《home》

Editor: Reena Peng
started: 08/31/2013

Another sitemap (below): The organization of this site (as shown on the left of this webpage), constrained by certain inbuilt mechanism of google.sites, is unable to display what I originally intended to; hence, another sitemap which is more common and easier to use is set up below.  


I. Nouns 
A. types
1. introduction (general / mixed)
2. common nouns and proper nouns
3. collective nouns, abstract nouns, and concrete nouns
4. compound nouns
5. countable and uncountable nouns
6. gender specific nouns
7. verbal nouns/gerunds
B. forms and spelling (with quantity expression)
1. singular and plural forms of nouns (regular and irregular)
2. expression of quantity (with articles and other quantifiers)
a. articles: a, an, the
b. other quantifiers
C. syntactic functions
1. as noun (being a subject or an object)
2. as adjective
a. (general / mixed)
b. the first nouns in compound nouns
c. complements
d. possessive nouns + 's / '
D. noun clauses
II. Pronouns 
1. (general / mixed)
2. subject pronouns and object pronouns
3. possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns
4. reflexive pronouns
1. (general / mixed)
2. every-, every-, some-, any-, no one, and none
3. another, other(s), and the other(s)
4. both, all, either, neither
5. many, few, much, and little
H. reciprocal pronouns: each other, one another
1. (relevant) between & among
2. how to use "it"
III. Articles 
IV. Adjectives 
A. basic form, function, and usage
1.introduction (general/mixed)
2. compound adjectives
3. V-ing & V-ed as adjectives
4. order of adjectives
B. comparisons
1. comparative and superlative forms
2. (not) as + adj./adv. + as
3. modifying comparatives
4. double comparative
5. using the same as, similar to, different from, like, and alike
V. Verbs
1. action verbs (transitive and intransitive)
a. transitive and intransitive verbs
b. transitive verbs + direct and indirect objects
2. non-action/stative verbs and linking verbs
a. stative verbs
b. progressive or not?--see, look, watch, hear, listen, think, etc.
c. linking verbs
3. helping/auxiliary verbs
a. (general)
b. for emphasis
D. other verb types and related aspects
1. causative verbs: have, get, make, let, help
2. imperatives
3. passive voice
a. general overview: active and passive voices
b. transitive passive
c. stative passive (using past participles as adjectives)
d. causative passive: to get/have something done
e. passive gerunds and passive infinitives
f. passive with modals
4. modal auxiliaries (modals)
a. introduction (general / mixed)
b. expressing ability
c. asking for permission
d. making requests
e. expressing possibility and degrees of certainty
f. making suggestions and giving advice
g. expressing preference
h. expressing obligation and necessity
i. expressing prohibition and lack of necessity
j. making logical speculation
k. modal + have + pp
l. expressing emphasis
5. gerunds and infinitives
a. introduction: gerunds (V+ing) and infinitives (to + V)
b. go + gerunds vs. go + infinitives
c. verbs + infinitives
d. verbs + gerunds
e. verbs that can be followed by both gerunds and infinitives
f. passive gerunds and infinitives
g. using adjectives with infinitives
1) It's + adjective + infinitive
2) too + adj. + infinitive vs. adj. + enough + infinitive
h. gerunds as nouns
1) possessive gerunds
2) preposition + gerunds
3) gerunds as subjects
i. infinitives as subjects
6. phrasal verbs: separable and inseparable
(supplementary) phrasal verbs as nouns
E. tenses
1. verb tenses (overview)
2. simple present & present progressive/continuous
a. simple present: basic rules and forms
1) affirmative, negative, questioning and answering forms
2) spelling for 3rd person singular verbs (regular & irregular)
3) "be" verbs
4) there + "be"
b. present simple vs. present progressive
c. (supplementary:) present participle vs. past participle
3. simple past & past progressive
a. simple past: basic rules and forms
1) affirmative, negative, questioning, and answering forms
2) spelling and pronunciation for regular verbs
3) irregular verbs
4) "be" / there + "be"
