I. What Is a Sentence? (Brief Introduction)

(Notes by Huifang Peng)
A sentence is “a group of words, usually including a subject and a verb, that express a statement, question, or instruction. A written sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a period, question mark, or exclamation point.” (from http://www.macmillandictionary...)

A. the looks of a simple sentence
1. beginning with a capital letter and ending with a punctuation mark 
four main kinds of sentences, in terms of their basic communicative purposes, and punctuation marks that go with them:
a. declarative (mainly stating a fact; ending with a period)
b. interrogative (asking a question; ending with a question mark)
c. exclamatory (expressing a strong emotion; ending with an exclamatory point)
d. imperative (making a request or giving an order; ending with a period or an exclamatory point)
2. proper nouns with capital letters

B. the syntactical formation and speech parts of a simple sentence
1. the subject + the predicate
a. the subject: the most important part of a sentence that tells you who/what the sentence is about; and the most important word in a subject is often called the simple subject
b. the predicate: the other part of the sentence besides the subject; and the most important word(s) in a predicate is/are a verb or verbal phrase which gives us more information about what the subject is or does. 
c. Besides the simple subject and the major verb part, modifier(s) and connecting word(s) are also essential parts that often appear in a sentence to make its meaning clear and complete.
2. three main groups of parts of speech (the building blocks of a sentence)
a. Group 1: verbs, nouns and pronouns (forming the important parts of the subject and the predicate in a sentence)
b. Group 2: modifiers that modify the simple subject in the subject or the verb in the predicate. Basic modifiers include articles, adjectives, and adverbs. Modifiers give us more information about what they modify. 
# Dependent clauses and comparative expressions may be seen as serving modifying functions too. 
c. Group 3: essential connecting words such as prepositions and conjunctions

C. sophisticated sentence structure: complex, compound, and compound-complex sentences
1. First, must clarify the difference between "sentence" and clauses
2. four types of sentence structure: simple sentences, compound sentences, complex sentences, and compound-complex sentences
3. common grammatical errors related to sentence structures:

The Sentence
source: English Lessons with Adam    2014年6月20日 
Quiz yourself here: http://www.engvid.com/english-grammar...

What's a sentence? - Learn about sentence types and Patterns 
source: JenniferESL      2017年6月22日

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