附6: 中英對照組織表

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# What is a Sentence? (Brief textual Introduction) 文字簡介何謂"句子"
I. Nouns (名詞)
A. types 常見類別
1. introduction (general / mixed)
2. common nouns and proper nouns 普通名詞與專有名詞
3. collective nouns, abstract nouns, and concrete nouns 集合 / 抽象 / 具象名詞
4. compound nouns 複合名詞
5. countable and uncountable nouns 可數與不可數名詞
6. gender specific nouns 帶有陽性或陰性暗示的名詞
7. verbal nouns/gerunds 動名詞
B. forms and spelling (with quantity expression) 名詞的樣貌與拼法
1. singular and plural forms of nouns (regular and irregular) 規則與不規則的單複數變化
2. expression of quantity (with articles and other quantifiers) 搭配冠詞或其他計數/量單位來使用
a. articles: a, an, the 冠詞
b. other quantifiers 其他計數/量單位
C. syntactic functions 語法上的功能
1. as noun (subject or object of a verb, or object of a preposition) 一般名詞的功能
2. as adjective (to modify a noun) 形容詞的功能
a. (general / mixed)
b. the first nouns in compound nouns 複合名詞中的第一個名詞
c. complements 做為補語
d. possessive nouns + 's / ' 加上 's / ' 而形成所有格形容詞
D. noun clauses 名詞子句
II. Pronouns (代名詞) (with brief textual explanation) 文字簡介何謂"代名詞"
B. personal pronouns 人稱代名詞
1. (general / mixed)
2. subject pronouns and object pronouns 用主格或受格的形態作主詞或受詞用: I/me, he/him, etc.
3. possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns 所有格形容詞與所有格代名詞: 分別做為形容詞與代名詞(名詞功能): my/your/... & mine/yours/...
4. reflexive pronouns 具反身功能: myself, yourself, themselves等
C. reflexive pronouns 反身代名詞 myself, yourself, itself, themselves等
D. demonstrative pronouns 指示代名詞 this, that, these, those等
E. indefinite pronouns 不定代名詞
1. (general / mixed)
2. every-, every-, some-, any-, no one, and none 
3. another, other(s), and the other(s)
4. both, all, either, neither
5. many, few, much, and little
F. interrogative pronouns 疑問代名詞 who, whom, what, which, whose
G. relative pronouns 關係代名詞 who, whom, that, which, whose
H. reciprocal pronouns: each other, one another
I.
 (supplementary)
2. how to use "it" 如何正確地使用 it
III. Articles (冠詞)
A. indefinite articles: a / an 不定冠詞
B. definite articles: the 定冠詞
IV. Adjectives (形容詞)
A. basic form, function, and usage 基本形貌、功能、用法
B. comparisons 比較的用法
1. comparative and superlative forms 比較級與最高級的用法
2. (not) as + adj./adv. + as  使用原級的比較法
C. adjective clauses 形容詞子句
V. Verbs (動詞) (with brief textual explanation) 文字簡介何謂"動詞"
A. introduction to types and forms of verbs 概論動詞類別與樣貌
B. three major types 三種主要動詞類別
1. action verbs (transitive and intransitive) 涉及動作的動詞
a. transitive and intransitive verbs 何謂及物與不及物動詞
b. transitive verbs + direct and indirect objects 及物動詞與直/間接受詞的用法
2. non-action/stative verbs and linking verbs 不涉及動作的靜態動詞與連綴動詞
a. stative verbs 何謂靜態動詞
b. progressive or not?--see, look, watch, hear, listen, think, etc. 容易搞錯該不該用進行式的動詞
c. linking verbs 何謂連綴動詞 
3. helping/auxiliary verbs 助動詞
b. for emphasis 用來強調(與省略的用法)
C. six major forms 六種常見的動詞外貌
D. other verb types and related aspects 其他常見的動詞類別與相關面向
1. causative verbs: have, get, make, let, help 使役動詞
2. imperatives 祈使句的動詞用法
3. passive voice 被動語態
a. general overview: active and passive voices 何謂主動與被動
b. transitive passive 及物動詞的被動(不及物動詞無法改成被動)
c. stative passive (using past participles as adjectives) 用過去分詞當形容詞的靜態被動
d. causative passive: to get/have something done 使役動詞的被動
e. passive gerunds and passive infinitives 動名詞與不定詞的被動
f. passive with modals 情態助動詞的被動用法
4. modal auxiliaries (modals) 情態助動詞
