Kings of Persia


 


Elamite Kingdom, 3000–660 BC 

The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. Their language was neither Semitic nor Indo-European, and they were the geographic precursors of the Persian/Median empire that later appeared. Some have offered evidence for a linguistic kinship between Elamite and the modern Dravidian languages of Southern India (see "Elamo-Dravidian languages") but this is not universally accepted. The proto-Elamites lived even as far back as 7,500 years ago in Iran.

Avan Dynasty (precise dates unknown)

  • Peli (fl. c. 2500 BC)
  • Tata (precise dates unknown)
  • Ukku-Takhesh (precise dates unknown)
  • Khishur (precise dates unknown)
  • Shushun-Tarana (precise dates unknown)
  • Napil-Khush (precise dates unknown)
  • Kikku-Sive-Temti (precise dates unknown)
  • Lukh-Ishshan (fl. c. 24th century)
  • Khelu (fl. c. 24th century)
  • Khita (fl. c. 23rd century)
  • Kutik-Inshushinnak (fl. c. 2240)

Simash Dynasty (precise dates unknown)

  • Gir-Namme (fl. c. 2030)
  • Enpi-Luhhan (fl. c. 2010)
  • Khutran-Temtt (precise dates unknown)
  • Kindattu (precise dates unknown)
  • Indattu-Inshushinnak I (precise dates unknown)
  • Tan-Rukhurater (precise dates unknown)
  • Indattu-Inshushinnak II (precise dates unknown)
  • Indattu-Napir (precise dates unknown)
  • Indattu-Tempt (precise dates unknown)

Eparti Dynasty (precise dates unknown)

  • Eparti I (precise dates unknown)
  • Eparti II (precise dates unknown)
  • Eparti III (fl. c. 1850)
  • Shilkhakha (precise dates unknown)
  • Attakhushu (fl. c. 1830)
  • Sirukdukh (fl. c. 1792)
  • Shimut-Wartash (c. 1772 – c. 1770)

Igehalkid Dynasty (c. 1350 – c. 1200 BC)

  • Ige-Halki (c. 1350 – c. 1330)
  • Pakhir-Ishshan (c. 1330 – c. 1310)
  • Attar-Kittakh (c. 1310 – c. 1300)
  • Khuman-Numena (c. 1300 – c. 1275)
  • Untash-Naprisha (c. 1275 – c. 1240)
  • Unpatar-Naprisha (c. 1240 – c. 1235)
  • Kiddin-Khutran (c. 1235 – c. 1210)

Shutrukid Dynasty (c. 1205 – c. 1100 BC)

  • Khallutush-In-Shushinak (c. 1205 – c. 1185)
  • Shutruk-Nahhunte (c. 1185 – c. 1155)
  • Kutir-Nahhunte III (c. 1155 – c. 1150)
  • Shilkhak-In-Shushinak (c. 1150 – c. 1120)
  • Khutelutush-In-Shushinak (c. 1120 – c. 1110)
  • Shilhana-Hamru-Lagamar (c. 1110 – ????)

Late Elam Dynasty (743 – 644)

  • Khumbanigash I (743–717)
  • Shuttir-Nakhkhunte (717–699)
  • Khallushu (699–693)
  • Kutir-Nakhkhunte (693–692)
  • Khumma-Menanu (692–689)
  • Khumma-Khaldash I (689–681)
  • Khumma-Khaldash II (681–680)
  • Khumma-Khaldash II & Shilhak-In-Shushinak (680–676)
  • Shilhak-In-Shushinak & Urtaku (676–664)
  • Shilhak-In-Shushinak & Tempti-Khumma-In-Shushinak (664–653)
  • Atta-Khumma-In-Shushinak & Khumbanigash II (653–651)
  • Atta-Khumma-In-Shushinak & Tammaritu (651–649)
  • Atta-Khumma-In-Shushinak & Indabigash (649–648)
  • Indabigash (648–647)
  • Khumma-Khaldash III (647–644)

Jiroft Kingdom, c. 2500 BC

The recent archeological findings at Jiroft have uncovered an "independent, bronze age, civilization with its own architecture and language" that have led some archeologists to speculate it to be the remains of the lost Aratta Kingdom.

Empire of Medians and Persians

Median Dynasty, 728–550 BC

  • Deioces, 728–675
  • Phraortes, 675–653
  • Madius the Scythian, 653–625
  • Cyaxares, 625–585
  • Astyages, 585–550

The Medes were an Iranian people. The Persians, a closely related and subject people, revolted against the Median Empire during the 6th century BC.

