Science is a Way of Knowing
- Science is both a body of knowledge that represents a current understanding of natural systems and the processes used to refine, elaborate, revise, and extend this knowledge.
- Science is a unique way of knowing and there are other ways of knowing.
- Science distinguishes itself from other ways of knowing through use of empirical standards, logical arguments, and skeptical review.
- Science knowledge has a history that includes the refinement of, and changes to, theories, ideas, and beliefs over time.
Science is a Human Endeavor
- Scientific knowledge is a result of human endeavor, imagination, and creativity.
- Individuals and teams from many nations and cultures have contributed to science and to advances in engineering.
- Scientists’ backgrounds, theoretical commitments, and fields of endeavor influence the nature of their findings.
- Technological advances have influenced the progress of science and science has influenced advances in technology.
- Science and engineering are influenced by society and society is influenced by science and engineering.
Science Addresses Questions About the Natural and Material World
- Not all questions can be answered by science.
- Science and technology may raise ethical issues for which science, by itself, does not provide answers and solutions.
- Science knowledge indicates what can happen in natural systems—not what should happen. The latter involves ethics, values, and human decisions about the use of knowledge.
- Many decisions are not made using science alone, but rely on social and cultural contexts to resolve issues.
The PEAR Lab's simplified NOS venn-diagram conveys the essential overlapping elements of the most widely recognized NOS education