a. introduction (general / mixed) 概論
b. expressing ability 表達能力
c. asking for permission 請求他人允許
d. making requests 表達請求
e. expressing possibility and degrees of certainty 表達可能性與不同程度的確定性
f. making suggestions and giving advice 給予建議
g. expressing preference 表達偏好
h. expressing obligation and necessity 影射某種義務或必要性
i. expressing prohibition and lack of necessity 表達沒有必要或禁止做某事
j. making logical speculation 指涉邏輯推論上的某種必然性
k. modal + have + pp
l. expressing emphasis 表達強調
5. gerunds and infinitives 動名詞與不定詞
a. introduction: gerunds (V+ing) and infinitives (to + V) 簡介動名詞與不定詞
b. go + gerunds vs. go + infinitives 
c. verbs + infinitives
d. verbs + gerunds
e. verbs that can be followed by both gerunds and infinitives 可接動名詞也可接不定詞的動詞
f. passive gerunds and infinitives 動名詞與不定詞的被動用法
g. using adjectives with infinitives 不定詞搭配形容詞的用法
1) It's + adjective + infinitive
2) too + adj. + infinitive vs. adj. + enough + infinitive
h. gerunds as nouns 動名詞做名詞使用
1) possessive gerunds 所有格+動名詞
2) preposition + gerunds 介係詞+動名詞的用法
3) gerunds as subjects 動名詞當主詞
i. infinitives as subjects 不定詞做主詞
6. phrasal verbs: separable and inseparable 可分開與不可分開使用的動詞片語
(supplementary) phrasal verbs as nouns 動詞片語作為名詞
E. tenses 動詞的主要時態
1. verb tenses (overview) 概論
2. simple present & present progressive/continuous 現在簡單與現在進行式
a. simple present: basic rules and forms 現在簡單式的基本樣貌與規則
1) affirmative, negative, questioning and answering forms
2) spelling for 3rd person singular verbs (regular & irregular)
3) "be" verbs 有關be動詞的用法
4) there + "be"
b. present simple vs. present progressive 該使用現在簡單還是現在進行式? 
c. (supplementary:) present participle vs. past participle 現在分詞與過去分詞的區別
3. simple past & past progressive 過去簡單與過去進行式
a. simple past: basic rules and forms 過去簡單式的基本樣貌與規則
1) affirmative, negative, questioning, and answering forms 肯定、否定與疑問句
2) spelling and pronunciation for regular verbs 規則動詞變化的拼字與發音
3) irregular verbs 不規則動詞
4) "be" / there + "be"
5) with time words/phrases/clauses 搭配表達時間的字詞或子句的用法
6) “used to” + V (for past habits) 表示過去習慣的 used to + V 用法
7) simple past vs. present perfect 應使用過去簡單還是現在完成式?
b. past progressive/continuous 過去進行式
1) past simple vs. past progressive/continuous 該用簡單還是進行式?
2) past progressive + "while" or "when" clauses 搭配while或when子句
3) (supplementary) past participle  過去分詞的用法
4) (supplementary) future in the past
 在過去的時間談未來
4. simple future & future progressive 未來簡單與未來進行式
a. general introduction 概論
b. simple future expressed in different forms and ways 可用來表達未來的方式
1) "will," "be going to," and "be about to"
2) present progressive for future 用現在進行式來表示未來
3) simple present for future 用現在簡單式來表示未來
4) with "maybe", "may", and "might" 搭配maybe, may, might來表示未來
c. simple future vs. future progressive 該使用未來簡單還是未來進行式? 
d. with time words/phrases/clauses 搭配表達時間的字詞或子句的用法
1) words/phrases to express (future) time
2) with time clauses
e. with if clauses (future vs. habitual present) 表未來時間的 if 假設子句與表習慣的 if 假設子句
5. perfect & perfect progressive 各類的完成與完成進行式
a. (review of verb tenses) (建議先複習過所有重要的動詞時態)
b. present perfect & present perfect progressive 現在完成與現在完成進行式
1) present perfect and past participle 現在完成式與過去分詞
2) present perfect + "since" or "for" 現在完成式搭配 since 或 for
3) present perfect + just, already, yet, never 現在完成搭配just, already, yet 或 never等
4) present perfect vs. present perfect progressive vs. simple past 該使用現在完成式,現在完成進行式,還是過去簡單式? 
