1) the concepts of subject, predicate, and sentence complements


(Brief Notes by Huifang Peng)
# What is a sentence complement?
A sentence compliment is a word or a phrase which modifies a subject, an object, or a verb; it completes the meaning about the subject or the predicate in a sentence.

# 4 main types of complements:
1. subject complement (for completing the meaning of the subject)
--Also called "subjective complement," a subject complement is "a word or a group of words, usually functioning as an adjective or noun, that is used in the predicate following a copula [a linking verb] and describes or is identified with the subject of the sentence, as sleep in The travelers became sleepy." (from http://dictionary.reference.com/...)
2. verb complement (for completing the meaning/function of a transitive verb)
a. direct object (of a transitive verb)
--A direct object is a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase which refers to the person or thing that receives the action of a transitive verb in a sentence. For example, "a book" is the direct object of the transitive verb "bought" in the sentence "They bought Anne a book." (reference: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/...)
b. indirect object (completing the meaning/function of a transitive verb and its direct object)
--An indirect object is a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase which indicates the recipient of the action a transitive verb and its direct object.
In the sentence cited above, "Anne" is the indirect recipient of the verb "bought" and its direct object "a book."
3. object complement (for completing the meaning/function of a factitive verb and its direct object)
--Also called "objective complement," an object complement is "a word or a group of words used in the predicate following a factitive verb an referring to its direct object, as treasurer in We appointed him treasurer, white in They painted the house white, or an interesting speaking in They thought him an interesting speaker." (from http://dictionary.reference.com/...)
4. adjective complement (for completing the meaning/function of an adjective)
--An adjective complement is usually a phrase or clause that follows an adjective to complete or modify its meaning/function in a sentence. 
e.g., Peter was reluctant to tell his mother about the tragic news. (In this sentence, "to tell his mother about the tragic news" is a phrase that completes/modifies the meaning/function of the adjective "reluctant.") 

Subject And Predicate
source: SuccessCDS Education   2012-10-30

Subject and Predicate
source: Iken Edu  2012-02-18
http://www.mexuseducation.com

predicate complements
source: MrGrammarMan123  2013-02-07

complements  
source: MUHSonline   2012-08-25
subject complements   2012-08-26
object complements   2012-08-29

Syntax 1 - Subjects
source: GrammarMadeClear  2011-4-24
Subjects are words that: 1) Come before verbs; 2) Agree with verbs; 3) Invert in questions; 4) They often refer to the "doer" of the verb or the "topic" of the sentence, but not always.

Syntax 2 - Predicates and Clausal Structures
source: GrammarMadeClear  2011-4-24
Predicates come at the end of clauses. They are headed by the predicator.
Predicative complements and direct/indirect objects can come after the predicator. The different ways in which they can be arranged are called the basic clausal structures. 

Sentence Structure & Parts of Speech (subjects, predicates, objects, clauses, nouns, verbs, etc.)
source: Gerry English Expressions         2016年5月15日

Sentence Complements
source: MoskiDocs  2013-12-26
Guide: http://goo.gl/3Yn0xO

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