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Annotated Bibliography

Kramer, Laura. Sociology of Gender. 2. Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing, 2005.

This book discusses in-depth how the gender ideologies affect men and women.  Chapter 6, The Economy and Work, tells of how women, and especially minority women, are treated with discrimination in the workplace.  This chapter also discusses the concepts of the wage gap between men and women and the discriminatory hiring practices inherent in the workplace.

                When conducting the research a majority of the information came from this source, making it very helpful.  Since this book was a key component in the research it hinged well with the various other sources and provided a strong relevant source to base our research on.


Daily, Catherine, S. Trevis Certo and Dan R. Dalton. "A Decade of Corporate Women: Some Progress in the Boardroom, None in the Executive Suite." Strategic Management Journal Vol. 20, No. 1(Jan., 1999): 93-99.

This journal article discusses how even though there have been positive changes within corporate America for women; their progress into high level executive positions is still stifled.  Even though women have been able to circumvent the glass ceiling, spending more time in boardrooms, their access into the highest rungs of the corporate world have been blocked.

Since the research discusses the Glass Ceiling and discriminatory practices, this article fit in well with our research.  Since the findings were given over a ten year period it led to more well rounded research which yielded better results.


David, Cotter, John Hermsmen, Seth Ovadia, and Reeve Vanneman.Social Forces. Univeristy of North Carolina Press, 2001.

            This piece helps to thoroughly define what glass ceilings are and how specific situations meet the criterion to be defined as glass ceiling barriers. This article also reviews and critiques the glass ceiling concept. 

This is a useful and non bias source that provides examples of glass ceiling barriers and helps define the glass ceiling concept.  This was very useful for our webpage by helping people to more thoroughly understand exactly what constitutes a glass ceiling barrier.


Quinn, Jane. "Why Women Still Earn Less." May 25, 1999 Nov 28 2008 <http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/1999/05/25/BU22874.DTL>.

            This article discusses reasons why in a society that is founded on the concept equality for all, women still earn less than men for the same job positions.  This article discusses factors such as placing family before work, depending on men for economic stability and the effect of having children on ones career.

                Although this source does not provide as much information as some of the other sources used, it is still significant because it covers many reasons why women earn less than men and uses some statistics to support its theories.


United States Code. "The Equal Pay Act of 1963." The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. January 15, 1997. Nov 27, 2008 <http://www.eeoc.gov/policy/epa.html>.

            This document provides a copy of The Equal Pay Act of 1963.  The The Equal Pay Act of 1963, determined that no employer shall discriminate between employees on the basis of sex by paying wages to employees in such establishment at a rate less than the rate at which he pays wages to employees of the opposite sex in such establishment for equal work on jobs. (U.S. Code)

                This is a very important piece because it provides a legal document that prohibits discrimination of wage based on sex.  Although this document does make wage gap discrimination illegal we will discuss why a wage gap still exists and how employers may still continue to create glass ceilings.


Milgrom, Eva. "Equal Pay for Equal Work? Evidence from Sweden and a Comparison with Norway and the U.S.." Journal of Economics Volume 103, No. 4(2001): 559-583.

            This article helps provide examples and statistics of how even after decades of improving working conditions for women, there is still a large amount of segregation based on sex in the workplace.  This article discuses the aspects of how predominantly female or male occupations still exist and how sex helps determine which position one will get within a company.

                This article is very helpful and uses studies and statistics without bias to support their claims.  This article was specifically helpful in pointing on that not only do women seem to be paid less for the same positions as men; they are also less likely to obtain a male dominated position within a company