Achaemenid dynasty, 550–330 BC

  • Achaemenes, founder of the dynasty, king of Persia.
  • Teispes of Anshan, his son, king of Persia, king of Anshan, died 640.

Line of Cyrus

Cyrus I of Anshan, son of Teispes, king of Anshan 640–580.

Cambyses I of Anshan, his son, king of Anshan 580–559.

Cyrus II the Great, his son, king of Anshan 559529. He conquered the Median Empire in 550 and established the Persian Empire.

Line of Ariaramnes

Ariaramnes of Persia, son of Teispes, king of Persia. His reign is doubtful.

Arsames of Persia, son of Ariaramnes, king of Persia until 550, died after 520. His reign is doubtful.

His son Hystaspes was Satrap of Parthia under Cambyses II, Smerdis and his son Darius.

  • Cyrus II the Great established the Persian Empire and ruled it from 550–529.
  • Cambyses II, his son, ruled 530–522.
  • Smerdis, his alleged brother, ruled 522.
  • Darius I the Great, son of Hystaspes, ruled 521–486.
  • Xerxes I, his son, ruled 486–465.
  • Artaxerxes I Longimanus, his son, ruled 464–424.
  • Xerxes II, his son, ruled 424.
  • Sogdianus, his half-brother, ruled 424–423.
  • Darius II Nothus, his half-brother and rival, ruled 423–404.
  • Artaxerxes II Memnon, his son, ruled 404–358 (see also Xenophon).
  • Artaxerxes III Ochus, his son, ruled 358–338.
  • Artaxerxes IV Arses, his son, ruled 338–336.
  • Darius III Codomannus, great-grandson of Darius II, ruled 336–330.
  • Artaxerxes V Bessus, a usurper who murdered Darius and continued the resistance against Alexander the Great from 330–329.

The epigraphic evidence for ancestors of Darius I the Great is highly suspect and might have been invented by that king.

Hellenistic rulers

Argead Dynasty, 330–310 BC

  • Alexander of Macedon (Alexander the Great) (330 BC–323)
  • Philip III Arrihadeus (323 BC–317)
  • Alexander IV (323 BC–310)

Seleucid dynasty, 305–164 BC

  • Seleucus I Nicator (312/305–281)
  • Antiochus I Soter (co-ruler from 291, ruled 281–261)
  • Antiochus II Theos (261–246)
  • Seleucus II Callinicus (246–225)
  • Seleucus III Ceraunus (225–223)
  • Antiochus III the Great (223–187)
  • Seleucus IV Philopator (187–175)
  • Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175–164)
  • Antiochus V Eupator (164–162)
  • Demetrius I Soter (162–150)
  • Alexander Balas (150–145)
  • Demetrius II Nicator (145–139)

The Seleucid Dynasty gradually lost control of Persia. In 253, the Arsacid Dynasty established itself in Parthia. The Parthians gradually expanded their control, until by the mid 2nd century BC, the Seleucids had completely lost control of Persia. There were more Seleucid rulers of Syria and, for a time, Babylonia, after Antiochus IV, but none had any effective power in Persia).

Parthian dynasty (Arsacid dynasty), 247 BC – AD 224

  • Arsaces I c. 247–211 BC
    • (In some histories, Arsaces's brother Tiridates I is said to have ruled c. 246–211 BC.)
  • Arsaces II c. 211–191 BC (frequently called Artabanus by early scholars)
  • Phriapatius c. 191–176 BC
  • Phraates I c. 176–171 BC
  • Mithridates I c. 171–138 BC
  • Phraates II c. 138–127 BC
  • Artabanus I c. 127–124 BC
  • Mithridates II c. 123–88 BC
    • Gotarzes I c. 95–90 BC
  • Orodes I c. 90–80 BC
  • Unknown king, c. 80–77 BC
  • Sanatruces c. 77–70 BC
  • Phraates III c. 70–57 BC
  • Mithridates III c. 57–54 BC
  • Orodes II c. 57–38 BC
    • Pacorus I c. 39–38 BC (co-ruler with his father Orodes II)
  • Phraates IV c. 38–2 BC
    • Tiridates II c. 30–26 BC
  • Phraates V (Phraataces) c. 2 BC–AD 4
    • Musa c. 2 BC–AD 4 (co-ruler with her son Phraates V)
  • Orodes III c. AD 6
  • Vonones I c. 8–12
  • Artabanus II c. 10–38
    • Tiridates III c. 35–36
  • Vardanes I c. 40–47
  • Gotarzes II c. 40–51
    • Sanabares c. 50–65
  • Vonones II 51
  • Vologases I c. 51–78
    • Vardanes II c. 55–58
  • Vologases II c. 77–80
  • Pacorus II c. 78–105
    • Artabanus III c. 80–90
  • Vologases III c. 105–147
    • Osroes I c. 109–129
    • Parthamaspates c. 116
    • Mithridates IV c. 129–140
    • Unknown king c. 140
  • Vologases IV c. 147–191
    • Osroes II c. 190 (rival claimant)
  • Vologases V c. 191–208
  • Vologases VI c. 208–228
    • Artabanus IV c. 216–224

