Symposium 2012 (2nd) - Abstracts & Bio Notes of Presenters

2nd Symposium ICTM-PASEA 2012
ABSTRACTS & BIO NOTES ON PRESENTERS

Theme I: (Re)Producing Southeast Asian Performing Arts
Local Identity Formation, Tourism and Commodification & Institutionalizing Southeast Asian Performing Arts Traditions in Modern Multi-Cultural Education

Supeena Insee ADLER, University of California at Riverside (U.S.A.) 
Sources of Order: Thai musical ensembles in the Royal Thai Armed Forces

The Royal Thai Armed Forces serve to support and respect the power of the Thai Nation, Religion, and King. The Army, Navy, and Air Force each have a Music Division for both Thai and Western music separately that together comprise the Entertainment Section. Each also hosts a Music School at the pre-collegiate level, which trains students to fill positions within the Music Division. The soldier-musicians perform for the king and royal family, other soldiers, and non-government people, if ordered specifically. When the king has a duty, orders will come directly from the royal palace to the branch that must perform, specifying which musical ensemble they want, which kind of music they want, and which repertoire. Drawing on Clifford Geertz’ model of the Southeast Asian theater state, I will analyze the roles of the Thai classical musicians in the Royal Thai Armed Forces. They publicly perform their support for the power of the king and at the same time keep and protect their music heritage, negotiating their duties as musicians, soldiers, royal servants and Thai citizens. In return, these soldiers gain a high personal status by their association with the king and by re-presenting the sources of order through music education and performance.  

Bio:   Supeena Insee Adler is a performer and ethnomusicologist living in San Diego, California. Her areas of interest are healing rituals and music in Northeast Thailand and Southern Laos, literature in Thai traditional music performance, and Okinawa minyo. She received a B.F.A. in Thai Classical Music from Mahasarakham University, and completed coursework towards a M.A. in Musicology at the College of Music, Mahidol University. She completed an M.A. in Southeast Asian Studies at the University of California Riverside (UCR) in 2010. She is currently a Ph.D. candidate in ethnomusicology at UCR. Her dissertation topic is the Music for the Few: Nationalism and Thai Royal Authority.

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Nezia AZMI, Independent Scholar (Malaysia)
On Screen, On Stage and In Demand: Mediated Traditions in Malaysian Music and Dance

Much of what is understood about traditional Malaysian music and dance by the Malaysian general public are mediated conceptions largely influenced firstly by the growth spurt of the film industry in the late 1940s through the 1970s, and now increasingly also by the “cultural night” phenomenon. Firstly, the paper engages in a brief sociohistorical analysis of the development of traditional performing arts in Malaysia (or what is deemed “traditional”) as influenced by Malayan films, particularly those by the prominent filmmaker P. Ramlee. Secondly, it will engage in comparative analysis of performance-as-mediated-by-the-lens to performance-as-mediated-by-the-“cultural night”-stage. The phenomenon of “cultural nights” is almost universal across many migrant and temporary immigrant communities in Euro-America, and now increasingly even in the home countries of the “cultural owners”. On Malaysian cultural nights at university campuses and corporate events, certain songs and dances are performed because they are loosely deemed as “traditional” based on realities presented in earlier Malayan films, and not necessarily because they are practiced “tradition”.  However, the perpetuation of a certain set of “expected” repertoire, resulting in the reinforced “usual suspects” of what counts as “traditional”, and therefore “representative” of a group need not be regarded as the unfortunate by-product of modern orientalist tendencies. The phenomenon can also be seen as a continuation of pre-existing perceptions and attitudes that can offer insights as to how the evolving Malaysian public perceives its cultural identity and an alternative to understanding the current realities of performing arts as heritage, as industry, and as public dialogue. 

Bio:  In May 2010, Nezia Azmi completed a fellowship at the East-West Center in Honolulu, Hawai’i, and a masters degree in Asian Studies at the University of Hawai’i –Manoa with a particular focus on the concept of cosmopolitanism through performance in Malaysia, Indonesia and the greater Southeast Asian region. She studied Javanese and Balinese dance while in Wesleyan University as an undergraduate (1999-2003) and while with Gamelan Dharma Swara (Balinese) in New York City (2003-2008). She is currently based in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia as an independent scholar in cultural research and has recently begun a career as an independent marketing consultant.

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Randal BAIER, Eastern Michigan University (U.S.A.)
Music in the Tourist Landscape:  The Photographic Iconography of the Sundanese Angklung Ensemble

Any landscape, whether pictorial or actual, is transformed by the presence of human beings. What would the presence of musicians imply? Does a landscape, for instance a photograph, become a space for performance by the presence of a musical ensemble? How do the assemblage of photographic documentation, tourist photographs, studio portraits, and "snapshots" convey or purposefully create this musical presence?  During the Dutch colonial period of the early 20th century, photographs of the Sundanese angklung ensemble appeared as studio post cards, touring book illustrations and exhibition catalogs. These media were used to promote Dutch and foreign tourism both outside and within the Indies, as Indonesia was known at the time. Curiously, analogous patterns of "glocalized" promotion persist in West Java today.
Angklung, so named because of its onomatopoetic sound, marks indigenous identity in the Sundanese soundscape. Typically troupes of angklung players, children as well as adults, performed during ceremonial occasions, and today as in the past, are frequently employed to entertain tourists at hotels and other destinations. Although photography itself moved from the studio into the field during the Dutch colonial period, in certain ways these photographs of musical performance remained posed and static, defying what later became Cartier-Bresson's modernist dictum of "the decisive moment."  It is my contention that a style of imagery that we might call "ensemble as tableau," in conjunction with descriptions emphasizing the simplicity and sweetness of angklung's musical sound, combined to create a kind of visual nostalgia in the tourist imaginary of the period. By analogy, these tableaux continue by the manner in which the ensemble is incorporated into contemporary Indonesian media culture. In order to convey these ideas, the presentation will incorporate field recordings of angklung ensembles in addition to photographs from major visual archives in the Netherlands.

Bio:  Randal Baier is an associate professor and media & performing arts librarian at Eastern Michigan University with interests in Indonesian music, photographic representation and the iconography of musical performance. He serves as book review editor for the journal Asian Music.

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José S. BUENCONSEJO, University of the Philippines (Philippines)
Fury in Paradise: An American musical stereotype of Zamboanga, Philippines (1937)

Since the annexation of the Philippine Islands into the American empire in 1898, Americans viewed the Moslems, a group of non-Christian tribes of "Malay stock" in Mindanao, as civilized yet aggressive.  This paper explores the manifestation of the colonialist gaze in the film "Zamboanga" (subtitled in English "Fury in Paradise"), which was co-produced in 1936-1937 by Filipinos and Americans during the Commonwealth period (1935-1941). Directed by noted Filipino mestizo actor and director Marvin Edward Gardner (screen name "Eduardo de Castro" (1907–1955) with a cast of mostly Filipino "natives" (but with an entirely American crew), the film is obviously an orientalist spectacle full of local color. The film is a multimedia version of travel writing. It employs the musical score of noted Hollywood film music composer of that period, Dr. Edward Kilenyi (1884-1968) who was an Austro-Hungarian immigrant in the USA. In the musical score, he utilized late-19th century romantic music but juxtaposed this with traditional musical sounds, some of which were not from Zamboanga itself, e.g., Hawaiian slack-key guitar and Javanese pesindhen singing accompanying a courtly dance. The film, however, also showed diegetic music of gong music by the Moslems with war dance.
I will argue that the incorporation of these non-Filipino musics into this film, the oldest surviving film produced by Filipinos, was meant to emphasize the colonialist perception of Zamboanga: the Hawaiian sound evoked the trope of "tropical paradise," the Javanese refined music depicted the Malay civilization, and Moslem aggresivity is portrayed by the indigenous war dances accompanied by gongs-in-a-row kulintangan.

Bio:  José S. Buenconsejo has been teaching ethnomusicology and historical musicology at the University of the Philippines (Diliman) College of Music since 1999, immediately after graduate studies at the University of Pennsylvania. He was granted a postdoctoral fellowship by the University of Hong Kong from 2004-2007. He has researched and published on traditional ritual song among the Agusan Manobos and has published music criticism of extant pre-WWII Filipino films. He is currently the dean of the UP College of Music.

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Julia CHIENG, Universiti Putra Malaysia (Malaysia) 
Musical Adoption: Gurkha Music in the Lebu’ Kulit Longhouses of Sungai Asap, 
 Sarawak

In the present musical life of the Lebu’ Kulit people in Sungai Asap, besides singing and playing of traditional songs/pieces and Christian hymns, there is another music adding to their common repertoire which traces back to a time almost half a century ago. In the 1960s, the Lebu’ Kulit longhouses at Long Jawe’, Sarawak, were occasionally filled with singing of Gurkha songs and dancing. There were hundreds of Gurkha soldiers from Nepal residing in this village; they were sent by the government to guard Long Jawe’ against attacks from the forces of the Communist Party of Indonesia who were fighting against the formation of Malaysia. Approximately in the year 1967, the Gurkha soldiers left the village. Nevertheless, until present, the Gurkha tunes are still sung among the Lebu’ Kulit people and played on their traditional musical instruments. Also, two of the Gurkha tunes are transformed into religious songs by inserting religious lyrics in Lebu’ Kulit language. Meanwhile, these Gurkha tunes are not distinctively differentiated as foreign music, and are frequently played with much enjoyment. Those few years of exposure to and experience with Gurkha music have particularly shaped a part of the present musical culture of the Lebu’ Kulit people in Sarawak; this music practice, on which the paper focuses on, is unfamiliar to the other larger Lebu’ Kulit communities residing in East Kalimantan, Indonesia who do not share the same historical and cultural experiences. 

Bio:  After graduating from Universiti Putra Malaysia as Bachelor of Music (Performance) in year 2005, Julia Chieng worked in Cempaka Performing Arts Company for three years as a music instructor and later as the Head of Performing Arts, Cheras Campus. At present, she is doing her master study at Universiti Putra Malaysia on the musical instruments in the present musical life of the Lebu' Kulit in Sungai Asap, Sarawak.

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Clare CHAN Suet-Ching, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjong Malim, Perak (Malaysia)
Informed Choices and Aesthetics? Reproducing Orang Asli (indigenous peoples) Music and Dance from Mass Mediated Reinvented Versions of It

The 21st century is a time of unpredictable, uncontrolled and sometimes ‘chaotic’ congealing of performing elements from infinite possibilities.  In Malaysia today, national aspirations, tourism promotions, diverse agendas of non-government organizations have created demands for indigenous (orang asli) performing traditions.  Orang Asli grassroots groups constantly adapt their performing traditions to tailor to the tourist gaze and motives of their sponsors.  In addition, national and state cultural troupes comprising multi-ethnic musicians and dancers have also constructed their own versions of Orang Asli performing traditions for the tourist gaze.  This paper examines the effects of Orang Asli music and dance reinvented by national and state cultural troupes, widely dispersed, and viewed through mass media.  How does this affect knowledge and transmission? Are these choices informed cultural aesthetics and knowledge about the community it represents? In an age where there is little control and rules to the circulation of cultural capital, knowledge of what comes to be represented as ‘Orang Asli’ continues to overlap and interweave as interest groups selectively extract and combine parts of these performances to form their own orang asli representations.  Do we perceive these acts as a degradation of knowledge and lack of critical thought in contemporary society, or do we accept it as the reality of society today, one in which Debord (2010) describes as “a social relationship between people that is mediated by images?”

