Fruit Salad Analogy (Created by Polly Samuel (Donna Williams) Autism Consultant in 1995)

Well what more can I say  Polly Samuel's (Donna Williams') analogy of Autism is fantastic it has answered a whole host of questions about how my Autistic mind works. As well as the names and meanings of all the different pieces of my Autism and how I'm affected by them. To Polly I will be forever grateful for her knowledge and helping me find my own "Fruit Salad". Polly I thank you. :-)

For more information on Polly Samuel's (Donna Williams') Fruit Salad Analogy


Autism: An Inside Out Approach (1995)


The Jumbled Jigsaw (2005)


Paul's Autism Fruit Salad Updated 2016

Expressive Agnosias
Receptive/Expressive Language & Movement Issues (Speech & Communication)

Visual Agnosias

  • Semantic Agnosia (Meaning Blindness) (not recognising visual stimuli such as object, people or places by visuals alone need to use movement, tactile stimuli such as touching rubbing, sniffing, tapping for example) 
  • Simultagnosia (Object Blindness) (not "seeing" the visual field as a "whole" but in bits causing context blindness)
  • Prosopagnosia (Face Blindness) (not "seeing" faces as a "whole" needs other cues such as the movement of the body and voice patterns to understand the who the person is)
  • Visual - Verbal Agnosia (reading text "without meaning" for example once functional speech was acquired I could read streams of text but on a "surface level" much like written echolalia)  
  • Colour Agnosia (Recognise red with "meaning" this means that I can see comparisons in hue and contrast but sometimes struggle to name other colours)
  • Mirror Agnosia 
  • Form Agnosia (not "seeing the whole in relation to overall context) 

Auditory Agnosias/Aphasia

Body Disconnection
  • Pain Agnosia (not perceiving pain or trauma that has been inflicted on the body this relates to self-injurious behaviors that I displayed in my teenage years) 
  • Visualspatial Dysgnosia (Body Blindness) (not perceiving my body firstly as a "whole" and understanding the "whereness" of my body in the environment it is in)  
  • Finger Agnosia (Digit Blindness) (not perceiving my own fingers as a child this effected my motor coordination, lack of pointing and also my hand-writing in later years) 
Dissociative Disorders - Recognised  in 2012/Revised 2014
Mental Health

Learning Difficulties

  • Bruxism - Teeth Gnashing
  • Genetics - Developmental Agnosias

Syndromes - Which make up a large part of my "Fruit Salad"

Information on Agnosias 


Autism as a Fruit Salad by Donna Williams


Autism as a Fruit Salad Model by Donna Williams


YouTube Video Listing Fruit Salad (I have added many since making the video)

Donna William's Fruit Salad Application Video

Copyright of Analogy goes to Polly Samuel (Donna Williams) 1995,2005,2014
Copyright of Music goes to Sony BMG/Saw/DOA 1984