There were various regional client dynasties, often with significant autonomy. Like the Elymais client Kingdom that occupied the area of ancient Elam, and kingdoms of Mesene in Lower Mesopotamia and Persis (Fars) in Central Iran, as well as Adiabene in Northern Mesopotamia..

Sassanid Empire, AD 224–651

  • Ardashir I, 224 to 241.
  • Shapur I, 241–272, the first to claim universal rule: Iran and Aniran, i.e. the rest of the world.
  • Hormizd I, 272–273.
  • Bahram I, 273–276.
  • Bahram II, 276–293.
  • Bahram III year 293.
  • Narseh, 293–302.
  • Hormizd II, 302–310.
  • Shapur II, 310–379
  • Ardashir II, 379–383.
  • Shapur III, 383–388.
  • Bahram IV, 388–399.
  • Yazdegerd I, 399–420.
  • Bahram V, 420–438.
  • Yazdegerd II, 438–457.
  • Hormizd III, 457–459.
  • Peroz I, 457–484.
  • Balash, 484–488.
  • Kavadh I, 488–531.
    • Djamasp, 496–498.
  • Khosrau I, 531–579.
  • Hormizd IV, 579–590.
  • Khosrau II, 590–628.
    • Bahram VI, 590–591.
    • Bistam, 591–592.
    • Hormizd V year 593.
  • Kavadh II, 628.
  • Ardashir III, 628–630.
    • Peroz II, 629.
  • Shahrbaraz, 630.
  • Boran (Purandokht) and others, 630–631.
  • Hormizd VI (or V), 631–632.
  • Yazdegerd III, 632–651.

Rulers after the advent of Islam in Iran

Arab caliphs rule

All Persian provinces fell under The Arabic Caliphate from 661 to 867.

  • Umayyad dynasty, 661–750
  • Abbasid dynasty, 750–867

Divided, 867–1029

 Tahirids in Khorasan, 821–872

  • Taher ebne Hossein ebne Mos'ab, Emir 821–822
  • Talhat ebne Taher, 822–828
  • Abdollah ebne Taher, 828–844
  • Taher ebne Abdollah, 844–862
  • Mohammad ebne Taher, 862–872

Alavids, 864–928

  • Hasan ebne Zeid Hasani, Emir 864–884
  • Mohammad ebne Zeid, 884–900
  • Hasan ebne Ali Hoseini, 913–916
  • Hasan ebne Ghasem Hasani, 916–928

Ziyarids, 928–1043

  • Abolhojaj Mardavij ebne Ziyar, Emir 928–934
  • Abu Taher Voshmgeer ebne Ziyar, 934–967
  • Zahir-ol-doleh Behsotoon, 967–976
  • Shams ol Mo'ali Abol-hasan Ghaboos, 976–1012
  • Falak ol Mo'ali Manuchehr ebne Ghabus, 1012–1031
  • Anushiravan ebne Manuchehr, 1031–1043

Buyyids, 932–1056

Diylamids of Fars

  • Emad o-dowleh Abol Hasan, Emir 932–939
  • Azad o-dowleh, 939–982
  • Sharaf o-dowleh, 982–989
  • Samsam o-dowleh, 989–998
  • Baha o-dowleh, 998–1012
  • Soltan o-dowleh, 1012–1024
  • Emad o-dowleh Abu Kalijar, 1024–1048
  • Malek Rahim Abu Nasr Khosrow Firuz, 1048–1055