Bio:  Clare Chan Suite Ching received her PhD in music in the area of ethnomusicology from the University of Hawai’i at Manoa in 2010.  She completed her MA (ethnomusicology) in 2002 and BA (music) with a minor in performing arts in 1998, both at the Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang.  Her research interest includes issues of identity, nationalism, tourism, globalization, and modernization in Chinese, Orang Asli (indigenous minorities) and Malay music in Malaysia.  She has written on the 24 Jie Ling Gu (24 Chinese Festive Drums), P. Ramlee’s music, and the impact of tourism and modernisation on the music of the indigenous Semelai and Mah Meri of Malaysia.  Clare is now the deputy Dean of Research and Postgraduate Studies in the Faculty of Music and Performing Arts of Sultan Idris Education University in Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia.  She continues to look for opportunities to work with orang asli children in the areas of music and theater, simultaneously conducting research on their music and culture.

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James D. CHOPYAK, California State University at Sacramento (U.S.A)
The  Many Versions of the Malaysian National Anthem, Negara Ku, My Country.

It has been previously established that the Malaysian National anthem is based on the Perak State anthem and that is based on the song, known and officially banned in Malaysia as Terang Bulan.  There is also a Hawaiian version of this song is called Mamula Moon and it is done by Felix Mendelssohn and his Hawaiian Serenaders somewhere in the 1940s.    The former Prime Minister of Malaysia, Dr. Mahatir Mohd. wanted a faster version of this anthem which has been referred to by Malaysian musicians as the Circus Band version of the anthem,.  Recently there was a rap version done on the World Wide Web.  This paper explores all of these origins of the song which is known today in Malaysia as Negara Ku, My Country.

Bio:  James D. Chopyak is an ethnomusicologist and Professor of Music at the California State University, Sacramento, where he has taught since 1987.  In addition to his teaching he has served on numerous University committees and has been the President of the CSU Sacramento Chapter of the California Faculty Association. He is actively involved in organizing and promoting world music events at CSUS.  In total he has spent nearly 9 years working as a music educator in Malaysia and Singapore where he performed as a French Horn player with the RTM Orchestra and in Singapore he played French Horn with the Singapore Symphony. His formal studies include Lehigh University, the University of Hawaii at Manoa and Columbia University in the City of New York. He has conducted research projects on music, mass media and Islam in Malaysia over a long period of time and has presented papers at several international conferences and published several articles as a result of this work.

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Ma. Alexandra Iñigo CHUA, University of Sto. Tomas (Philippines) 
Hispanic Villancicos in 19th Century Manila: Musings on Representation, Appropriation and Identity in Music

Villancico, a localized Iberian musico-poetic form, has been widely cultivated and subsequently transplanted amongst Christianized areas in the Philippines beginning in the 16th century. Generally, villancico refers to a genre of sacred songs that were sung in Spanish or the vernacular. Later in the course of its musical development, it became more popularly known as a Christmas carol.
The re-emergence of the anthology “Manual-Cantoral para el uso de las Religiosas de Santa Clara 
de la Ciudad Manila” published in Manila in 1871 can contribute and expand to the existing and limited knowledge of this genre. Included in this collection are nine villancicos that are representative of the various types and forms of this particular musical genus. These compositions have been subjected to a critical, textual and musical analysis, which hopes to address issues of cultural representation in addition to ruminations on musical appropriation. It is from the villancico that various Philippine traditional forms such as the daygon and pastores came about. Local composers composed in the tradition of the villancico that contributed to the growth and development of this genre in the country. As an appropriated musical form, the villancico, can therefore be viewed to problematize relations in culture, as well as, the concept of power, class, and identity amongst the colonizers and the colonized in an attempt to demonstrate the phenomenon of Hispanism in the distant East. 

Bio: Ma. Alexandra Iñigo Chua has a Bachelor of Music in Piano, magna cum laude, from the University of Santo Tomas Conservatory of Music (1991) and a Master in Music major in Musicology from the University of the Philippines College of Music (2000). She is currently a faculty member of the University of Sto. Tomas Conservatory of Music and was also the Chair of the Music Literature Department from 2002-2007 of the said institution. Her book Kirial de Baclayon ano 1826: Hispanic Sacred Music in 19th Century Bohol, Philippines, published by the Ateneo de Manila University Press,  inaugurates an important phase in the field of Philippine music scholarship. It is a pioneering study that fully utilizes combined historical and analytical musicological methods of paleography, textual criticism and music analysis.  She played a key role in organizing the Musicological Society of the Philippines which was established in 2002.

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Alex DEA, Independent Scholar (Indonesia)
The Five-Minute Bedoyo and the Sacred Wayang Kulit Cabaret: Local Cultural Circuits and Expressive Culture in Java

This paper explores the essence of several performance traditions in Java undergoing transformations due to local preferences and desires, with particular attention to the use of temporal frames and duration.  From this perspective, two performance genres – the Bedoyo and Wayang Kulit – are described as “traditional” Javanese forms of expressive culture based upon temporal frames established and anchored in histories of cultural production that have been undergoing change in contemporary Indonesia.  Both the Bedoyo, a ritual dance performance, 
and wayang kulit, the well-known shadow puppet play required long periods of time to achieve past performance standards.  Contemporary cultural presentations of these genres have greatly reduced their lengthy time frames.  However, reductions in time durations for performances -- which often contribute to the influence of international tourism and the commoditization of ritual performance in Java -- may also reflect local preferences and changes in cultural production.  While global cultural circuits and the demands of tourism are important influences to consider in these changing temporal frameworks, in fact, this cabaretization of time, content, and performativity indexes the desires of performers and producers to engage cultural circuits which are simultaneously local and other cultural expressions that have contemporary currency in Java.  Ironically, foreign tourists often desire a return of traditional temporalities in order to consume authentic ritual time and essence. Paradoxically, the bedoyo dance has been seemingly empowered by change, while the essence of wayang kulit shadow play has weakened. This paper explores the features of these effects on these persistent yet dynamic Javanese performance genres. 

Bio:  American-born Chinese Alex Dea trained in Western music, received Ph. D. in Ethnomusicology specializing in Javanese gamelan music, and studied composition with the “Bad Boys” of avant-garde minimalism La Monte Young, Terry Riley, and Robert Ashley. As ethnographer-performer in Central Java documenting the last remaining masters of classical music, dance, and theatre with over 1,000 hours of video, he had permission to record in Jogjakarta Palace, and is the only non-Javanese singer regularly in Surakarta Palace with title K.R.T Candradiningrat. He makes new works with Asia’s Didik Nini Thowok, the late Ben Suharto, Ramli Ibrahim, and others.  He intertwines old classical and new avant-garde imagined histories and futures from the lush flower-bed of harmonic overtones. He writes on dance activity both traditional and modern.

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Christine DE VERA (Miriam College)
Dissolving Barriers: The Case of Contrasting Modes of Singing at Funeral Ceremonies       Among the Bontoc People of Northern Philippines

Two communities of singers in Bontoc, Mt. Province namely, a community of contemporary singers called Tokwifi and a community of traditional singers who perform at funeral ceremonies become the backdrop in the study of Bontoc’s emerging socio-cultural transformation. Both groups sing a vocal genre called antoway, which are songs for the dead rendered during wakes for people who died at an old age. In several funeral ceremonies under study, antoway songs are performed in two different modalities. The community of traditional singers adheres to old tradition with a strict set of performance protocol while the Tokwifi represents an emerging tradition through a reconfigured structure for performance. Religious, social, and political beliefs and how they are interpreted individually or collectively as a community reflects the mode through which these beliefs are expressed. Bontoc is an integrative society where no clear lines delineate the traditional representing the past and new practices representing the present. Globalization, diaspora and the constant flow of new ideas and technology, have impacted on the cultural landscape of Bontoc as seen in the embrace of the Christian religion, the dissolution of class barriers and the rejection of certain folk beliefs. The shift however, does not mean that the traditional performance practice is entirely superseded by the new.  On the contrary, the two modes of performance by the two communities of singers underscore significant ways by which the Bontoc people respond to modernity.

Bio:  Christine de Vera earned her Masters degree in Musicology from the University of the Philippines. She has done research on the funeral rites and other festivals of Bontoc, Mountain Province, Northern Philippines. She is currently an administrator and faculty at Miriam College. 

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Rowena GUEVARA, University of the Philippines (Philippines)
Re-interpreting Tiruray Agung  Music and Dance Tradition

Globalization and economic forces have led Filipinos to migrate to countries where there are more opportunities work-wise and there is security of future generations. The official number of Filipino migrant workers has reached more than 10 million in 2010. The diaspora of Filipino musical traditions naturally followed this exodus of Filipinos. As with any exported tradition, appropriation, accommodation, acculturation and adaptation have already occurred. In this paper, the diaspora of Tiruray agung music and dance and its re-interpretation are discussed using three examples in different locations and timeline. 
The first video was taken during the National Music Festival in 1991 in the Iloilo City, Philippines; the second video was taken in the Pilipino Cultural Night at the Skyline College in California in 2007; and the third video was taken during the Fêtes Consulaires de Lyon in France in 2009. The 2nd and 3rd event used the same music. The first event was a musical performance by Tirurays. The second event was part of the Kababayan students and the community in celebrating Filipino heritage. The third event was an activity towards promoting tourism in the Philippines.  The re-interpretation of the Tiruray agung music and dance tradition and the corresponding meaning of the music were analyzed against the cultural backdrop for each the three performance events and compared with a 1966 documentation of agung music.

Bio: Rowena Cristina L. Guevara is a student in the doctoral program of the College of Music, University of the Philippines Diliman (UPD). She has taken courses in theoretical constructs, research methods, community-based music project, and language and politics. Her research interests are in computational modeling of Filipino music and connecting these models with the culture.  Dr. Guevarra is a Professor of Electrical Engineering at UPD and has 47 refereed local and international conference papers and 2 journal articles in speech, audio and image processing, and education. She finished Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering: Systems in 1997 at the University of Michigan as a DOST-ESEP scholar with the dissertation, “Modal Distribution Analysis and Sum of Sinusoids Synthesis of Piano Sounds.” Her post-doctoral studies were at the International Computer Science Institute, University of California Berkeley in 2001 as the first Banatao Fellow, and as a JSPS Fellow at Tokyo Institute of Technology in 1998.

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David HARNISH, University of San Diego (U.S.A.)
Between Traditionalism and Postmodernism: Multiple Identities of the Balinese Performing Arts Institution, Çudamani

Çudamani is a sekaa, a communal performing arts troupe, and a sanggar (arts organization) in the village of Pengosekan in south-central Bali committed to studying and teaching Balinese music and dance. The original troupe was initiated in the late 1990s; today, the organization includes at least four different groups, primarily featuring the “adult” group. As part of the study agenda, the leaders of Çudamani have actively sought out elder music and dance teachers, especially masters who have been overlooked, and provided teaching residencies for these individuals to train Çudamani members on the arts and culture of earlier decades. Beyond studying and teaching, the mission of Çudamani is to provide voluntary service (ngayah) performing at temple festivals. Between the emphasis on ngayah, the service of teaching village children and young adults, and the great respect given to the elders, Çudamani can be viewed as a strongly traditionalist organization, preserving and expanding tradition and following the true spirit of a sekaa and a sanggar.
The organization, however, also creates and stages avant-garde music and dance pieces. The director, Dewa Berata, and his brother, Dewa Alit, are well known contemporary composers with arts academy backgrounds; Dewa Berata’s wife, American Emiko Susilo, contributes both Western and pan-Asian expertise (her father is Javanese musician/dancer, Hardja Susilo; her mother is dancer and arts mover/shaker, Judy Mitoma). Thus, Çudamani is an innovative, globalizing force. The club has performed internationally several times and, on two tours, mounted “Odalan,” a staged representation of a temple festival. This production brought both acclaim and criticism. Çudamani is postmodern in the sense that it avoids totalizing forms, embraces contradictions and pluralism, and challenges high/low, local/global, and traditional/contemporary dichotomies.  This paper explores the multiple identities and indigenous (post)modernity of Çudamani and positions the organization in contemporary Bali.  
 