c. past perfect & past perfect progressive 過去完成與過去完成進行式
1) past participle 過去分詞的用法
d. future perfect & future perfect progressive 未來完成與未來完成進行式
e. relevant aspect: how to use have/has/had correctly 如何正確使用"have"
VI. Adverbs (副詞)
A. basic form, function, and usage 基本形貌、功能、用法
1.introduction (general/mixed)
B. comparisons 比較的用法
1. comparative and superlative forms 比較級與最高級的用法
2. (not) as + adj./adv. + as  使用原級的比較法
3. modifying comparatives 修飾比較級的用法
C. adverb clauses 副詞子句
VII Prepositions (介係詞) (with brief textual introduction) 文字簡介
A. basic form, function, and usage (general/mixed) 基本樣貌、功能、用法
B. prepositional phrases 介系詞片語
C. with verbs (verb + preposition) 接在動詞後面使用的介係詞
VIII. Conjunctions & Transitions (連接詞與轉承語詞) (with brief textual explanation) 文字簡介
2. coordinating conjunctions and commas 對等連接詞與逗點的正確用法
1. expressing cause and effect 表達因果關係
2. expressing contrast & comparison 表達比較或對照上的關係
3. expressing condition 表達情況或條件上的關聯性
4. indicating time 表達時間上的關係
6. indicating place 表達地域上的關係
7. adding information
 增加訊息
8. giving examples 舉例說明
IX. Sentence and Clause: Types, Structure, and Common Problems (with brief textual explanation) 句子與子句: 類型 / 結構 / 常見的問題等 
A. basic sentence types 最基本的四種句子概念 
1. declarative: affirmative and negative 肯定與否定
a. (general/mixed) affirmative and negative
2. interrogative (asking questions) 疑問句
a. introduction (general / mixed)
c. tag questions 句尾的附加問句
d. embedded questions
 嵌入式問句
3. exclamatory 感/驚嘆句
4. imperative 祈使句
B. parts of speech and word order 構成句子的各種詞類與字詞間的擺放次序
1. parts of speech (overview) 各種詞類概述
2. word order 字詞間的擺放次序
C. sentence structure and parallelism 句子的組織與平行結構
1. sentence structure 句子的組織結構
a. simple, complex, and compound sentences 簡單句與複雜/合句
b. agreement of subject and predicate 主詞與述詞間的一致性
1) the concepts of subject, predicate, and sentence complements 主詞、述詞與各類補語的概念
2) subject-verb agreement  主、動詞的一致性
3) pronoun-antecedent agreement 代名詞與其前述詞間的一致性
c. inversion 倒裝句
(supplementary) how to use neither & so
D. Clauses: noun / adjective / adverb clauses 名詞 / 形容詞 / 副詞子句
1. What is a clause? 何謂子句
2. noun clauses 名詞子句
a. What is a noun clause? 何謂名詞子句
b. quoted/direct speech vs. reported/indirect speech 直接引用句與間接報導句
3. adjective clauses 形容詞子句
a. What is an adjective clause? 何謂形容詞子句
b. adjective/relative clauses and relative pronouns 形容詞子句與關係代名詞
c. restrictive and non-restrictive adjective clauses 限定與非限定用法
d. reducing adjective clauses to phrases 將形容詞子句改成片語
4. adverb clauses 副詞子句
a. What is an adverb clause? 何謂副詞子句
b. expressing cause and effect 說明因果關係
c. expressing contrast and comparison 說明比較上的關係
d. expressing time relationship 說明時間上的關係
e. indicating condition 說明某種狀態、條件、願望
1) conditionals: using "if"/...
2) (supplementary) using "wish" and "hope" to express wishes or regrets
5. (Related): displaced and dangling modifiers
E. Punctuation and Capitalization
1. introduction (general / mixed)
2. comma, comma splices and run-on sentences 逗點與相關的常見錯誤
3. colon and semicolon 冒號(:)與分號(;)
4. hyphen and dash 連字號(-)與破折號(--)
5. apostrophe 撇號/省略符號(')
6. quotation marks 引號(" " 與 ' ') 
7. ellipses 省略符號(. . .)
8. parentheses and square brackets 圓括號 (( ))與方括弧([ ])
9. capitalization 大寫
10. exclamations 驚嘆
X. Supplement: Easily Confused words and common mistakes
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