Diylamids of Khuzestan and Kerman

  • Mo'ez o-dowleh, 932–966
  • Azad o-dowleh, Bakhtiar 966–977
  • Azado o-dowleh Abu Shoja', 977–982
  • Baha o-dowleh, 989–1012
  • Soltan o-dowleh, 1012–1021
  • Abu Kalijar Marzban, 1043–1048
  • Ghavam o-dowleh, 1012–1028
  • Abu Mansur Fulad sotoon, 1048–1056

Diylamids of Rey, Isfahan, and Hamedan

  • Rokn o-dowleh, Sultan 932–976
  • Mo'ayyed o-dowleh, 976–983
  • Fakhr o-dowleh, 976–997
  • Majd o-dowleh, 997–1029
  • Shams o-dowleh, 997–1021
  • Sama o-dowleh, 1021–1023

Saffarids in Seistan and beyond, 861–1002

  • Yagub Leith Saffar
  • Abu Yusef Yaqub ebne Lais, surnamed "the coppersmith", Emir 861–878
  • Amr o ebne Lais, 878–900
  • Abol Hasan Taher ebne Mohammad ebne Amro ebne Lais, 900–908
  • Lais ebne Ali ebne Lais, 908–910
  • Abu Ali Mohammad ebne Ali ebne Lais, 910–910
  • Abu Jafar Ahmad ebne Mohammad ebne Khalf, 923–963
  • Abu Ahmad Khalf ebne Ahmad, 963–1002

Samanids (Proto-Tajiks), 892–998

  • Adel; Amir Mazi Abyu Ebrahim Esmail ebne Ahmad, Emir 892–907
  • Shaheed; Abu Nasr Ahmad ebne Esmail, 907–913
  • Saeed; Abol Hasan Nasr ebne Ahmad, 913–942
  • Hamid; Abu Mohammad Nuh ebne Nasr, 942–954
  • Rashid; Abul Foares Abdolmaleh ebne Nuh, 954–961
  • Mo'ayyed; Amir Sadeed Abu Saleh Mansur ebne Nuh, 961–976
  • Radhi; Shahanshah Abolqasem Nuh ebne Mansur, 976–996
  • Abol Hareth; Mansur ebne Nuh, 996–998
  • Abol Foares; AbdolMalek ebne Nuh, 998–998

Ghaznavids, 997–1186

  • Yameen o-dowleh AbolQasem Mahmud ebne Saboktekeen, Sultan 997–1030
  • Jalal o-dowleh Abu Ahmad Mohammad ebne Mahmud, 1030–1030
  • Shahab o-dowleh Abu Sa'd Masud ebne Mahmud, 1030–1040
  • Shahab o-dowleh Abolfath Modud ebne Masud, 1040–1049
  • Baha o-dowleh Abol Hasan Ali ebne Masud, 1049–1049
  • Azad o-dowleh Abu Mansur Abdol Rashid ebne Mahmud ebne Saboktekeen, 1049–1052
  • Jamal o-dowleh Abolfazl Farrokhzaad ebne Masud ebne Mahmud, 10521059
  • Zaheer o-dowleh Abol Mozaffar Ebrahim, 1059–1098
  • Ala o-dowleh Abu Saeed Masud ebne Ebrahim, 1098–1115
  • Soltan o-dowleh Abol-fath Arsalan Shah, 1115–1117
  • Yameen o-dowleh Abol Mozaffar Baharm Shah ebne Masud, 1117–1153
  • Taj o-dowleh Abol Shoja Khosro Shah ebne Bahram Shah, 1153–1160
  • Saraj o-dowleh Abolmolook Khosrow Malek ebne Khosro Shah, 1160–1186

Seljuqs, 1029–1194

  • Toğrül bin Mikail (Tughril Beg), Sultan 1037–1063
  • Alp Arslan bin Chaghri 1063–1072
  • Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah I 1072–1092
  • Nasir ad-Din Mahmud I 1092–1094
  • Rukn ad-Din Barkiyaruq 1094–1105
  • Mu'izz ad-Din Malik Shah II 1105
  • Ghiyath ad-Din Mehmed I Tapar (Muhammad) 1105–1118
  • Mu'izz ad-Din Ahmed Sanjar 1097–1157
  • Mahmud II 1118–1131
  • Dawud (David) 1131–1132
  • Toğrül II (Tughril Beg) 1132–1134
  • Mas'ud 1134–1152
  • Malik Shah III 1152–1153
  • Mehmed II (Muhammad II) 1153–1160
  • Süleyman Shah (Sulaiman Shah) 1160–1161
  • Arslan Shah 1161–1176
  • Toğrül III (Tughril Beg III) 1176–1194

Divided, 1194–1256

Khwarazmids, 1096–1230

An empire built from Azerbaijan, covering part of Iran and neighbouring Central Asia.