Bio:  David Harnish, Ph.D., is an ethnomusicologist, musician, and Chair of the Music Department at the University of San Diego as of 2011. He comes to USD from Bowling Green State University, where he taught for 17 years and served as Interim Dean and Associate Dean. He has traveled the world widely and twice served as faculty member on the Semester at Sea program. As a scholar, he has researched music in Asia, Africa, and the United States, and is particularly interested in religion, festival, hybridity, pedagogy, composition, popular culture, and politics in music. He is author of Bridges to the Ancestors: Music, Myth and Cultural Politics at an Indonesian Festival (University of Hawai’i Press, 2006), co-author/editor of Divine Inspirations: Music and Islam in Indonesia (Oxford University Press, 2011), and has published monographs, book chapters, encyclopedia entries, thirty articles in major music journals.  As a musician, he has extensively performed Indonesian gamelan, Indian music, Japanese music, Tejano conjunto music, and jass, rock, blues, bluegrass, and country musics.

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Shou-Fan HSIEH, Tainan National University of the Arts (Taiwan)
Music, Migrants and Cultural Identities: Musical Activities of Indonesian Migrants  in Taiwan and Their Diasporic Phenomena

Indonesian migrants in Taiwan conveyed their national and cultural identity within their scatters. They use collective memory and vision to maintain and restore their cultural ties with their ancestral homeland and try to construct an imagined community. They even integrate Indonesian musical genres with Taiwanese music to create new musical varieties. Consequently, music activities are not only the essence of socio-cultural systematic production, but also the important manner to innovation their shared cultural identic system in the dominant cultural environments.
This paper will describe and analyze the host environment of Taiwan that offers Indonesian migrants with novel opportunities to create their new performing styles of traditional Indonesian music and dance with Taiwanese performing elements. Here I would like to propose the cases of Indonesian dangdut music and Kuda-lumping trance dance in Taiwan. Both have become the music and dance hybridizations that allow the migrants to express specific modes of longing and belonging as Indonesian musical diaspora co-opts the dominant cultural forms of Taiwan. For understanding the diasporic phenomena of Indonesian culture in Taiwan, this paper will also illuminate the influence of unique historical, economic and political examination on Indoensian migrants in Taiwan, and how Indonesian migrants formed their cultural identity and consciousness via their musical activities.

Bio:  Shou-Fan Hsieh is currently a graduate student of Ethnomusicology program at Tainan National University of the Arts. She has conducted the College Student Research Project of the National Science Council in Taiwan. She has participated in Indonesian Gamelan Santilaras Ensemble and Indian Tabla Ensemble of the Research Center for Asia-Pacific Music and joined the performance of Gamelan ensemble for CD recording. Moreover, She has the honor to be a young scholar of Academia Sinica Workshop of Southeast Asian Area Studies. Regardless all above, She is also a research assistant of Tainan National University of the Arts and consequently processed the fieldwork in Indonesia about Sufism Healing and Religious Chant in Java for two months. Her research interests include musical diaspora of Indonesian migrants in Taiwan, Indonesian-Hakkanese musical development and their musical cultural identity.

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Gisa JÄHNICHEN, Universiti Putra Malaysia (Malaysia) 
One Song - Two Stories

In the year 2010, the North Vietnamese genre ca tru was inscribed into the urgent safeguarding list of UNESCO. Among the repertoire, is one piece, called hat giai – hat ru, that has its roots in vocal traditions of farmers and fishermen in the Red River Delta. The transformation of the song into a part of the ca tru repertoire, a highly sophisticated genre that reached the court as well as early urban settlements, took place probably in the 16th century.  In the year 2011, a local temple festival repertoire, called hat xoan, is subject for another application addressed to UNESCO. Again, the named song is a prominent part within the hat xoan repertoire. While ca tru repertoire survived among intellectuals in larger communities, hat xoan was nearly completely forgotten. To revive parts of the repertoire in order to fulfill the requirements for the application, local amateur researchers were searching for music recordings, transcriptions of texts and dances in several institutions. 
Finally, the one song, on which the paper is focused, was partially recreated from sources of the ca tru repertoire. Interestingly, the participating villagers are not able to recall the very special musical modus of the piece. Therefore, they translate the melodic outline in a diatonic type that seems to be far more familiar to them. Despite the musical structure, text, context and meaning of the song, it represents a far different “story”. The paper will examine both cases and analyze questions related to the representation of local history, the role of preservation and the essence of cultural continuity.

Bio:  Prof. Dr. Gisa Jähnichen, born in Halle (Saale), Germany, currently working on musicology, anthropology, and audiovisual archiving, was doing research over more than 25 years in South East Asia. She obtained her Magister (Bachelor & Master) in Musicology and Regional Studies on South East Asia from Charles University Prague (Czech Republic), Ph.D. in Musicology / Ethnomusicology from Humboldt University Berlin (Germany); University lecturer thesis (Habilitation) in Comparative Musicology from University Vienna (Austria). Extensive field researches lead her to Southeast Asia, East Africa, Southwest and Southeast Europe. In cooperation with the Berlin Phonogrammm-Archiv, she built up the Media Section of the National Library in Laos. Before coming to Universiti Putra Malaysia, she was teaching at various universities in Europe and Asia. She is chair of the ICTM Study Group on “Folk Musical Instruments” and member of various other international organisations.

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Li JIA, University of the Philippines (Philippines)  
Genre Formation of Pinoy Pop Music: Perception Discrepancy and National Identity

As a historically colonized archipelago, Philippines has been at the front in transplanting Western cultures and musics from a much opener stance than other ASEAN countries. Filipino rock stars like Bobby Gonzales(1942-2002), Eddie Mesa(1941-), etc., became popular shortly after the rising of star hood of Elvis Presley’s in 1950s. However, this process of music cultural transplantation has intrinsically mingled with the revival  of national identity . This mixture churned out such genres as “pinoy rock”, “pinoy reggae”, “pinoy hip hop”, and so on. 
 This paper relies on both historical and ethnographical data, to  try to understand how the ideological contextualization(installation  of national identity)   of music as culture contributes to genre formation and its transformation. Furthermore, it tries to evaluate whether  there are discrepancies in the perceptions of    pop music genres in the Philippines among the stake holders (mass media, the audience, the musicians and academicians).  Towards the end, this paper seeks to come up with recommendations on how to  bridge the gap of perceptions in pop music genres among the stake holders, thus reaching a maximum level of ideological unanimity within the society . 

Bio:  Dr.  Li Jia graduated his LLB, major in sociology (with academic honor) from University of  Shanghai in the year 2000. While  serving as marketing director for the largest music products distributor  in east Asia, Tom Lee music Hong Kong , he received  his masters degree and doctorate from Shanghai Conservatory of music and Saint Louis University in the year 2005 and 2011, respectively. Dr.Li Jia has a profound industrial experience in information technology area, especially in IT security issues and online marketing. Currently, he is finishing his second doctorate in music at University of the Philippines at Diliman under the tutelage of Dean Jose Buenconsejo.

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PHANG Kong-Chien, Universiti Putri Malaysia (Malaysia)
Pesta Muzik Klang: Musical Expression of Malaysian Chineseness

The Klang Music Festival (Pesta Muzik Klang) is a local cultural festival with a 38-year old tradition organized in the Port Klang area in Malaysia. Its existence has been intricately entangled in the local community and its yearly organization seems to be enthusiastically received by various parts of the population in the region. Albeit totally unsupported by government funding, its sustainability of yearly performance nearly cumulated to four decades seems simulating. Founded and well known to be a cultural event in promoting “art” music, the festival, however, is facing challenges of the diverse tastes developed in course of musical globalization and commoditization. As a tradition, this festival must be unfailingly commenced with a “symbolic” Chinese theme song, which has been composed more than 40 years ago by one of the musical founders of the event. Bearing urgent issues of musical diversities and artistic flexibility in mind, questions of musical identification and musical convention have to be discussed. As such, this paper aims to discover certain ontological issues of this festival and traces the event’s historical formation. Concerns of how collective communal identity is actualized through musical and cultural performance will be addressed and analyzed in detail. 
 
Bio:  Phang Kong Chien, tenor, holding music degrees from Rutgers University and New Jersey City University, maintains a busy schedule in teaching, performing and research. Currently attached to the Faculty of Music, UiTM, Phang is working on his Ph.D. at the Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putri Malaysia.

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Schu-chi LEE, Taipei National University of the Arts (Taiwan)
Searching through Musical Instruments for the Trace of Taiwanese Indigenous Peoples and the Austronesian-speaking Peoples

There are two views which hold important differences regarding the relationship of the Taiwanese indigenous peoples to the Austronesian peoples. According to research done in the past by linguists, archaeologists, and geologists, it was believed that the Austronesian-speaking peoples passed through Taiwan while migrating to Oceania. However, a more current view (homeland) holds that the main island of Taiwan is the home and place of origin of the Austronesian languages. Regardless of either one of the theories being able to withstand the test of time, neither is taken from the view of a musicologist. There were of course research done by western theorists which discuss the possibility of the distribution of musical instruments to different areas, but what is known from the research is still only a small piece of the puzzle. Often times the research indicates isolated cases or cases pertaining to a certain area. These separate cases can gradually be pieced together to form a unified concept about the Austronesian music culture. They can also help trace changes that have occurred within the culture.
It should be a worthwhile effort to search for the trace of the Austronesian-speaking peoples through the musical culture point of view, putting time on the vertical axis and objects, historical events, or places on the horizontal axis like passing through a time tunnel. Furthermore, it is an important task to verify through the point of view of ethnomusicology the lead in origin and closeness in musical relationship between the Taiwanese indigenous peoples and the Austronesian-speaking peoples.  Even though musical culture plays an important role in the lives of the Taiwanese indigenous peoples and the Austronesian-speaking peoples, information in the discussion of their music culture is not widely available as the cultures rely on oral tradition. Drawing from information gathered and fieldwork observations, this essay will seek to obtain understanding of the musical relationship between the Taiwanese indigenous peoples and western Austronesian-speaking peoples through the musical instruments presented in their cultures. 

Bio:  Dr. Schu-Chi Lee is an Assistant Professor of Traditional Music at the Taipei National University of the Arts in Taiwan.  She was research fellow at the International Institute for Traditional Music in Berlin (1988-89) and later was affiliated with the Asian Institute for Liturgy and Music (1996-99).  Her research interests include Taiwanese Taoist Music, Religious Music, Music of the Austronesians, Music of Taiwan, Music of the Philippines, and Music of the Chinese Minorities. Since 2008 until the present, she works with the Research Program of Taiwan Traditional Music, Yearbook on Taiwanese Religious Music. Dr. Lee finished her doctoral studies at Free University Berlin.

