True dragons are among the mightiest of all dragons.

True Dragons |
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Unless noted otherwise in the description of a given true dragon, all of the following rules apply to that dragon.

# Age Categories

Many of a true dragon's abilities, attacks, and other statistics
improve as a dragon grows older. These increases are divided into 12 age
categories—as a dragon ages, its base statistics change as noted on **Table: Dragon Age Categories**.

Interpret the columns on the indicated table in the following manner.

**Age Category**: This is the age category's name.

**Age in Years**: This is the dragon's actual age.

**CR**: This column modifies the dragon's base CR.

**Size**: This shows how many size categories by which to increase
the dragon's base size, depending on its age (from Tiny to Small, Small
to Medium, and so on). A true dragon does not gain the standard
increases to ability scores when it achieves a larger size—instead, true
dragons gain ability score increases according to their age category,
as indicated on the Dragon Ability Scores table.

**Hit Dice**: This shows how many additional Hit Dice a dragon gains over its base Hit Dice as it grows. Increases to Hit Dice grant extra hit points, feats, and skill ranks as well as increase the dragon's base attack bonus and base save bonuses. Dragons have skill ranks equal to 6 + their Intelligence modifier per Hit Die. A dragon's increases to ability scores for gaining Hit Dice are included in the total ability score increases (see the Dragon Ability Scores table).

**Natural Armor**: This shows by what amount the dragon's base natural armor bonus increases with each age category.

**Breath Weapon**: Each dragon has a breath weapon
(see Combat) that deals a base amount of damage. This multiplier
increases the number of dice of damage dealt by the dragon's breath
weapon. For example, a mature adult dragon with a base breath weapon that deals 2d6 acid damage would deal 14d6 acid damage (due to the ×7 multiplier).

#### Table: Dragon Age Categories

Age Category | Age in Years | CR | Size | Hit Dice | Natural Armor | Breath Weapon |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 Wyrmling | 0–5 | Base | Base | Base | Base | Base |

2 Very young | 6–15 | Base + 2 | Base + 1 | Base + 2 | Base + 3 | Base × 2 |

3 Young | 16–25 | Base + 4 | Base + 2 | Base + 4 | Base + 6 | Base × 3 |

4 Juvenile | 26–50 | Base + 5 | Base + 2 | Base + 6 | Base + 9 | Base × 4 |

5 Young adult | 51–100 | Base + 7 | Base + 3 | Base + 8 | Base + 12 | Base × 5 |

6 Adult | 101–200 | Base + 8 | Base + 3 | Base + 10 | Base + 15 | Base × 6 |

7 Mature adult | 201–400 | Base + 9 | Base + 3 | Base + 12 | Base + 18 | Base × 7 |

8 Old | 401–600 | Base + 11 | Base + 4 | Base + 14 | Base + 21 | Base × 8 |

9 Very old | 601–800 | Base + 12 | Base + 4 | Base + 16 | Base + 24 | Base × 9 |

10 Ancient | 801–1,000 | Base + 13 | Base + 4 | Base + 18 | Base + 27 | Base × 10 |

11 Wyrm | 1,001–1,200 | Base + 14 | Base + 4 | Base + 20 | Base + 30 | Base × 11 |

12 Great wyrm | 1,201+ | Base + 16 | Base + 5 | Base + 22 | Base + 33 | Base × 12 |

#### Table: Dragon Ability Scores

Age Category | Str | Dex | Con | Int | Wis | Chr |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 Wyrmling | Base | Base | Base | Base | Base | Base |

2 Very young | Base + 4 | Base – 2 | Base + 2 | Base + 2 | Base + 2 | Base + 2 |

3 Young | Base + 8 | Base – 2 | Base + 4 | Base + 2 | Base + 2 | Base + 2 |

4 Juvenile | Base + 10 | Base – 2 | Base + 6 | Base + 4 | Base + 4 | Base + 4 |

5 Young adult | Base + 12 | Base – 4 | Base + 6 | Base + 4 | Base + 4 | Base + 4 |

6 Adult | Base + 14 | Base – 4 | Base + 8 | Base + 6 | Base + 6 | Base + 6 |

7 Mature adult | Base + 16 | Base – 4 | Base + 8 | Base + 6 | Base + 6 | Base + 6 |

8 Old | Base + 18 | Base – 6 | Base + 10 | Base + 8 | Base + 8 | Base + 8 |

9 Very old | Base + 20 | Base – 6 | Base + 10 | Base + 8 | Base + 8 | Base + 8 |

10 Ancient | Base + 22 | Base – 6 | Base + 12 | Base + 10 | Base + 10 | Base + 10 |

11 Wyrm | Base + 24 | Base – 8 | Base + 12 | Base + 10 | Base + 10 | Base + 10 |

12 Great wyrm | Base + 26 | Base – 8 | Base + 14 | Base + 12 | Base + 12 | Base + 12 |

## Combat

The Dragon Attacks and Speeds table lists the attacks a dragon can employ and the damage it deals (a dash indicates that a dragon of that size does not possess that natural attack). Other abilities described here are gained by dragons when they reach a specific age category.