5) with time words/phrases/clauses
i) using past tense with yesterday, last, ago, etc.
ii) with time clauses
6) “used to” + V (for past habits)
7) simple past vs. present perfect
b. past progressive/continuous
1) past simple vs. past progressive/continuous
2) past progressive + "while" or "when" clauses
3) (supplementary) past participle
4) (supplementary) future in the past
4. simple future & future progressive
a. general introduction
b. simple future expressed in different forms and ways
1) "will," "be going to," and "be about to"
2) present progressive for future
3) simple present for future
4) with "maybe", "may", and "might"
c. simple future vs. future progressive
d. with time words/phrases/clauses
1) words/phrases to express (future) time
2) with time clauses
e. with if clauses (future vs. habitual present)
5. perfect & perfect progressive
a. (review of verb tenses)
b. present perfect & present perfect progressive
1) present perfect and past participle
2) present perfect + "since" or "for"
3) present perfect + just, already, yet, never
4) present perfect vs. present perfect progressive vs. simple past
c. past perfect & past perfect progressive
1) past participle
d. future perfect & future perfect progressive
e. relevant aspect: how to use have/has/had correctly
VI. Adverbs 
A. basic form, function, and usage
1.introduction (general/mixed)
2. adverbs of frequency
3. adverbs of manner & degree
4. adverbs of place & time
5. positions of adverb (where to put the adverb?)
B. comparisons
1. comparative and superlative forms
2. (not) as + adj./adv. + as
3. modifying comparatives
VII Prepositions 
VIII. Conjunctions & Transitions 
1. coordinating conjunctions, parallelism, and commas
C. subordinating conjunctions
1. introduction (general / mixed)
2. subordinating conjunctions for different purposes
1. expressing cause and effect
2. expressing contrast & comparison
3. expressing condition
4. indicating time
5. expressing emphasis
6. indicating place
7. adding information
IX. Sentence and Clause: Types, Structure, and Common Problems 
A. basic sentence types
1. declarative: affirmative and negative
1) beginning a sentence with a negative word
2) using "not" and other negative words
3) avoiding double negatives
4) negative inversion
2. interrogative (asking questions)
a. introduction (general / mixed)
b. yes/no questions and information (Wh-) questions
1) yes/no questions
2) information (Wh-) questions
a) wh- questions (general / mixed)
b) using "how"
c. tag questions
d. embedded questions
3. exclamatory
4. imperative
B. parts of speech and word order
1. parts of speech (overview)
2. word order
C. sentence structure and parallelism
1. sentence structure
a. simple, complex, and compound sentences
b. agreement of subject and predicate
1) the concepts of subject, predicate, and sentence complements
2) subject-verb agreement
3) pronoun-antecedent agreement
c. inversion
(supplementary) how to use neither & so
3. sentence fragment, run-on sentences, and comma splices
4. misplaced & dangling modifiers
5. (supplementary) sentence diagramming
6. (supplementary) combining sentences
D. Clauses: noun / adjective / adverb clauses
1. What is a clause?
2. noun clauses
a. What is a noun clause?
b. quoted/direct speech vs. reported/indirect speech
3. adjective clauses
a. What is an adjective clause?
b. adjective/relative clauses and relative pronouns
c. restrictive and non-restrictive adjective clauses
d. reducing adjective clauses to phrases
4. adverb clauses
a. What is an adverb clause?
b. expressing cause and effect
c. expressing contrast and comparison
d. expressing time relationship
e. indicating condition
1) conditionals: using "if"/...
2) (supplementary) using "wish" and "hope" to express wishes or regrets
5. (Related): displaced and dangling modifiers
E. Punctuation and Capitalization
1. introduction (general / mixed)
2. comma, comma splices and run-on sentences
3. colon & semicolon (: & ;)
4. hyphen & dash (- & --)
5. apostrophe (')
6. quotation marks (" " & ' ')
7. ellipses (. . .)
8. parentheses & square brackets (( ) & [ ])
9. capitalization
10. exclamations
Comments