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Elizabeth MCLEAN MACY, Chapman University & University of California at Los Angeles (U.S.A.) 
Balinese Music and Cultural Tourism: Struggling into the 21st Century

The 2002 and 2005 Bali bombings shocked the island’s inhabitants and visitors alike – clashing with the prevailing view of the island as a peaceful haven from the turmoil of the Western world. Formerly viewed as the “Island of the Gods,” Bali quickly transitioned into a contested ground for terrorism. Here, the island’s reliance on cultural tourism has faced a difficult recovery in light of what has been termed Bali’s “Twin Towers.” Today, the island of Bali faces a new obstacle – the impending threat of too much: tourism, traffic, and development.
This paper addresses what anthropologist Michel Picard has termed the “touristification” of a society—the blurring of boundaries between indigenous culture and touristic performances, between that which belongs to a given culture, and that which pertains to tourism—in areas reliant upon cultural tourism (particularly music tourism) to sustain the economy. Specifically, I address the commodification of culture in Bali, from its historical roots to the present day obstacles music and cultural tourism face. Tourism in Bali serves simultaneously as a means of essentializing Balinese culture (standardizing performance and experiences) and of widening the scope of Balinese performance. Here, cultural tourism shapes Balinese identity. With cultural tourism and music tourism intricately aligned with the production and replication of images of the “authentic,” musical experiences in Bali impact tourists and locals alike. I address the role of music and cultural tourism today as Bali faces the difficult task of navigating increasing problems related to over-development and rapid increase in tourist activity.

Bio: Elizabeth McLean Macy holds her Ph.D. in Ethnomusicology from University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). Her work examines the function of music tourism in post-disaster economies; in particular, it focuses on the function of music tourism in the recovery and rebuilding of post-Katrina New Orleans and in Bali after the 2002 and 2005 terrorist bombings. Her research has resulted in several conference papers and invited lectures. She has previously taught at Colorado College in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Currently, she resides in Los Angeles teaching classes at UCLA and Chapman University.

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Andrew C. MCGRAW, University of Richmond (U.S.A.)
The Ethical-Aesthetics of I Wayan Sadra (1953-2011)

In this paper I outline the ethical-aesthetic philosophy of the Balinese composer I Wayan Sadra. Social transformations in the reformasi encouraged Sadra towards a populist mode as compared to his more ‘avant-garde’ works of the 1980s-1990s. Despite this aesthetic evolution, Sadra was consistently concerned with a critique of totalitarianism and class oppression. The experiments through which these ideas were expressed evolved into a philosophy of freeing sound itself from the perceived boundaries of culture and class. During the reformasi Sadra articulated two principle concepts of composition: transmedium, by which he meant a form of transformative intercultural musical transference, and musik dialektis in which he reimagined the relationship between the composer, art and society. I argue that while the artistic manifestations of his concepts appeared highly variable and sometimes contradictory—intersecting boundaries of ‘conceptual art,’ ‘modernist composition,’ ‘jazz’ and ‘pop’—Sadra’s oeuvre embodies a consistent effort to dissolve the perceived antithesis between several interlocking conceptual binaries: individual and communal, modern and traditional, serious and popular. 
These apparent binaries emerge from a flawed conceptual essentialism that suggests neat boundaries between the ethical regimes of autonomy (Western, atomistic, individualistic, consumerist, neoliberal) and community (Eastern, communal, familial, socialist). Western ethnographers have tended to figure Indonesians and especially the Balinese (when in their natural, ‘traditional’ state) as narrowly embodying an ethics of community. By contrast, the West—and especially America—is imagined to embody an ethics of autonomy. Sadra’s praxis demonstrates that ethical regimes and deontological modes interpenetrate to co-constitute the subject. Actors live in the constant dynamic tension between duties and obligations to both the individual and the collective.

Bio:  Andrew Clay McGraw is an assistant professor of music at the University of Richmond, Virginia. His research focuses on contemporary music in Southeast Asia, primarily in Indonesia where his fieldwork has been supported by grants from Fulbright Hays, Arts International, the Mid-Atlantic Arts Council, VFIC and the University of Richmond. He has published articles in Asian Music, the Yearbook for Traditional Music, Asian Cinema, Ethnomusicology, and Indonesia and the Malay World. As a performer and composer he has collaborated with several of Indonesia’s leading artists.

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Rebekah E. MOORE, Indiana University 
A City Cacophonous: Traversing Denpasar, Bali’s Disparate Soundworlds

Zoomed out to a panorama of Denpasar, Bali, I am struck by the city’s cacophony: The streets are invaded by organized sound, and everything is amplified. The azan (call to prayer), distorted and crackling, emits from the loudspeaker of a masjid (mosque). A Hindu cremation processional, accompanied by the gamelan beleganjur, passes down the street, overwhelming public space and bringing traffic to a grinding halt. Indonesian dangdut and pop songs emanate from a local kafe, where men purchase libations (and company) from attractive young women. And in front of a neighborhood distro (music store), voices and instruments unite in the guttural roar of a death metal anthem during an album release party, as young fans head-bang, mosh, and spill over the street curb, congesting traffic even further. In the city, residents of varying ethnic and linguistic backgrounds, religions, occupations, and musical tastes are coerced into living in close proximity by the prospect of employment. Here, urban migration dramatically impacts local music making, compelling disparate soundworlds to share a near-gridlocked geographic space. The expansion of musical diversity seems to eclipse the increasing (and underestimated) demographic diversity in Bali. This presentation examines the musical versatility of Denpasar as a case study for processes of cultural adaptation on city streets: rapidly changing musics are a means to handle a rapidly changing world—the result of an influx of domestic and foreign visitors (through migrant labor and tourism), on the one hand, and products and media (through capitalism and globalization) on the other.

Bio: Rebekah E. Moore is a doctoral candidate in ethnomusicology at Indiana University. Her dissertation is titled “Indie Music in post-bomb Bali: Participant Practices, Scene Subjectivities.” Rebekah received her B.A. in music from the University of North Carolina, Greensboro and M.A. in ethnomusicology from the University of Maryland. Other research interests include indigenous land rights movements and popular music, music and social justice, and Internet practices and independent recording industries. Rebekah continues to live in Bali while completing her dissertation, working in the public sector as Director of Music for The BaliSpirit Festival and Managing Editor for the webzine Akarumput (Grassroots).

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Mi Hyun OH, University of the Philippines (Philippines)
Emotion and Representation in Kasfala Recontextualization among the Sarangani Blaan People of  Southern Mindanao, Philippines

Emotion is a process involving a special kind of affective appraisal and cognitive monitoring of certain situation (Robinson, 2005). It is an evaluation of the environment in terms of subjectivity. In this paper, I examine how emotion is represented in a recontextualized Kasfala, meaning conflict management, among the Blaan people in Sarangani Province in Southern Mindanao, Philippines. Kasfala is an important collective social activity that aims for reconciliation and settlement, fellowship, and development and unity. In Kasfala, two kinds of conversational channels are involved.  These are melēm which is sung narrative and unsay which is formal speech.
A musical investigation of melēm reveals that emotion is represented in the repetition of minor intervals and pitch segments evoking sadness, quietness, melancholy and isolation. The lament and self-compassion are characterized by general pitch fluctuation featuring a gliding pitch contour, modal structures with flexible tone arrangements, extensive use of minor intervals that continuously repeat in size and preferred pitch level.

Bio: Mi Hyun Oh obtained her Master of Music degree in Musicology at the University of the Philippines. Her research interests include Mindanao music cultures, Asian music and Cognitive Musicology. She is currently a part-time faculty at the College of Music, University of the Philippines. She is co-music director of a Korean traditional percussion ensemble based in the Philippines. 

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Pamela COSTES-ONISHI, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)
Hideaki ONISHI, National University of Singapore (Singapore)
The Institutionalization of the Philippine Kulintang Tradition: A proposal for an alternative teaching methodology that is consistent with its stylistic essence 

The Philippine Kulintang has found its way into the universities in both the Philippines and the United States since the late 1960s. The prominent styles are Maguindanaon and Maranao and their proliferation among non-native practitioners escalated in the late 1980s in the Philippines and then the late 1990s in the United States; Until well into the twenty-first century, the transmission of the kulintang tradition is facilitated both by native and non-native musicians, with the latter gaining more prominence.  
This paper discusses issues regarding the institutionalization of the Kulintang, gongs and drum ensemble from the Southern Philippines, specifically on how its current pedagogy failed to transmit its most important characteristic: improvisation. First, we examine the different methodologies currently employed by both master musicians and ethnomusicologists in teaching the kulintang to students and point out their advantages and disadvantages; and, second, we propose a possible alternative way of teaching the kulintang in institutions or elsewhere based on the practice we use and tested for our ensemble.
As part of the long process of our study on the subject of kulintang improvisations, we hope to generate a vocabulary of the kulintang from which learners can draw from effectively and to hopefully restore the lost improvisatory and creative elements of the tradition when practiced outside of the traditional context.  We believe that only in doing so will the tradition open up to new musical possibilities without completely divorcing it from its stylistic roots. 

Bio:  Pamela Costes Onishi is a Research Scientist at the National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University in Singapore. Her research interests include diaspora music cultures, youth identity and music, traditional music pedagogy in the schools, Philippine indigenous musical traditions, and the gong and drum traditions of Southeast Asia. She has published on Philippine music hybridities, kulintang improvisations, and traditional music in Philippine schools. Costes-Onishi is currently handling research projects in community arts and arts education under the UNESCO-NIE Centre for Arts Research in Education (CARE).

Bio:  Hideaki Onishi  is Assistant Professor of Music Theory at Yong Siew Toh Conservatory of Music, National University of Singapore. He conducts researches on the music of post-WWII composers including Boulez, Takemitsu, Messiaen, and Ligeti. Onishi also collaborates with ethnomusicologist Pamela Costes Onishi in interdisciplinary studies on kulintang, the gong and drum music from the Southern Philippines, and directs Sari-Sari Philippine Kulintang Ensemble since September 2009, actively performing both in and out of Singapore. 

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Celia TUCHMAN-ROSTA, University of California at Riverside (U.S.A.)
From Sacred Art Form to Commodity:  Cultural Tourism and Classical Dance in Cambodia 

From the Cambodian Cultural Village and the many dinner-dance shows in Siem Reap to performances at the national museum and exclusive professional showings in Phnom Penh, classical dance performances now appear on many tourist itineraries for Cambodia. Tourism is one of the largest industries in the country, bringing in 16% of the national GDP in 2009. Dance shows for tourists provide necessary funds for sustaining the tradition and income for artists. But what does this trend mean for the bearers of a cultural tradition deeply rooted in history and ritual, who struggle to preserve classical dance after decades of civil war and for the dance form itself? This paper uses discussions of authenticity and tourism by Edward Buner and others to analyze ethnographic data from tourist venues in Cambodia that feature classical dance performances. It explores how the tourism industry spurs economic and social development for classical dance. Through tourism, Cambodian people are able to mold global perceptions of Khmer culture, giving Cambodians a sense of history, and tourism provides funds to revive at least some cultural traditions, including performances. At the same time, dances are often shortened and performed without context by artists with a low technique level to tourists—rushed by harried tour operators —who are given 30 minutes to eat and 40 to watch the show. This paper will give insight into how sustainable tourism that fosters the spiritual importance of the dance form, supports its practitioners, and educates its viewers can be achieved.

