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Diario de Lima: 1700-1711. Imprenta real de Joseph de Contreras y Alvarado

Diario de noticias sobresalientes en Lima y Noticias de Europa (1700-1711)
Edición y estudio de Paul Firbas y José A. Rodríguez GarridoVolumen 1 (1700-1705), New York, IDEA, 2017. Colección Batihoja, 37. Serie Estudios Indianos, 10. 377 pp. 
ISBN: 978-1-938795-33-6. Descargar en PDF (Open source book in PDF). English introduction (or just scroll down)

Todos los facsímiles en PDF (English introduction on new Google site)

El libro ofrece un estudio y edición del que fue, muy probablemente, el primer periódico de las Américas: el Diario de noticias sobresalientes en Lima y las Noticias de Europa, que se imprimieron en los talleres de José de Contreras y Alvarado entre 1700 y 1711 en la capital del virreinato del Perú. Se trata de un material que ha tenido hasta ahora escasa circulación entre los estudiosos del mundo colonial peruano y que ofrece un caudal de información sobre los acontecimientos en Lima en los inicios del siglo XVIII y sobre los sucesos que sacudían a Europa por la misma época. Este primer volumen contiene los primeros cinco años de noticias peruanas y europeas, que corresponden a la etapa final del gobierno virreinal del conde de la Moncloa (1700-1705).

Paul Firbas es profesor asociado en el Departamento de Lenguas y Literatura Hispánica en la Universidad de Stony Brook. Ha editado el poema Armas antárticas de Juan de Miramontes Zuázola (2006) y el volumen Épica y colonia: ensayos sobre el género épico en Iberoamérica (2008) y publicado numerosos artículos sobre la cultura colonial, particularmente del área andina.

José A. Rodríguez Garrido es profesor principal del Departamento de Humanidades en la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú. Es coeditor de los volúmenes Edición y anotación de textos coloniales hispanoamericanos (Madrid, 1999) y El teatro en la Hispanoamérica colonial (Madrid, 2008) y autor del libro La Carta Atenagórica de Sor Juana: textos inéditos de una polémica (México, 2004).

La ficha técnica bibliográfica del libro, así como el enlace para descargarlo, se puede acceder por la Universidad de Navarra o el Proyecto de Estudios IndianosEl volumen único que contiene los Diarios y las Noticias se conserva en los fondos reservados (Rare Book Division) de la New York Public Library.  Agradecemos que se nos haya autorizado digitalizarlo y publicarlo.  En 2016, la NYPL hizo su propia digitalización, de acceso abierto online, pero sin distinguir los diferentes documentos (más de 100) que incluye el volumen del impresor Contreras:

Lima News-Sheets: 1700-1711 (Diario de Lima) 
In the Workshop of Royal Printer Joseph de Contreras y Alvarado

The first known periodical news-sheets printed in the Americas were released from the workshop of Joseph de Contreras y Alvarado in Lima, capital of the vice-royalty of Peru, between the years of 1700 and 1711. Approximately every two months, “outstanding news” from the city of Lima along with a selection of news coming from Europe in gazettes and manuscript letters, would be printed in four or more loose sheets by Contreras. It took several weeks or months for all this information to complete the transatlantic trip on Spanish galleons and to travel the complex South American postal routes up to the administrative and cultural center of Lima. The news-sheets are an invaluable testimony of the vast circulation of people and information –coming from printed, manuscript and oral sources— between Europe and Peru, and within South American regions and cities.


Cover page of the 1712 Contrer's miscellaneous volume and 
first page of the first Lima News-Sheet (1700). [New York Public Library, Rare Books Division]

On the printed page, the Lima news are organized by months and day numbers, which, in part, explains the Spanish title of “diario” (diary or daily news). In the same years, the Contreras’s workshop also printed many “relaciones de sucesos” or accounts of events that can be considered supplements to the information contained in the news-sheets. All this printed material circulated as pamphlets and was, therefore, ephemeral in nature and hardly kept by libraries or archives. Fortunately, around 1712, the printer himself –we believe-- or perhaps his brother Jerónimo collected in one bound volume more than one thousand pages of news-sheets and pamphlets, including the complete collection of the Diario from 1700 to 1711. This unique miscellaneous volume bears its own printed cover-page and a new title that clearly indicates that the life of the city was the unifying theme: Diarios y memorias de los sucesos principales y noticias más sobresalientes en esta ciudad de Lima, corte del Perú[Daily news and memoirs of the principal events and outstanding news in this city of Lima, court of Peru]. Since the 19th century, when the volume was purchased by the New York Public Library --where is now kept in its Rare Book Division--, it has received minimum scholarly attention.

