Nathaniel Hawthorne

                          1840s                                                       1860s

Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804 –1864) was an American novelist and short story writer.  Nathaniel Hathorne was born in 1804 in the city of Salem, Massachusetts. He later changed his name to "Hawthorne", adding a "w" to dissociate from relatives including John Hathorne, a judge during the Salem Witch Trials. Hawthorne attended Bowdoin College and graduated in 1825; his classmates included future president Franklin Pierce and future poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. He worked at a Custom House and joined a Transcendentalist Utopian community.  

Hawthorne is best known today for his many short stories (he called them "tales") and his four major romances written between 1850 and 1860: The Scarlet Letter (1850), The House of the Seven Gables (1851), The Blithedale Romance (1852) and The Marble Faun (1860). Another novel-length romance, Fanshawe was published anonymously in 1828.

A political appointment took Hawthorne and family to Europe before their return to The Wayside in 1860. Hawthorne died on May 19, 1864, leaving behind his wife and their three children.

Much of Hawthorne's writing centers around New England, many works featuring moral allegories with a Puritan inspiration. His fiction works are considered part of the Romantic movement and, more specifically, dark romanticism. His themes often center on the inherent evil and sin of humanity and his works often have moral messages and deep psychological complexity. His published works also includes a biography of his friend Franklin Pierce.

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From LibriVox.Org:

1.  The Scarlet Letter (1850)

A young woman, Hester Prynne, is led from the town prison with her infant daughter, Pearl, in her arms and the scarlet letter “A” on her breast. The scarlet letter “A” represents the act of adultery that she has committed; it is to be a symbol of her sin for all to see.

2.  The House of Seven Gables (1851)

“The wrongdoing of one generation lives into the successive ones and… becomes a pure and uncontrollable mischief.”

3.  Nathaniel Hawthorne's Short Stories:

    1. The Village Uncle (2nd story)
    2. The Artist of the Beautiful  (2nd story)
    3. Beneath An Umbrella  (2nd story)
    4. The Birth Mark  (2nd story)
    5. The British Matron  (19th story)
    6. The Ocean  (17th story)
    7. An Old Woman’s Tale  (18th story)
    8. Rappaccini’s Daughter  (6th story)
    9. Young Godman Brown  (10th story)

4.  The Great Stone Face and Other Tales of the White Mountains

A collection of four short stories by Nathaniel Hawthorne, the common theme of which is New Hampshire's White Mountains


5Tanglewood Tales - A colliction of stories from Greek Mythology


6The Blithedale Romance - The story of four principal characters who work with -- and sometimes against -- each other on Blithedale, a communal farm reminiscent of one on which Hawthorne himself lived in 1841.

7.  Rappaccini’s Daughter - Giovanni, a young student of letters, observes Beatrice, the beautiful daughter of Dr. Rappaccini, a scientist working in isolation. Beatrice is confined to the lush and locked gardens filled with poisonous plants by her father. Having fallen in love, Giovanni enters the garden and meets with Beatrice a number of times regardless of the warning of his mentor, Professor Baglioni, that Rappaccini is up to no good and he and his work should be avoided. 

8.  The Marble Faun - The Marble Faun is Hawthorne's most unusual romance. Hawthorne set his story in a fantastical Italy. The romance mixes elements of a fable, pastoral, gothic novel, and travel guide. In the spring of 1858, Hawthorne was inspired to write his romance when he saw the Faun of Praxiteles in a Roman sculpture gallery.  The theme, characteristic of Hawthorne, is guilt and the Fall of Man. 

9.  Our Old HouseThese essays, based on Hawthorne’s stay in England from 1853 to 1857 as American Consul in Liverpool, were first published in the form of a series of travel articles for The Atlantic Monthly.  In these writings, he displays his humor, his empathetic nature, his pride in his country, and sometimes his sharp judgment of others. He shares with us the difficulties of being a consul in the 1850’s, takes us on a tour with him through rural England and Scotland, shows us the splendors of London, and the horrors of the poverty that so many suffered.

10. Mosses from an Old Manse - "Mosses from an Old Manse" is a short story collection by Nathaniel Hawthorne, first published in 1846. The collection includes several previously-published short stories and is named in honor of The Old Manse where Hawthorne and his wife lived for the first three years of their marriage. A second edition was published in 1854, which added "Feathertop," "Passages from a Relinquished Work, and "Sketches from Memory."
11. The Hollow of the Three Hills by Nathaniel Hawthorne (11th story in Short Story Collection # 51)

12. Twice Told Tales - This  is a short story collection in two volumes. The first was published in the spring of 1837, and the second in 1842. The stories had all been previously published in magazines and annuals, hence the name.  There is a total of 40 stories in this collection.

13.  The Minister's Black Veil by Nathaniel Hawthorne (14th story in Short Ghost and Horror Story # 17)

15.  The Haunted Mind by Nathaniel Hawthorne (7th story in Short Story Collection # 53)

16.  The White Old Maid - Hawthorne (6th story from Short Ghost Collection # 22)

17.  My Kinsman, Major Molineux (2nd story in Short Story Vol 57)

18.  The Ambitious Guest (19th story in Short Story Vol 57)

19. The Prophetic Pictures by Nathaniel Hawthorne (1st story in International Short Stories # 1)

20. True Stories From History and Biography - In writing this ponderous tome, the author's desire has been to describe the eminent characters and remarkable events of our annals, in such a form and style, that the YOUNG might make acquaintance with them of their own accord. For this purpose, while ostensibly relating the adventures of a Chair, he has endeavored to keep a distinct and unbroken thread of authentic history. The Chair is made to pass from one to another of those personages, of whom he thought it most desirable for the young reader to have vivid and familiar ideas, and whose lives and actions would best enable him to give picturesque sketches of the times. On its sturdy oaken legs, it trudges diligently from one scene to another, and seems always to thrust itself in the way, with most benign complacency, whenever a historical personage happens to be looking round for a seat.

21.  Fragments from the Journal of a Solitary Man by Nathaniel Hawthorne  (5th story from Short Ghost and Horror Collection # 25)

22.  The Devil in Manuscript by Nathaniel Hawthorne  (10th story from Short Ghost and Horror Collection # 25)

23.  A Wonder Book for Girls and Boys - A Yankee student stays at a country house called Tanglewood during a golden New England fall. Also at the house are about a dozen children: younger cousins of the student and their friends of varying ages. The student, as much to amuse himself as to amuse the children, organizes games and activities and tells stories. And the stories he tells are wild and fantastic. When his store of fairy tales and folk legends is exhausted he hits on the idea of retelling Greek Myths in his own style.  
We visit Tanglewood six times during the course of a year and hear six of the student's beautifully told stories: The Gorgon's Head, The Golden Touch, A Paradise of Children, The Three Golden Apples, The Miraculous Pitcher and The Chimaera. 

Nathaniel Hawthorne (6th essay by John Macy’s Spirit of American Literature)