 Bio:  Celia Tuchman-Rosta is Ph.D. Candidate in her fifth year of study in the Department of Anthropology at the University of California, Riverside. Her dissertation project, “Survival of an Art: The Revitalization on Classical Dance in Cambodia” investigates the impacts of tourism and globalization on both the creative and economic development of Classical Cambodian Dance. It also explores the importance of the art form for identity re-construction and cultural reconciliation after the civil war. She is currently in Cambodia doing ethnographic field research for the project with the support of Fulbright IIE and the Center for Khmer Studies.

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Margaret SARKISSIAN, Smith College (U.S.A.)
Full Circle: Marking five hundred years of Portuguese presence in Malacca

2011 marks the 500th anniversary of the year Afonso de Albuquerque, the Portuguese Viceroy of India, conquered the port city of Malacca. Although 1511 marked the beginning of almost 450 years of colonial domination (during which the flags of four different nations flew over the city) and might thus be viewed negatively, it is a date memorialized by the city that calls itself “Malaysia’s Historic City” and was designated a World Heritage City by UNESCO in 2008. 
In this paper, I will discuss the ways in which Malacca’s Portuguese descendants marked this potentially sensitive anniversary, focusing especially on events that occurred in the Portuguese Settlement, a small village (the only one of its kind in Malaysia) that is not only the heart of the community, but also an important tourist site, known primarily for performances of Portuguese folkloric music and dance. In particular, I will examine the planning, implementation, and aftermath of the “500 Years Celebration,” a four-day event (October 26-29) organized by the Malacca Portuguese Eurasian Association. 
Although the MPEA has staged many smaller events in the Settlement, the scale and ambition of this project was exceptional. What set it apart, however, was the way that Facebook was used to make connections with ex-community members (particularly in Perth) and – more significantly – with the wider Lusophone world. Social networking has thus enabled the Portuguese – most visibly a 12-piece string band – to return to Malacca and share the stage with Malacca’s own singers and cultural dance groups.

Bio:  Margaret Sarkissian received her PhD. in ethnomusicology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1993, and is currently Professor of Music at Smith College, Massachusetts.   She is author of  D’Albuquerque’s Children: Performing Tradition in Malaysia’s Portuguese Settlement (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000).  She has done extensive research with Portuguese-Eurasian, Strait Chinese, and Malay communities in Malacca since 1990.

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Russ SKELCHY, University of California at Riverside (U.S.A.)
“Growing the Tradition”: Discourses of Genre and Identity Among Keroncong Musicians in Yogyakarta

Much of the discourse surrounding keroncong today focuses on “preservation” and a sense of nostalgia attached to this music, which in this case has elicited an array of divergent and paradoxical streams negotiating the boundaries of keroncong as a music genre.  While some Yogyakarta bands, such as Orkes Keroncong Surya Mataram, continue to identify their music as “original” keroncong, incorporating “traditional” instrumentation (Indonesian ukuleles, flute, violin, guitar, contrabass) and playing” classic” keroncong songs (known as keroncong asli) .  Other bands, like Orkes Keroncong Roti Bakar, consciously venture beyond genre boundaries by altering keroncong’s sound and instrumentation in diverse and creative ways—adding instruments not commonly associated with keroncong (percussion, synthesizers, saxophones), adding rock and jazz licks on guitar, bossanova-inflected synths, salsa influenced percussion or simply playing current Indonesian or Western pop songs in the keroncong idiom.  Rather than suggest a strict dichotomy between the “traditional” and “new,” I will examine the syncretic practices and interconnected discourses used by musicians in order to understand how they are negotiating keroncong’s boundaries and updating its sound to appeal to younger generations of Indonesians.

Bio:  Russ Skelchy received a B.A in Behavioral Science and Law from the University of Wisconsin at Madison. He completed dual M.A. degrees in Ethnomusicology and Southeast Asian Studies at the University of California at Riverside (UCR), with a thesis titled "Between Cuk and Cak: Hybridity, Nationalism and Keroncong Music in Indonesia and Malaysia." Russ' research interests also include Southeast Asian performance traditions, inter-ethnicities, nationalism and popular music subcultures. He studied the Indonesian language extensively. In 2008, he established a keroncong ensemble at UCR, named Orkes Pantai Barat.  The ensemble has performed at several benefit shows and Indonesian festivals in Southern California and released a full-length album in 2010. Russ has also played in UCR's Javanese gamelan and Philippine rondalla ensembles. He is a recipient of several Gluck fellowships where he visited local schools to teach students about music and shadow puppet theater of Malaysia and Indonesia. Prior to his graduate studies, Russ worked for three years as a special education teacher at a school for autistic and emotionally challenged children in Richmond, California, where he established curriculum linking music and non-verbal communication. Russ was also active in San Francisco Bay Area underground rock scenes, both as a promoter and performer with various experimental/rock bands.

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Arwin TAN, University of the Philippines (Philippines)
An Inquiry on the Status of a Philippine Town Maestro:  The Case of Don Lorenzo Ilustre of Ibaan, Batangas

As a respected town maestro of Ibaan, Batangas, Don Lorenzo Ilustre was regarded as a leading figure in shaping a new cultural identity of his community. Having served as a bandmaster in one of the seven Spanish Regiments during the last decade of Spanish colonial rule, his musicianship was unquestionably recognized. Upon his retirement, he assumed the role of a private band and orchestral conductor, a music teacher, and a composer. His musical creations and activities were acknowledged as contributory to the formation of their town’s evolving culture, particularly his involvement with the newly established Iglesia Filipiniana Independiente (IFI) as its resident composer. The new church was an attempt of the revolutionary Filipinos to assert their independence from Western bondage, and Batangas was one of its major strongholds.
From his accomplished and highly-esteemed role as a bandmaster, Don Lorenzo Ilustre’s leadership in his community transformed from a purely musical one into another that was political and economic in nature. He contributed to the growing community of the IFI as its resident composer, but established a lucrative merchandising business in the heart of the capital city of the province, Batangas. He was then the conductor of the Rizal Orchestra, Banda Ibaan, and the all-female rondalla group, based in Ibaan. This paper attempts to look into the nature and role of a Filipino town maestro. In particular, this paper explores the following questions: Was Ilustre’s musical training in and involvement with the highly discriminating Spanish Regimentary Band influential to his assumption of the esteemed role of a town maestro? From having possessed this prestigious cultural capital, that is the status of being a town maestro, this paper will also examine how the substitutability of Ilustre’s role as a musical leader shifted into one that assumed a political and economic function. In the process, the community’s response on the acceptability of his contributions, his musical output and activities will also be investigated. Was his assistance in the marginalized Iglesia Filipiniana Independiente vital in the formation of the local community’s perception and assertion of a new Filipino identity?

Bio: Arwin Tan is an internationally known choral conductor of Novo Concertante Manila, having trained and sang with the Philippine Madrigal Singers. A master's degree holder in musicology from the UP College of Music, Arwin is currently Assistant Professor in historical musicology at UP College of Music. He is also a lecturer in Asian Institute for Liturgy and Music and in Ateneo de Manila University.

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Theme II: Southeast Asian Bodies, Music, Dance and Other Movement Arts
Movement arts and the Southeast Asian body & Movement arts, music, ritual and theatre

Cynthia AFABLE, Philippine Women’s University & University of Santo Tomas  (Philippines)
The Tagalog Paawitan Today in the Province of Quezon, Philippines

Páawitan which comes from the root word áwit, meaning song, is a Tagalog event marked by the confluence of drinking of local vodka (lámbanog), the singing of poetic songs (áwit)  accompanied by the guitar, and dancing.  It highlights various occasions such as weddings, baptisms and birthdays.  My research on paawitan was undertaken among the Tayabasin of Quezon Province where the tradition continues as a lively interaction among mostly senior citizens who get together to sing and drink from a common glass called tagay. In these drinking and singing sessions, various meanings can be culled from their exchanges of repartees and sallies in dodecasyllabic lines in quatrains.  The aim of this paper is to present the Tagalog paawitan as practiced today in the villages of Ibabang Palale and Gibanga.      

Bio:  Cynthia C. Afable is a doctoral student in Ethnomusicology at the Philippine Women’s University.  She is a faculty member at the Conservatory of Music of the University of Santo Tomas teaching Music Theory, Solfeggio, Musical Acoustics, College Algebra and Business Mathematics.  Currently, she continues her research on Tagalog culture, particularly in her home province of Quezon.

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Sarah Anaïs ANDRIEU, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (France) 
Creative Processes, Perception and their Redefinition in Contemporary Traditional Performance: The example of Sundanese wayang golek (West Java, Indonesia)

This paper suggests that creative processes constitutive of a performance can only be understood as social processes, embedded in the life of the community. We will show that for Sundanese wayang golek (rod puppet theatre from West Java), creative processes (including spontaneity, intermediation, the use of formulaic possibilities and techniques as frames and materials for combination) are more than aesthetics processes. These involve not only performers, but also the audience who interact in an intersubjective and multisensorial encounter, that actually defines the performance itself as a whole. 
Indeed, the performance is considered as a complete event that fulfils senses and understanding in a deep way. The reason why wayang golek is very popular might find its roots in the duration and the extraordinary social life that is created within a performance. This intersubjective sharing involves a specific kind of perception.  However, this social and holistic understanding of creative performance is challenging national and international delimitations of the practice, as soon as it becomes subject to many ‘investments’. For Sundanese wayang golek, this particularly challenges the categories (or values) of ‘culture’, ‘arts’, ‘tradition’ and ‘heritage’ that have become basis for national and/or international politics (such as cultural politics of the Indonesian government or ‘Intangible Heritage’ programs of the Unesco). The paper will finally show how these globalized knowledge and values can indeed transform deeply the intersubjective relation of performers and audience as well as the performance itself, while redefining aesthetic tastes, functions and understanding of the practice.

Bio:  Sarah Anaïs Andrieu teaches anthropology of intangible cultural heritage at Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS, Paris, France), where she obtained her PhD in Social Anthropology and Ethnology in 2010. She has performed extensive fieldwork in Sundanese performing arts in Indonesia (2005, 2006-2009, 2010, 2011). Her research has been communicated in various conferences in France, Australia, South Corea, the United States and Indonesia. Her research focus is on Indonesian performances (especially Sundanese wayang golek) and on heritagization processes of performing arts, articulating multiple actors, such as international organisations (Unesco), national government and local practitioners.

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Bernard ELLORIN, University of Hawai’i at Manoa (U.S.A.)
Samahan versus Pasacat: Hybridity and Mimesis of Philippine Folk Dance and Music in San Diego, California 

Performing Philippine folk dance and music on professional stage venues throughout the United States of America provides a liminal space for young Filipino Americans to express appreciation for their culture. This form of performativity instills a sense of cultural pride within this transcultural minority group. Two rival companies – the Samahan Filipino American Performing Arts and Education Center and the Pasacat Philippine Performing Arts Company – have served as resources on Philippine dance and music for the Filipino American community for more than 40 years in San Diego, California. Both Samahan and Pasacat have a mixed performance repertoire of pieces inspired by cultural practices found amongst indigenous native practitioners from the Northern and Southern Philippines and hegemonic Manila based folk dance groups. In this paper, I posit that Samahan and Pasacat have established their own unique style of Philippine folk dance and music by perpetuating one of the three categories of performance pieces: 1) the fusion of traditional musical pieces with stylized dance choreography 2) the habitual practice of staged folk dance and music pieces; and 3) the recreation of “national folk dances” that reflect the uniqueness of their respective performing arts company. From my perspective as a folk dance musician, I also argue that Samahan and Pasacat train American citizens in Filipino bodies in the performance of an idealized form of Philippine culture through dance and music. 