 Cover page of the 2017 edition by Paul Firbas and José A. Rodríguez Garrido

The Contreras’s volume reflects the work of the royal printer and other notable residents of Lima, presumably Criollos, to reaffirm their loyalty to the new Bourbon king Philip V, in the context of the Spanish War of Succession. Therefore, the Diario de noticias sobresalientes en Lima y Noticias de Europa (1700-1711) should be understood as an official, government-supported publication and an organ of propaganda during war in Europe. However, the news-sheets also contain a wealth of information and narratives on the daily life of the city of Lima and the extended viceroyalty of Peru. Although many of the local news might seem totally disconnected from European politics, the very same structure of Contreras’s printed pages highlight the elite connections and the impressive circulation of people and information throughout the Hispanic world. Ultimately, the Diarios show the centrality of the city of Lima as the administrative and cultural capital of South America.

A basic graph (adapted from our introduction to our 2017 edition) illustrates the distribution of the printed material within the Contreras 1712 volume, divided into three categories: Diarios (news-sheets), Noticias (European news) and Varios (miscellaneous pamphlets, mostly descriptions of festivities in Lima). The graph shows the amount of pages printed per year in each of these categories:

The reader will find down on this page (and also here), in separate PDF files, the links to the facsimiles of all news-sheets published regularly in the city of Lima, between 1700 and 1711, in the workshop of the only royal printer in the Viceroyalty of Peru in that period: Joseph de Contreras y Alvarado. These facsimiles are intended to serve as an appendix or companion to our modernized Spanish and annotated edition published in May 2017, under the title Diario de noticias sobresalientes en Lima y Noticias de Europa (1700-1711) [Diary of Outstanding News in Lima and European News] (New York: IDEA, Serie Estudios Indinos, 2017). The book is an open access academic publication that can also be downloaded in PDF format.

Our edition breaks the Contrera's publishing production in two volumes, each of six years: from 1700 to 1705; and from 1706 to 1711. This time division also reflects the pivotal role that viceroy Count of Monclova played in the initial release of the news-sheets. It is reasonable to presume that he, considering the tense situation in Spain in 1699, was the promoter of the Lima news-sheets as an instrument to secure the local alliances with the new Bourbon regime. Count of Monclova was in charge of the Peruvian vice-royalty until 1705 and was followed in government by the Royal Audience during times of great instability in Lima and Madrid, particularly in 1706. Our second volume is dominated by two different figures in power: viceroy marquis of Castell dos Rius, who came from Europe to Peru in 1706 accompanied by a large collection of French books, and bishop viceroy Diego Ladrón de Guevara, who had lived two decades in America,  was appointed  bishop in Guamanga in 1698 and promoted to Quito in 1705,  and made viceroy of Peru in 1710, to replace marquis Castell dos Rius, who died in Lima that year.
The page numbers on the PDFs correspond to the paging in brackets on our 2017 edition. In some cases, for example in Noticias 6 (European News 6), the document starts in [p. 5] because our analysis of the imprint shows that this was printed as continuation of the Diario 15, containing 4 pages. The Contreras bound volume does not always reveal what was printed as one issue or what can be reasonably counted as a separate document. In this case, we treat the Diario 15 and the Noticias 6 as separate documents, although we give them a consecutive paging. In most cases, a new Diario de Lima o a new Noticias de Europa would start in [p. 1]

The dates encompassing each issue of a Noticias de Europa are not as precise as the ones for the Diario de Lima. The European news reproduce different sources that would arrive in different dates, and they relate to events occurred in a span of months or even a year.

For a more in depth study of the Lima news-sheets and the available bibliography, see our Introduction to our above mentioned 2017 edition (currently available in Spanish only). Thanks to the Rare Book Division, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundation, for allowing us to reproduce, in different formats, the unique copy of the Diarios y memorias de los svcessos principales, y noticias mas sobresalientes en esta ciudad de Lima. 

Paul Firbas (Stony Brook University) 
José A. Rodríguez Garrido (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú) 

