adjective clauses are often called relative clauses.
1) who, whom, that (referring to people)
2) that, which (referring to things)
3) whose, when, where
c. adverb clauses: work as "adverbs" which relate to the main clauses with the following relationships:  
1) time 
2) cause & effect 
3) comparison & contrast 
4) condition
3. relevant aspects: four types of sentence structures