Bio:  Bernard Ellorin is a doctoral student in ethnomusicology at the University of Hawaii at Manoa.  His dissertation research is on the musical practices of the Bajau Laut in Sabah, Malaysia, and Luzon, Philippines. Ellorin completed his Master’s thesis in 2008 entitled Variants of Kulintangan music as a Major influence on the Regional Identity of the Sama in Tawitawi, Philippines. On that same year, he co-founded the Mahalohalo Ensemble with multi-disciplinary artists Wayland Quintero, Desiree Seguritan and Usopay Cadar in an effort to promote awareness on gong-chime music of the southern Philippines and related Malay gong cultures.  Since the age of 10, he has been a folk dance musician and kulintang performer with the Samahan Filipino American Performing Arts and Education Center.  More importantly, Ellorin is a committed ethnomusicologist to the field of Philippine music. 

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Patricia HARDWICK,  Independent Scholar (U.S.A.)
A King, A Palace, A Country: Exploring The Conceptualization of the Body in Mak Yong Healing Performances in Rural Kelantan, Malaysia

Mak Yong is a Malay dramatic art that requires its practitioners to be storytellers, actors, singers, dancers, musicians, and often healers.  An official ban on Mak Yong has been enforced in the Malaysian state of Kelantan since 1991 by Parti Islam Se-Malaysia or PAS, the Islamic party that controls the state government.  PAS officials argue that Mak Yong has its origin in pre-Islamic belief, encourages the worship of entities besides Allah, and objectifies women.  
The longstanding PAS ban on Mak Yong has altered but not obliterated Kelantanese Mak Yong performance. Although no longer allowed to perform Mak Yong for entertainment, Kelantanese performers continue to incorporate Mak Yong into the elastic performance genre of Main Puteri to treat spiritual and social diseases unresponsive to cosmopolitan western medicine.
This paper will examine how Mak Yong/ Main Puteri practitioners understand the body and engage traditional Kelantanese concepts of personhood when performing in a healing context. Physically, the body is understood by Mak Yong practitioners to be created from earth, water, fire and wind.  A disruption of the careful balance of these elements can create a disturbance that can result in disease or mental illness.   Metaphysically, each individual is viewed as a divine universe, a political state, ruled by Dewa Muda, the personification of infantile desire, driven by their personal internal winds to follow their passions. This paper will also investigate how the physical and metaphysical selves of a patient are united during a Mak Yong performance through the use of metaphor.

Bio:  Patricia Hardwick received her Ph.D. in the fields of Folklore and Anthropology from Indiana University in 2009. Patricia has done extensive field research on the use of dance and costume by performers to construct and negotiate complex ethnic and historical identities in California, Singapore, and Malaysia.  Her current research focuses on the incorporation of the Kelantanese Malay art of Mak Yong into ritual healing performances in rural Kelantan, Malaysia.

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HANAFI Hussin, University of Malaya
MCM Santamaria, University of the Philippines
Igal Campur: Interrogating Hybridity in Sama Dilaut Dance

Igal campur is ‘mixed dance’ among the Sama or Sinama-speaking peoples of maritime Southeast Asia.  This paper examines hybridity in the Sama Dilaut traditional dance genre called igal.  It presents a particular scholarly understanding of hybridity in the igal genre that emphasizes an empirical interrogation of “formal attributes” that are in turn largely defined by so-called “sites” and “agencies” of hybridity.  In an expanded context, hybridity is seen as a product of cultural appropriation that negotiates processes of creation between the vacillating points of continuity and change. The first part of this paper re-visits the concept of “hybridity” and examines what aspects or “forms” contained in the igal dance tradition may be “hybridized.”  The second part discusses the “sites” and “agencies” of hybridity. On one hand, two sites are of great import:  the field, spaces of performance embedded in the ritual and social affairs of organic communities of the dance genre; and the stage, spaces of performance mainly for the purpose of “showing” and/or entertainment.  On the other hand, agents or agencies are either internal or external to the organic communities of the dance tradition.  The third part presents three cases of hybridity in the igal dance tradition: “Ocho-cho”, a piece that combines igal movement vocabulary with a Filipino “novelty song” and contemporary dance movement; “Contemporary Pakiring,” a piece that combines igal movement vocabulary with contemporary Malaysian orchestral music and modern ballet movement; and, “Paean to Rizal,” a piece that combines igal movement vocabulary with classical vocal music and poetic recitation. Finally, part four concludes with an attempt at model building and a discussion of hybridity as a product of cultural appropriation.

Bio: Hanafi Hussin is an Associate Professor and Head of the Unit for Maritime Culture and Geopolitics in the Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences, University of Malaya.  He was formerly Head of the Department of Southeast Asian Studies in the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences.  He did research on rice, ritual and identity among the Kadazan of Penampang, Sabah for his PhD and has conducted fieldwork in many countries in Southeast Asia including the Philippines, Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia and Brunei, as well as other parts of Malaysia.  He is currently completing his research on the Bajau of Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia.

Bio: MCM Santamaria is a Professor of Asian and Philippine Studies at the Asian Center, University of the Philippines.  He also teaches at the Japanese Studies Program of the Ateneo de Manila University.  He is currently artistic director of BuUnga Dance Link, a group specializing in Southern dances.  He regularly choreographs for Philippine theater productions and writes on the arts for the Philippine Business Mirror.

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Phakamas JIRAJARUPAT, University of London (U.K.)
Lakhon Phanthang: A Cultural Product of Urban-Bangkok in the Nineteenth Century 

Lakhon Phanthang or “Dance-drama of a thousand ways,” is a Thai theatre genre which represents a flexible style of performance and theatre. This performance emerged in the mid-nineteenth century outside the Thai royal court and has been categorized as both a “new form of Lakhon” and as a “hybrid dance theatre” in response to modernisation within the social revolution period in Siam (the official name for Thailand for the period 1851-1939) (Rutnin 12; Damrhung, “From Phar Lor” 112; Montrisart 115). This article will examine the social and cultural circumstances surrounding urban-modernisation in Bangkok, which generated an emergent form of theatrical culture during the mid-nineteenth century. I propose that Lakhon Phanthang is one way to explore and represent the diversity of multiethnic culture in Thai society. This art form is not a product of an individual genius but is a cultural product of its time. Lakhon Phanthang also embodies an inter-Asian cultural hybrid, which differs from other popular Asian hybrid theatrical forms such as Bangsawan in Malaysia (Malay opera), Komedie Stamboel in Indonesia (Malay opera in Java), and Ch’angguk in Korea (Korean traditional opera) (Cohen and Noszlopy 7; Killick 47). In addition, I would like to present the idea that in looking at theatre, we can understand the desire of Thai people to understand other cultures by representing them on the theatre stage, and we are also able to think about the Thai negotiation with the world as a form of Asian modernity.

Bio:  Phakamas Jirajarupat is a PhD candidate in Drama and Theatre at Royal Holloway, University of London, with research interests in tradition and modernity, the hybridity of performance, and the reinvention of tradition in post-traditional period, especially Southeast Asian theatre. She completed her Bachelor and Master’s Degrees in Dance from the Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand. Phakamas is a Thai traditional dance performer on occasion. She also has been working as a lecturer in drama and theatre at Rajabhat Suansunandha University, Bangkok, Thailand. Currently, she is working on a Ph.D. thesis about Thai traditional theatre in modernity.

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Ako MASHINO, Tokyo University of the Arts and Kunitachi College of Music (Japan)
The Body Producing the Music: Voice, Body, and Music in the Balinese musical theater, Arja

This paper will analyze the body movements of performers in Balinese arja, a form of traditional musical drama. Arja is a unique and elaborated theatrical form, in which the pragina (actors/dancers) act, dance, sing, and speak in highly intertwined ways. It is usually accompanied with a musical ensemble called geguntangan, which consists of drums, small gongs, cymbals, and vertical flutes.
I will analyze the pragina’s use of the body, focusing on two aspects. First, the body naturally produces and directly affects the voice. The body shape affects the vocal quality, while physical movements, especially of the head, produce wilet, grace notes added to the basic melodies. Furthermore, when the pragina sing and dance simultaneously, vocal and physical expression symbolically combine with and reinforce each other, so as to express the personality of each character.  Second, the pragina’s body movements are the vehicle of communication between the pragina and the geguntangan musicians, known as penabuh. The pragina make vocal and physical contact with the penabuh, especially the drummer leading the ensemble, who must always stay in close correspondence with them. Experienced penabuh can instantaneously react to pragina by interpreting the pragina’s body signals. Thus in arja, the pragina’s body movements directly and indirectly produce the music, to say nothing of visually expressing the story, scenes, and characters through physical action and dance.

Bio:  Ako Mashino received her Ph.D. in 2002 from Ochanomizu University, Japan. She has conducted field research in Bali, Indonesia for years, and has intensively studied gender wayang and arja. Her current research interests include Muslim Balinese performing arts and the body movements of gamelan players. She lectures in ethnomusicology at several universities in the Tokyo area, including the Tokyo University of the Arts and Kunitachi College of Music. She also performs and teaches Balinese gamelan in Japan.

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Paul H. MASON, Macquarie University (Australia)
Sound Movement: Self-accompanied and Musician-accompanied Movemen in West Sumatran Plate Dancing

Tari Piring, the plate dance of the Minangkabau of West Sumatra, can be practiced with or without musical accompaniment. In performance, the energetic swinging of hand-held plates can be self-accompanied by the dancers or accompanied by musicians. The relationship between sound and movement can be different in self-accompanied and musician-accompanied Tari Piring. In a performance of Tari Piring during a Hari Raya festival in Batusangkar (August 2007), the lead dancer produced a tapping noise at the termination of swings by hitting the underside of the plates with a ring placed around the middle finger. Physically, it is easiest for the lead dancer to tap the plates and synchronise the other performers during moments of stasis rather than mid-swing. In a Tari Piring performance during the festival of Hari Idul Adha in Paninjauan (December 2007), dancers were accompanied by musicians who tapped bottles with spoons to the rhythm of the plate-swings. This musician-produced sound was mimetic of the plate-tapping sound but was generated mid-swing at the point of maximum velocity in the dancer’s movement. Perceptually, sound matches movement or collision, not stillness. In self-accompanied performance of Tari Piring, the physical constraints of bodily movement influenced the timing of musical events. In the musician-accompanied performance of Tari Piring, perceptual processes influenced the timing of musical events. The differences observed between self-accompanied and musician-accompanied Tari Piring reveal how human activity can be influenced by fundamental processes of the embodied brain, and how organised cultural expression can take these processes in diverse directions. 

Bio:  Paul Mason teaches anthropology at Macquarie University, Sydney, where he has also taught choreography, contemporary dance, world music and research ethics. He has performed ethnographic fieldwork in Australian Contemporary Dance (2006), Indonesian Pencak Silat (2007-2008) and Brazilian Capoeira (2009). His research has been published in Inside Indonesia, Brolga-An Australian Journal about Dance, Research in Dance Education as well as local journals in Australia, Brazil, Indonesia and Malaysia. His research specialty is studying the relationship between brain, culture and environment in diverse communities—a field called neuroanthropology. His academic interests are in the fields of ethnomusicology, dance anthropology and choreomusicology.