#### Table: Dragon Attacks and Speeds

Size | Fly Speed (man.) | 1 Bite | 2 Claws | Gore (Imperial Dragons Only) |
2 Wings | 1 Tail Slap | 1 Crush | 1 Tail Swp. | Breath Weapon | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Line | Cone | |||||||||

Tiny | 100 ft. (avg.) | 1d4 | 1d3 | — | — | — | — | — | 30' | 15' |

Small | 150 ft. (avg.) | 1d6 | 1d4 | — | — | — | — | — | 40' | 20' |

Medium | 150 ft. (avg.) | 1d8 | 1d6 | 1d6 | 1d4 | — | — | — | 60' | 30' |

Large | 200 ft. (poor) | 2d6 | 1d8 | 1d8 | 1d6 | 1d8 | — | — | 80' | 40' |

Huge | 200 ft. (poor) | 2d8 | 2d6 | 2d6 | 1d8 | 2d6 | 2d8 | — | 100' | 50' |

Gargantuan | 250 ft. (clumsy) | 4d6 | 2d8 | 2d8 | 2d6 | 2d8 | 4d6 | 2d6 | 120' | 60' |

Colossal | 250 ft. (clumsy) | 4d8 | 4d6 | 4d6 | 2d8 | 4d6 | 4d8 | 2d8 | 140' | 70' |

**Fly Speed**: A dragon's fly speed increases as indicated, according to its size.

**Bite**: This is a primary attack that deals the indicated damage plus 1-1/2 times the dragon's Strength
bonus (even though it has more than one attack). A dragon's bite attack
has reach as if the creature were one size category larger (+10 feet
for Colossal dragons).

**Claws**: These primary attacks deal the indicated damage plus the dragon's Strength bonus.

**Gore**: As they are wingless, Medium and larger imperial dragons
make gore attacks with their horns instead of wing attacks. A gore is a
primary attack that deals the indicated damage plus 1-1/2 times the
dragon’s Strength
bonus. An imperial dragon’s gore attack has reach as if the creature
were one size category larger (+10 feet for Colossal dragons).

**Wings**: The dragon can slam foes with its wings, even when
flying. Wing attacks are secondary attacks that deal the indicated
damage plus 1/2 the dragon's Strength bonus.

**Tail Slap**: The dragon can slap one foe each round with its
tail. A tail slap is a secondary attack that deals the indicated damage
plus 1-1/2 times the dragon's Strength bonus (this is an exception to the normal secondary attack rules).

**Crush (Ex)**: A flying or jumping Huge or larger dragon can land on foes as a standard action,
using its whole body to crush them. Crush attacks are effective only
against opponents three or more size categories smaller than the dragon.
A crush attack affects as many creatures as fit in the dragon's space.
Creatures in the affected area must succeed on a Reflex save (DC equal to that of the dragon's breath weapon) or be pinned,
automatically taking bludgeoning damage during the next round unless
the dragon moves off them. If the dragon chooses to maintain the pin, it must succeed at a combat maneuver
check as normal. Pinned foes take damage from the crush each round if
they don't escape. A crush attack deals the indicated damage plus 1-1/2
times the dragon's Strength bonus.

**Tail Sweep (Ex)**: This allows a Gargantuan or larger dragon to sweep with its tail as a standard action.
The sweep affects a half-circle with a radius of 30 feet (or 40 feet
for a Colossal dragon), extending from an intersection on the edge of
the dragon's space in any direction. Creatures within the swept area are
affected if they are four or more size categories smaller than the
dragon. A tail sweep automatically deals the indicated damage plus 1-1/2
times the dragon's Strength bonus (round down). Affected creatures can attempt Reflex saves to take half damage (DC equal to that of the dragon's breath weapon).

**Breath Weapon (Su)**: Using a breath weapon is a standard action. A dragon can use its breath weapon once every 1d4 rounds, even if it possesses more than one breath weapon. A breath weapon
always starts at an intersection adjacent to the dragon and extends in a
direction of the dragon's choice. Breath weapons come in two shapes,
lines and cones, whose areas vary with the dragon's size. If a breath weapon deals damage, those caught in the area can attempt Reflex saves to take half damage. The save DC against a breath weapon is 10 + 1/2 dragon's HD + dragon's Con
modifier. Saves against various breath weapons use the same DC; the
type of saving throw is noted in the variety descriptions. A dragon can
use its breath weapon when it is grappling or being grappled.

## Additional Dragon Rules

**Dragon Senses (Ex)**: Dragons have darkvision 120 ft. and blindsense 60 ft. They see four times as well as a human in dim light and twice as well in normal light.

**Frightful Presence (Ex)**: A
dragon's frightful presence has a range equal to 30 feet × the dragon's
age category, but otherwise functions as detailed in the Universal Monster Rules.

**Spells**: A dragon knows and casts arcane spells as a sorcerer of the level indicated in its specific description. Its caster level depends on its age, as shown for each type.

**Spell-Like Abilities**: A dragon's caster level for its spell-like abilities is equal to its total Hit Dice.

**Damage Reduction**: Dragons gain damage reduction as they age, as indicated on each dragon's specific entry. Their natural weapons are treated as magic weapons for the purpose of overcoming damage reduction.

**Immunities (Ex)**: Every dragon is immune to sleep and paralysis. In addition, a dragon is immune to one or two additional forms of attack no matter what its age, as given in its description.

**Spell Resistance (Ex)**: As dragons grow older, they become more resistant to spells and spell-like abilities, as indicated in the dragon descriptions. A dragon's SR is equal to 11 + its CR.