South East Penychen, Area connections, over time.

 Includes links to external websites.

Medieval Sourcebook: Gerald of Wales: The Norman Conquest of Ireland (12th Century)

 ‘The Welsh History Review is the standard-bearer of the historical profession in Wales. It offers an indispensable guide to the perspectives of leading scholars on the past.’

  FROM THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE BRITONS TO THE NINTH CENTURY. bc 55—ad 787 - Augustin Thierry, History of the Conquest of England by the Normans; Its Causes, and its Consequences, in England, Scotland, Ireland, & on the Continent, vol. 1 [1856]

 In quest of Pictish manuscripts
The Culver Family
The Descendants of Beli Mawr (The Great)



The name "Canton".

Canton (Tribal Area)
Civitates (Pur)
Ciitas, sometimes translated as Cantons.

The name "Caerau". 

Location: ST 135 751
Cayre (1678)
The area is said to have links with the Jupupania of Ptolemy.
In Welsh it's name is said to be Tre-Iwbwb. Which means in English "The town of the wailing" (Source: Cardiff Record Vol V Page 348).
Richard of Cirencester, gave the Roman name of Tibia Amni's to the "Roman camp on Caerau Hill 10/12 acres.
St Mary the Virgin Church Caerau                   http://pendragon64.wordpress.com/2009/03/25/st-marys-church-caerau-with-ely-cardiff/
                                             (Friend's of)  http://www.stmaryscaerau.org/
The Sanctuary was a small detached portion of the Manor of Milton Pencoed, and lay in the Parish of Caerau on the main highway from Cardiff to the west. It later gave it's name to Saintwell, New Cyntwell. In medieval times it belononged to the order of Saint John of Jerusalem.
The Military Order of St. John of Jerusalem, held the Manor of Milton. 

The name "Ely". 

Ely 1= To disappear from sight.
Ely, First used in the mid 19th centuary for the hamlet of Ely Llandaf.
Elliman = Dealer in oils.
Ely maker = Dealer in oils (As Elliman.)
Elysii 1= A people of eastern Germany. Between the Order and the Vistula.
Elysii 2= The Elysian Fields.
Elymais (Latin) = A district of Persia.
Elymaei = Inhabitants of Elymais.
Elysium= origin via Latin from Greek Elusion (Pedion) (Plain of the Blessed.  
Elysium 1= The abode of the blest.
Elysium 2= The abode of the heroes and the virtuous dead in Greek legend. Separate from the underworld of Hades and located somewhere in the far west in a land without cold or snow.
Eilie (1648)
Ellis = an unskilled agricultural worker. A mower of Meadows. 
Eley 16th century.
Yr Elai
Elai (Welsh) accent on the 2nd syllable.
Elle= A latinised form of Elegium.
Ele (English) = To anoint (with oil?)
Cwm-Caer-Eley = The Dale of the fortified camp on the Elai. It was the name given, to freehold lands near Llanishen in the Manor of LLystal y bont (1653) see the "Cardiff Record"  also John Stuart Corbet collection at Glamorgan Records Office.
Ley (obs Form of Lay) The supposed line of a prehistoric track.
Ley (la) n Land temporarily under grass. (a ver of Lea)
Lea (Poet) n Tract of open ground. Especially Grass Land
Lea n A measure of yarn (300,200,120,80, yards, in different districts etc.).
Helei 16th century.
The Norman noble "De Helei" 1179 ( note the nomrmans took their names from their land). He held land around what is now Leckwith Bridge.
Eli was A jewish High Priset before 1100 BC. See Geofffrey of Monmouth 
River: Elay = To mix, Dilute. 
River: Llai = Blue Brown or Grey
River: Llaid = Mud Mire or Slime 

Looking Below

The Cardiff - Cowbribge Anticline
Carboniferous 80 million years
               Poss 15000 ft
               Three removed
Runs along Grand Avenue (South Side)
   Syncline       Penarth
Tea Green Marles
Red Marles
Faults where probably the result of Alpine earth movements, which occurred widely in the middle of the Cenozoic Era ( In a period known as the Miocene). 

Looking Beyond

The wall of Severus, later known as Offa's Dyke or Wat's Dyke.
The Land of the Dead, the Celtic other World to the west of this wall. See Procopius.
Alpes Penninae, A deity from Penninus.


Landaff 31st May

Cowbridge 24th June
Cardiff 29th June