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Patricia MATUSKY, Independent Researcher (U.S.A.)
Puppets, Movement and Music:  Knowing and Meaning in a Malay wayang kulit Tradition.

The shadow puppet theater (wayang kulit) is found in many parts of Southeast Asia, including Malaysia where at least two forms of Malay shadow puppet theater exist today.  One of these forms, the folk theatrical called wayang kulit Kelantan, formerly had very wide distribution in the central and north of Peninsular Malaysia, and today it is still performed in its home base of Kelantan state as well as on some university and academy campuses in the urban, west coast regions of the country.  Using story, narration, dialogue, puppet movement and music, the wayang kulit engages both the audience and the performer at various levels of perception and understanding. As a performative genre, the drama (verbal expression and enactment of the story), the theatrical conventions required for performance of shadow play, the body of the puppet (including representations of both humans and animals), the movement/gesture of the body and the music that accompanies the movement are some of the essential elements of the form. 
This paper will focus on the body of the puppet as representative of specific human character-types in the drama, as well as the movement/gesture of the puppet and the music that is inseparable from the movement.  In a discussion of these elements of the wayang kulit, this paper examines the various ways the movement of the puppet body and the concomitant music that accompanies it, as well as characteristics of the body itself informs, us about the culture and the performative circumstances in which this wayang kullit tradition exists.  How are the performers (dalang and musicians) engaged in different levels of understanding and negotiation to make a performance happen?  What does the village audience understand about the relationships of the wayang performative elements, which make the shadow play comprehensible to them?  

Bio: Patricia Matusky is Adjunct professor at Grand Valley State University (Michigan, USA).  She has taught, over the years, at the University of Malaya (Malay Studies Dept.), the Science University of Malaysia (School of Arts) and served as Senior Lecturer/Head of the Music Dept., LaSalle-SIA College of the Arts, Singapore.  Her research has focused on the music of the shadow puppet theater of Malaysia, and on the traditional music among indigenous groups in Sarawak.  She currently serves as the Chair of the ICTM Study Group on Performing Arts of Southeast Asia.

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MOHD. ANIS Md Nor, University of Malaya (Malaysia)
Zapin-Melayu in Johor: Constructing Malay-ness from the Body, Music and Dance of Hadhramaut  

This paper attempts to examine the construction of Malay-ness in the Zapin-Melayu (Malay Zapin) in Johor, the birthplace of the Malay Zapin in Peninsula Malaysia, as a distinguishing signifier, which differentiates its syncretistic derivation from the Zafin-Arab (Arab Zafin) in the way the dancing body translates movements and its relationship to the Arab-derived musical form and style. Conception of masculinity and femininity in body movements sourced from the perceived aesthetics of refine “Malay” manners and conduct are projected as performative prerequisite in the choremic constructs of the structured movement system of Zapin-Melayu. Methodically, construction of Malay-ness in the Zapin-Melayu in the way body movements, music compositions, song texts are arranged are distinctively perceived as contrastive to the manner of body movements and the Qasidah musical form of Zafin-Arab, in spite of the latter being the predecessor of the former.

Bio: Mohd Anis Md Nor is Professor of Ethnochoreology and Ethnomusicology at the Cultural Centre (School of Performing Arts), University of Malaya in Kuala Lumpur and has pioneered the study of Zapin dance and music in Southeast Asia and has published widely on the said topic. He was the 2007-2008 William Allan Neilson Distinguish Professor of Music, Dance and Theatre at Smith College, Northampton, Mass.; and is the 2011 Visiting Professor at the University of Michigan School of Music, Dance and Theatre, Center for Southeast Asian Studies and Center for World Performance Studies. 

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Lilymae F. MONTANO, University of the Philippines (Philippines)
Claiming Social Justice in a Cordillera Community in the Philippines: The Ifugao Himong Revenge Dance 

Ifugao customary law sanctions the taking of human life for another life to bring back the grace and honor of a murdered person and of the bereaved family. In this relation, a revenge ritual dance called himong is performed by male members of the community three days after death.  Each holding and sounding a wooden percussion beam, they dance along mountain trails and rice terrace dikes and then proceed to the town’s main road to signify a strong feeling of resentment. The ritual also points out whose family has the responsibility to avenge. This paper aims to present the himong revenge dance and the complexities that surround the apparent contention between Ifugao traditional practice and the more recently introduced Christian beliefs. 

Bio:  Lilymae F. Montano is an Assistant Professor at the University of the Philippines College of Music where she teaches Philippines Music, kulintang, and gamelan. She is currently enrolled in the Ethnomusicology doctoral program at the Philippine Women’s University where she is Director of “The Gongs of PWU” performing group.

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Maria Christine MUYCO, University of the Philippines (Philippines)   
Space Constitutions in Panay Bukidnon’s Music and Dance
 
Space is the temporal locus of dance and music-making among Panay Bukidnons. At the same time, it occupies a constancy in the collective imagination that defines it as a fixed place. The mental constructs used by Panay Bukidnon musicians and dancers fuse space and imagination of space through action and expressivity. The temporal aspect comes through in the flexible ways in which space is compressed or expanded in the course of dancing or playing music instruments. The audience, by becoming participants, can change its structure and role (by interjecting elements into an event) and space (by expanding the "ritual space") at will. De Certeau (1988) differentiates place from space in that the former does not have the mobility associated with space; rather, there is an implication of stability as place is ordered according to the distribution of elements in relationships of coexistence and their ‘proper’ roles:  things "should be" situated in distinct locations, or positioned beside each other, among other configurations. In Panay Bukidnon music, space is incorporated in the rhythmic rendition of specific linguistic patterns. Musicians use it in ‘breathing’ between mnemonics; in dance, however, space becomes an occupied place. But more than that, as Panay Bukidnons call this space of close proximity among them as bingkit, space transcends into an emotional or affective imaginary that connects with and integrates ethics into relationships between musicians, dancers, chanters, "audience-participants" and even those occupying transcendent realms and spaces.

Bio:  Maria Christine Muyco is currently the Chairperson of the Theory and Composition Department of the University of the Philippines. She finished her Ph.D. in Philippine Studies at the University of the Philippines, Diliman (2008), the same university that gave her a grant to take Ethnomusicology and Dance Theory courses at the University of California, Los Angeles, U.S.A. from 2006-2007. Her Ph.D. dissertation about the Philippine binanog music-dance tradition and its ideology called sibod earned her the ‘Best Dissertation’ award from University of the Philippines. Aside from her academic service, she also has active cultural participation in the growth of Schools of Living Traditions in Panay, Western Visayas. She believes that academic education and research should support cultural transmission and motivate the continuous creation of expressions, thus, nurturing and building indigenous traditions further on.

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Uwe U. PAETZOLD, Robert Schumann University of Music (Germany) 
Benjang – An Indigenous Fighting Art and its Music Coping with the Challenges to Maintain its Identity in the Eastern Suburbs of Bandung City, West Java (Indonesia). 

Though today most likely being the best known one, Pencak Silat is not the only indigenous fighting art that has grown in cultures of West Java (Indonesia). There are others, like the art of Benjang - or Seni Benjang – from the eastern suburbs of Bandung city, which is also accompanied by music. The Benjang and its music up to today can be found within a quite narrow local area of spreading only. Facing extinction because of a seizing interest from it's cultural environment during the late 1980’s - early 1990’s, it underwent considerable modifications, adjustments, and some promotion from media since about 1996. Today, it appears revitalized, and experiences new interests.
Against all likelihoods, this 'local' fighting and music art tradition in fact still copes with challenges to maintain its place on the West Javanese map of performing arts, facing the social and entertainment demands of the ever growing province capital of Bandung city, by which it's homegrounds are swallowed more and more. The art of Benjang herewith proves that a regionally limited performing art can maintain a local identity, and can survive in the neighborhood of a becoming metro city.

Bio:  Uwe U. Paetzold teaches ethnomusicology at Robert Schumann University of Music, Duesseldorf, Germany.  He further taught ethnomusicology and new media related matters in Ethno-sciences at the Universities of Cologne and Bonn.  He has done field research in West and Central Java, West Sumatra, Bali and the Netherlands. His research interests include the interrelations between sound and movement arts with a primarily motorical function, the cultures and arts related to the movement and self defense art Pencak Silat, representations of ethnic music and movement arts within the new media, and borderline projects between contemporary and ethnic performing arts.  For his publications see the BMS / German RILM Online catalogue at www.musikbibliographie,de, search words: uwe p*tzold.

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Jacqueline PUGH-KITINGAN, Universiti Malaysia Sabah (Malaysia)
Music, Movement, Sport and Identity:  The Moulilian Tagunggak of the Gana Murut of Sabah, Malaysia

The Gana Murut of the Bingkor area of the Keningau Plain today number around 500 of whom only 250 still speak the Gana language.  Overshadowed by the large Kuijau Dusun and other groups of Keningau, they are keen to reconstruct and develop aspects of their traditional culture as expressions of their ethnic identity.  The tagunggak are a set of bamboo idiophones ranging in size from around 20 cm to over 2 metres.  Each bamboo length is held by one musician and hit with a beater.  The set can include up to 50 bamboo idiophones as well as a drum and a metalophone, and the composite sound of the interlocking beating patterns produces a rich sound texture.  While tagunggak ensembles are played in most Murutic and Dusunic cultures of the interior of Sabah, the Gana developed theirs into a competitive sport in which two teams of up to 50 players each ran around and tried to encircle each other while beating their tagunggak.  This paper explores the idea of sound and movement as a basis for competition, as seen through moulilian tagunggak.  It also places this in the context of Gana attempts to reconstruct aspects of their traditional culture which have become lost over time.

Bio: Prof. Dr. Jacqueline Pugh-Kitingan is an ethnomusicologist who holds the Kadazndusun Chair at Universiti Malaysia Sabah, and is Professor in the university’s School of Social Sciences.  She is Adjunct Research Fellow in Anthropology in the School of Political and Social Inquiry, Monash University, and is the Regional Vice President for Sabah of the Borneo Research Council.  Her original field of research was the music of the Huli people of Papua New Guinea.  Married to a member of the Kadazandusun community of Tambunan, she has spent around 30 years studying the music and cultures of indigenous communities in Sabah, Malaysia.

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Felicidad A. PRUDENTE, University of the Philippines & Philippine Women’s University (Philippines)  
Inducing Trance in a Ritual of the Buaya Kalinga People of  Northern Philippines

The Buaya Kalinga people of Northern Philippines hold sacrificial rituals called anito for various purposes such as healing, rice harvest and  marriage. Such rituals are officiated by female mediums (man-anito) who render a chant called saq-uwi,  literally meaning “yawning.” The saq-uwi chant is rendered between séances and helps induce “sleep” as a spirit enters the medium’s body.  When the medium becomes possessed, the saq-uwi chant ceases and the séance begins wherein a spirit voice called alupag is heard. This paper presents the role and features of the saq-uwi chant characterized by a powerful yet controlled voice which contributes to attaining an altered state of consciousness or trance.

Bio:   Felicidad A. Prudente, Ph.D. is a Professor in Ethnomusicology at the University of the Philippines College of Music where she is on sabbatical leave. She currently supervises  music programs as Dean at the Philippine Women’s University School of Music which recently instituted its doctoral program in Ethnomusicology.  Dr. Prudente was a Visiting Professor at the University of Michigan where she taught Philippine Music and kulintang in 2004.  