  • Ghotbedeen Mohammad ebne Anushtekeen Gharajeh, Shah 1096–1128
  • Alaodeen Abol Mozaffar ebne Ghotbedeen ebne Mohammad 1128–1156
  • Tajedeen Abolfath Il Arsalan 1156–1171
  • Jalaledeen Mahmud Soltanshah ebne Il Arsalan 1171–1172
  • Aladdin Takesh ebne Il Arsalan 1172–1199
  • Soltan Jalaledeen Mohammad ebne Aladdin Takesh1199–1220
  • Jalaledeen ebne Aladdin Mohammad 1220–1230

Eliminated for good by the Mongol horde

Ilkhans, 1256–1380

The preceding era of disunity, also called First era of fragmentation, was ended through conquest by the Ilkhans, a pagan Mongol horde, nominally subject to the Great Khan. (Ilkhan means governor of an il, i.e. province).

  • Hülëgü Khan ebne Tulay ebne Genghis, Ilkhan 1256–1265
  • Abaqa Khan ebne Hulegu, 1265–1282
  • Sultan Ahmad Tekuder ebne Hulegu, 1282–1284
  • Arghun Khan ebne Abaqa, 1284–1291
  • Gaikhatu ebne Abaqa, 1291–1295
  • Baidukhan ebne Toghay ebne Hulegu, 1295
  • Ghazan Khan ebne Arghun, 1295–1304
  • Öljeitü Khoda bandeh ebne Arghun, 1304–1316
  • Abu Sa'id Bahador Khan ebne Oljeitu, 1316–1335 (last of Chinggisid il-khans)
  • Arpa Ke'un, 1335–1336
  • Musa Khan ebne Ali, 1336–1353
  • Muhammad Khan ebne Mangu, 1337–1338
  • Sati beg, dauther of Oljeitu, 1338–1340
  • Shah Jahan Teimoor ebne Alafarang, 1338–1339
  • Soleiman Khan, 1340–1344
  • Togha Teimoor Khan, 1335–1352
  • Anushiravan e Adel, 1343–1355

The Second era of fragmentation begins in 1343, as remnants of the Hordes competed with local dynasts for authority. This era ends with the conquests by Timur, around 1380

Muzaffarid Dynasty, 1314–1393

  • Mubariz ad-Din Muhammad ibn al-Muzaffar, Emir 1314–1358
  • Abu'l Fawaris Djamal ad-Din Shah Shuja (at Yazd, 1353 at Shiraz), 1335–1364 with...
  • Qutb Al-Din Shah Mahmud (at Isfahan) ( d. 1375), 1358–1366
  • Abu'l Fawaris Djamal ad-Din Shah Shuja (at Yazd, 1353 at Shiraz ), 1366–1384
  • Mujahid ad-Din Zain Al-Abidin 'Ali, 1384–1387

In 1387 Timur captured Isfahan.

  • Imad ad-Din Sultan Ahmad (at Kerman), 1387–1391 with...
  • Mubariz ad-Din Shah Yahya (at Shiraz), 1387–1391 and...
  • Sultan Abu Ishaq (in Sirajan), 1387–1391
  • Shah Mansur (at Isfahan), 1391–1393

Timurid dynasty, 1380–1507

  • Timur ("Tamerlane"), 1369–1405, nominally under the authority of the Chagatai Khanate

The third era of fragmentation follows, as Timur's Empire loses cohesion and local rulers strive against each other.

  • Pir Muhammad, grandson of Timur, 1405–1407, effectively ruled in Fars
  • Djalal Ud-Din Miran Shah, son of Timur, 1405–1408, ruled Azerbaijan
  • Rustam, 1405–1409, ruled Arabistan
  • Khalil Sultan (Timurid dynasty), son of Miran Shah, 1405–1409, ruled in Samarkand, surrendered to Shah Rukh, became governor of Rayy until his death in 1411
  • Shah Rukh, son of Timur, 1405–1447, ruled first in Transoxiana
    • Ayyal, 1414, opposed Shah Rukh
    • Ailankar, 1414–1415, opposed Shah Rukh
  • Bayqara, 1409–1412, ruled in Fars
  • Iskandar, 1412–1414, ruled first in Fars, then Azerbaijan & Arabistan

In 1410 the Turcoman horde Kara Koyunlu (Black Sheep) captured Baghdad and their leaders ruled the western parts of the Timurid realm. In the East however, Shah Rukh was able to secure his rule in Transoxiana and Fars.