Facsímiles en PDF: correspondientes al volumen 1 de la ed. de 2017

Diario 1: mayo 17- julio 3, 1700

Diario 2: julio 4- agosto 18, 1700

Diario 3: agosto 20 – octubre 6, 1700

Diario 4: octubre 10-noviembre 26, 1700

Diario 5: noviembre 28 – diciembre 30, 1700

Diario 6: enero 1 – enero 31, 1701

Diario 7: febrero 1 – abril 7, 1701

Diario 8: abril 8 – mayo 18, 1701

Diario 9: mayo 20 – julio 13, 1701

Noticias de Europa 1: 1700 – 1701

Diario 10: octubre 20 – diciembre 18, 1701

Diario 11: diciembre 22, 1701 – febrero 10, 1702

Noticias 2: 1701 – 1702

Diario 12: febrero 15 – abril 7, 1702

Diario 13: abril 12 – mayo 28, 1702

Noticias 3: 1701 – 1702

Noticias 4: 1701 – 1702

Diario 14: junio 4 – Julio 31, 1702

Noticias 5: 1701 – 1702

Diario 15: agosto 2 – octubre 28, 1702

Noticias 6: 1702 – 1703

Diario 16: noviembre 4, 1702 – enero 5, 1703

Noticias 7: 1702 - 1703

Diario 17: enero 13 – marzo 8, 1703

Noticia 8: 1702 - 1703

Noticias 8a: 1702 – 1703

Diario 18: marzo 11 – mayo 9, 1703

Diario 19: mayo 15 – junio 30, 1703

Diario 20: julio 14 – agosto 25, 1703

Noticias 9: 1702 – 1703

Diario 21: septiembre 1 – octubre 16, 1703

Noticias 10: 1703

Diario 22: octubre 20 – diciembre 19, 1703

Diario 23: diciembre 23, 1703 – febrero 6, 1704

Diario 24: febrero 23 – abril 15, 1704

Noticias 11: 1703 – 1704

Diario 25: abril 19 – junio, 1704

Diario 26: agosto 1 – septiembre 22, 1704

Diario 27: octubre 2 – noviembre 27, 1704

Diario 28: diciembre 1 – diciembre 31, 1704

Diario 28a: enero 1 – enero 26, 1705

Noticias 12: 1704 – 1705

Diario 29: febrero 8 – marzo 25, 1705

Diario 30: agosto 25 – octubre 6, 1705

Diario 31: octubre 17 – noviembre 18, 1705

Noticias 13: 1705 (fin del volumen 1 en nuestra ed. de 2017)

Facsímiles en PDF: correspondientes al volumen 2 de la ed. que publicaremos en 2018-2019

Diario 32: diciembre 1705 -- enero 20, 1706

Diario 33: febrero 1706 -- abril 23, 1706

Diario 34: abril 24 - junio 2, 1706

Noticias de Europa 14: septiembre 1705 - marzo 1706

Diario 35: junio 14 - agosto 4, 1706

Diario 36: agosto 11 - septiembre 28, 1706

Diario 37: octubre 9 - diciembre 11, 1706

Diario 38: diciembre 19, 1706 - febrero [2], 1707

Noticias 15: abril - septiembre, 1706

Noticias 16: junio - agosto, 1706

Noticias 17: 1706

Diario 39: febrero 14 - abril 27, 1707

Diario 40: mayo 1 - junio 20, 1707

Diario 41: junio 22 – agosto 16, 1707

Diario 42: agosto 19 – octubre, 1707

Noticias 18: 1707 - 1708

Diario 43: octubre 20, 1707 – enero 4, 1708

Diario 43a: diciembre 19 – diciembre 21, 1707

Diario 44: enero 1 – febrero 3, 1708

Diario 45: febrero 11 – marzo 22, 1708

Noticias 19: 1707 – 1708

Diario 46: marzo 25 – abril 30, 1708

Diario 47: mayo 1 – junio 14, 1708

Diario 48: junio – agosto 27, 1708

Noticias 20: 1707 – 1708

Diario 49: agosto 19 – octubre 22, 1708

Diario 50: octubre 24 – diciembre 5, 1708

Diario 51: diciembre 6 – diciembre 28, 1708

Diario 51a : enero 1 – enero 15, 1709

Diario 52: enero 30 – marzo 1, 1709

Diario 53: marzo 4 – abril 10, 1709

Noticias 21: 1708

Diario 54: abril 8 – junio 3, 1709

Diario 55: junio 4 – julio 17, 1709

Diario 56: julio 20 – septiembre 14, 1709

Diario 57: septiembre 16 – octubre 27, 1709

Diario 58: noviembre 3 – diciembre 20, 1709

Diario 59: diciembre 21, 1709 – febrero 11, 1710

Diario 60: febrero 15 – abril 1, 1710

Diario 61: abril – mayo 23, 1710

Diario 62: mayo 24 – julio 8, 1710

Diario 63: julio 11 – agosto 30, 1710

Diario 64: septiembre 1 – octubre 15, 1710

Diario 65: octubre 16 – diciembre 6, 1710


We would like to thank the librarians at the New York Public Library for all their help in the reproduction of the Contreras’s volume. The project started in 1998, when Paul Firbas, with the support of Firestone Library at Princeton University, requested a (positive) copy of the NYPL master microfilm. Unfortunately, the low quality of those images made the text almost unreadable. We requested authorization to digitally photograph the volume, but it was denied, and the book was sent to restoration. Finally, thanks to research grants from the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú and Stony Brook University, we obtained in 2007 a negative reproduction of the master microfilm, which was sent to Lima to be digitized. Once we had clean digital images, we started our transcription, annotation and study of the documents and the volume. 

In 2016, the NYPL published online a new high-quality colored digital reproduction of the whole volume, done directly from the imprint. However, our back and white facsimiles still have value, because they differ in two aspects from new reproductions: 1) they shows the state of the volume before the modern binding of 2000, which narrowed the pages; and 2) most importantly, our facsimiles of the Diarios and the Noticias de Europa are presented in separate issues, with date numbers and page numbers that directly match those used in our modernized printed book. This facilitates the consultation of the material. 

Our thanks to Stony Brook University and the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú for the research and publication grants that made this long project possible, and to the Universidad de Navarra (GRISO) and the Universidad del Pacífico (PEI) for their assistance in publishing our modernized editions. 

Paul Firbas (Stony Brook University) and José A. Rodriguez Garrido (Pontificia Univ Católica del Perú)