  • Ulugh Beg, son of Shah Rukh, 1447–1449

Rulers in Transoxiana:

  • 'Abd al-Latif, son of Ulugh Beg, 1449–1450
  • ‘Abdullah Mirza, grandson of Shah Rukh, 1450–1451
  • Abu Sa'id ibn Muhammad, grandson of Miran Shah, 1451–1469, conquered Khurasan in 1459

Rulers in Khurasan:

  • Babur Ibn-Baysunkur, grandson of Shah Rukh, 1449–1457
  • Shah Mahmud, son of Babur, 1457
  • Ibrahim, 1457
  • Jahan Shah, leader of the Black Sheep Turcomans, 1457–1458

Abu Sa'id, agreed to divide Iran with the Black Sheep Turcomans under Jahan Shah, but the White Sheep Turcomans under Uzun Hassan defeated and killed first Jahan Shah and then Abu Sa'id.

After Abu Sa'id's death a fourth era of fragmentation follows. While the White Sheep Turcomans dominated in the western parts until the ascent of the Safavid dynasty, the Timurides could maintain their rule in Samarkand and Herat.

Rulers in Samarkand:

  • Sultan Ahmad, son Abu Sa'id, 1469–1494
  • Sultan Mahmud, son of Abu Sa'id, 1494–1495
  • Masud, 1495
  • Sultan Baysunghur, 1495–1497
  • Sultan Ali Mirza 1495–1500

conquered by the Uzbeks

Rulers in Herat:

  • Sultan Mahmud, son of Abu Sa'id, 1469
  • Husayn Bayqarah, 1469–1506
  • Badi' al-Zaman, son of Husayn, 1506–1507, fled to the court of Ismail I

conquered by the Uzbeks, later recaptured by the Safavids

Shahs of modern Iran

The modern Iranian monarchy was established in 1502 after the Safavid Dynasty came to power under Shah Ismail I, and ended the so-called "fourth era" of political fragmentation.

Safavid dynasty, 1502–1736

  • Ismail I, 1502–1524
  • Tahmasp I, 1524–1576
  • Ismail II, 1576–1578
  • Mohammad I Khodabanda, 1578–1587 or 1588
  • Abbas I the Great, 1587 or 1588 -1629
  • Safi I, 1629–1642
  • Abbas II, 1642–1666 or 1667
  • Suleiman I (Safi II), 1666 or 1667–1694
  • Husayn, 1694–1722
  • Tahmasp II, 1723–1732
  • Abbas III, 1732–1736

Afsharid dynasty, 1736–1797

  • Nadir Shah, 1736–1747
  • Adil Shah, 1747–1748
  • Ebrahim Afshar, 1748
  • Shah Rukh, 1748–1797, he lost power in 1750 but nominally remained Shah.

Modern history of Iran

Here begins the modern history of the nation-state Iran. After the fall of the Afsharids, the eastern lands of Persia were lost to Pashtun tribes who created their own independent kingdom, which later became known as Afghanistan.

Zand dynasty, 1750–1794

  • Karim Khan, 1750–1779
  • Abol Fath Khan, 1779
  • Ali Murad Khan, 1779
  • Mohammad Ali Khan, 1779
  • Sadiq Khan, 1779–1782
  • Ali Murad Khan, 1782–1785
  • Jafar Khan, 1785–1789
  • Lotf Ali Khan, 1789–1794

Qajar dynasty, 1794–1925

  • Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar, 1794–1797
  • Fath Ali Shah, 1797–1834
  • Mohammad Shah Qajar, 1834–1848
  • Nasser-al-Din Shah, 1848–1896
  • Mozzafar-al-Din Shah, 1896–1907
  • Mohammad Ali Shah, 1907–1909
  • Ahmad Shah Qajar (1909–1925)

Pahlavi dynasty, 1925–1979

  • Reza Shah Pahlavi, 15 December 1925 – 16 September 1941 (crowned 25 April 1926)
  • Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, 16 September 1941 – 11 February 1979 (crowned 26 October 1967) and his wife Empress Farah Pahlavi (born 14 October 1938).

In 1979 a revolution led by Ayatollah Khomeini forced Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi into exile, and established an Islamic Republic on 1 April 1979.