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Desiree A. QUINTERO, University of Hawai’i at Manoa (U.S.A.)
Costuming as Moro: Filipino Americans as Shifters in the Re-Siting of Filipino-ness

Embedded in performance costuming are various meanings and cultural values. The varied uses and change of textiles parallels the change in function and meaning for the “costumed.” For many performers of Philippine dance “Muslim costume” has come to consist of “ethnic” textiles such as a malong (tubular cloth usually worn around the waist or over the body), a long sleeved shirt, and a headcover. At the same time, Filipino Americans habitually choose some costume items because they merely signify “Muslim dress,” assuming that it is “what Muslims wear.” In this paper I examine how and why Filipino Americans who perform Southern Philippine dance and music make certain costume choices in performances as an way of looking at the semiotics of costume (Bogatyrev 1937) that reveal underlying meanings in clothing choices and uncover a developing costuming code for performing traditional dance. Two examples of clothing codes I consider are the use of the head cover, sukub or kumbong (Maguindanao or Maranao) for women and the kopia for men, and the use of the malong (tubular skirt worn by both men and women). As Kaeppler defines aesthetic principles as cultural values (2003), I suggest that the creation of the “Muslim” costuming for “Philippine Muslim Dance” is an attempt by Filipino Americans to (re)connect to the greater Malay/ Southeast Asian world. “Costuming as moro” in Phlippine dance is an attempt by Filipino Americans to aestheticize their “Southeast Asian-ness.”

Bio:  Desiree A. Quintero is a dancer and co-founder of the Mahalohalo Ensemble, a performance group focusing on the music and dances of the Southern Philippines. She is also a student of Balinese dance, having studied with Ida Ayu Ari Candrawati and I Nyoman Sumandhi, performed with Gamelan Dharmaswara (NY) and Gamelan Segara Madu (HI), and a former board member of the Hawai’i Gamelan Society. A graduate student in the Dance Ethnology program at the University of Hawai’i, Desiree is currently on hiatus and is now based in Southeast Asia. 

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Wayland QUINTERO, University of Malaya (Malaysia)
Not Muslim Music and Dance! Filipino American Responses to ‘Muslim’ and Islamophobia 

October 26, 2011 Honolulu, Hawaii: A solo dancer performs what is promoted as kuntao silat with pangalay movements. Accompanied by Maguindanao kulintang, audience members cheer exuberantly. Reactions on Facebook included- “WOW PNOY PRIDE MY FRIEND!!!...those were some deep culture right there...How Froilan (the performer) will kick your ass!” What I wish to explore is that a dance display such as this in dialogue with an audience responsive in this manner suggests a collaborative retort to a hierarchy of a Filipino masculinity of servitude seemingly “fixed” in subjugation to a masculinity of the master derived from American power projected in the Philippines and Hawaii. Judith Butler (1995) along with R.W. Connell (1995) are helpful to this discussion in perceiving a formational local pinoy masculinity displayed on stage not segregated from other discourses but orbiting ethnicity as part of an iterative resistance-in-process to a local structure within which Euro-Americans (Haoles), Japanese and Chinese Americans maintain dominance over social, cultural, political and economic life in Hawaii (Fujikane, 2008). Within a theatre of masculinities where any one of a number of variations may seize center stage, “a bruddah who can kick ass” local pinoy masculinity invokes a virile heritage understood within a Hawaii Filipino American performative space infused with emotive power- an ongoing, transformational process and one method of resistance to forever remaining indentured to colonial and imperial histories, and local legacies.

Bio: Wayland Quintero recently embarked on Ph.D. work at the University of Malaya- Cultural Centre. Born in the Philippines and raised in Hawaii he brings twenty plus years of theatre and dance experience. In New York City he co-founded the Slant Performance Group, La Mama Theatre, choreographed, danced, and acted for Off-Off Broadway productions, and earned an M.F.A. from NYU- Tisch School of the Arts. Returning to Hawaii in 2007 he acted in “The Romance of Magno Rubio,” a play about the Filipino plantation experience, and performed with the Manoa Readers Theatre Ensemble. He is one of five core members of the Mahalohalo Ensemble- a group of artist-scholars founded in Hawaii in 2008 performing and researching dances with music of gong chime cultures with each member traversing topics such as ethnicity, hybridity, gender, and representation.

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Marina ROSEMAN, Queens University at Belfast (Ireland)
How are Bodies used in Temiar Life and Trance-Dance?

Across thirty years of ethnographic research (1981-82, 1994-95, 2000, 2011) on the performing arts of Southeast Asia’s Orang Asli or autochthonous Orang Asal of peninsular Malaysia, I have collected material on how bodies are used in relation to one another among the Temiar in trance-dancing and the dance of everyday life. I have been tracing how this orientation toward the body, space around the body, and relationship to other bodies, a sensibility as it were, is transmuted into the use of bodies in trance-dancing. In this paper, I trace how the orientation toward the body, space around the body, and relationship to other bodies in everyday life is congruent, in subtle and more explicit ways, with the ways ceremonial trance-dancers relate to their own bodies, the space around their bodies, and their relationship to other bodies.
Temiars bodily engage one another in a manner not unlike what Western cosmopolitan Modern Dance calls "contact improvisation": a leaning into and supporting, touching, surrounding one another in daily life.  During trance-dancing ceremonies, dancers sense a relationship with others around them, and always have someone around who they can 'bump into' or lean against, or otherwise sense the guarding presence of.  I investigate here ways in which physical/spiritual/communal support is demonstrated, in a range extending from the contact improv 'touch' most subtle, or the breath of song or fragrance of whisked leaves, to those clearly exhibited, such as dance gesture known as cebcaab.

Bio:  Recipient of the esteemed Guggenheim Fellowship, as well as Fellowships from the Rockefeller Foundation, National Endowment of the Humanities, National Science Foundation, Social Science Research Foundation, and Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Dr. Marina Roseman is known for her research on music and healing, cosmology and ecology with the Temiars, Orang Asli of Peninsular Malaysia.  Author of Healing Sounds of the Malaysian Rainforest: Temiar Music and Medicine (U. California, 1991), she also produced the CD Dream Songs and Healing Sounds: In the Rainforests of Malaysia (Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, 1996). Since 2004, she has been Lecturer in Ethnomusicology and Anthropology at Queen’s University Belfast.

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SUMARSAM, Wesleyan University (U.S.A.)
Islamic Perspectives on Traditional Javanese Music and Theater

The place of music and performing art in the life of Islamic community has long been debated by scholars and Muslims in Islam’s Middle Eastern homeland. As Islam spread all over the world, and Islamic music and ideologies were localized, the consideration becomes more complex and ambiguous. In the most general sense, Muslims who favor a legalistic interpretation of Islam are hostile to music and theater, while Sufi orders have a positive stance toward them. Muslims in Indonesia follow the same pattern of this polarization. Certain factions of Islam are proud that according to a belief some Javanese walis (Islamic saints) have had significant contributions to the cultivation and development of Javanese music and wayang. Other factions feel that staging traditional performing art is not in line with Islamic ideology. Focusing on music and theatrical activity in today’s pesantren (Islamic boarding schools) and in contemporary proselytizing event, this paper addresses pro and con positions among Muslims toward gamelan and wayang.

Bio:  Sumarsam is a University Professor of music at Wesleyan University in Connecticut, who directs the gamelan program and teaches Indonesian music history and theory. He holds an MA in music from Wesleyan and a Ph.D. from Cornell University. He is the author of several articles on gamelan and wayang in English and Indonesian publications. His book Gamelan: Cultural Interaction and Musical Development in Central Java was published by the University Chicago Press in 1995 (Pustaka Pelajar of Yogyakarta published its Indonesian version in 2003). His recent research topic includes Islam and Indonesian music. As a gamelan musician and a keen amateur dhalang of Javanese wayang kulit, he performs, conducts workshops, and lectures throughout the world.

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TAN Sooi Beng, Universiti Sains Malaysia (Malaysia)
Mediating Pluralism and Modernity through Comic Songs in Colonial Malaya

Since the colonial days, Malaysia has been characterized as a plural society where ethnoreligious divisions are pronounced. This paper looks at how performing artists played important roles in mediating transethnic solidarities in colonial Malaya. By promoting pluralist trends in society, they challenged dominant colonial discourses. New gramophone technology linked separate musical traditions, introduced new sounds and promoted hybrid styles. In particular, I focus on the development of a type of popular music known as lagu lucu or comic songs which were sung in bangsawan theatre and recorded on 78 RPM records in the 1930s till the 1950s.  The singers mixed colloquial Malay, English, Hindustani and Chinese dialects to comment on the common experiences and problems of all ethnic communities in a comical way. Topical issues included comments on poverty, gambling, drinking, as well as the plight of the taxi driver, trishaw man and hawkers. These songs formed a pop tradition which prevailed in the songs of P. Ramlee and R. Azmi in the 1950s.  These comic songs were popular among multiethnic audiences. The cross-linguistic colloquial medium represented a natural translation of the everyday language of both singers and audiences. Audiences could laugh at their own shortcomings. The comic songs which were sung to local and Latin American rhythms engaged multiethnic audiences in social transition and articulated a local sense of modernity. 

Bio:  Tan Sooi Beng is Professor of  Ethnomusicology at the School of Arts, Universiti Sains Malaysia. She received her BA from Cornell University (Ithaca), MA (Music) from Wesleyan University (Middletown) and Ph.D. from Monash University (Melbourne). She is the author of Bangsawan: A Social and Stylistic History of Popular Malay Opera (Oxford University Press, 1993) and co-author of Music of Malaysia: Classical, Folk and Syncretic Traditions (Ashgate Press, 2004). She has published numerous articles on  Peranakan and Chinese musical theatre and Malaysian popular music. Current research projects include Empowering Young People for Change through Community Theatre in Southeast Asia and Japan (API Fellowship, Nippon Foundation), Documenting the Multicultural Traditions of Penang through New Media (USM RU Grant), the Pre-World War II 78 RPM Recordings in Malaysia (KITLV, Leiden), and the effects of globalization on popular music in Southeast Asia. 

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TOH Lai Chee, Teacher Education Institute (Malaysia)
Transformation in the Teaching and Learning of Boria at Institute and Schools in Penang

Boria which comprises a comic sketch and a “song and dance” routine, is one of the oldest Malay theatrical forms in Penang. It is also one of the selected genres taught in the Malaysian traditional music appreciation classes at the Teacher Education Institute and schools. This paper addresses the transformation that occurs in the teaching and learning of Boria to enable the students to experience, understand and appreciate the musical and performance styles of Boria.   
This research is based on a case study conducted at the Teacher Education Institute, Penang on the teaching and learning of Boria via the theory of Multiple Intelligences. Interviews were also conducted with music teachers in schools.  Among the multi-dimensional strategies and approaches introduced were creating new songs and texts for Boria, juxtaposing Boria dance movements with traditional and western dances and creating props and Boria costumes using recycled products. The transformed Boria practices herald the birth of innovative eclectic dance movements with engaging musical accompaniment, while maintaining the essence of Boria (solo and chorus singing, set rhyming patterns and dance movements) as in the original oral tradition.  
The findings conclude that transformative pedagogical applications via creative experience enable students of diverse intelligence strengths and cultural background in the institute and schools to comprehend the musical syncretism and artistic performance of Boria, besides providing the avenue for the continuity of Boria practices in Penang. 

Bio: Toh Lai Chee is currently teaching music education and traditional music appreciation at the Teacher Education Institute in Penang, Malaysia.  She holds an MA in Ethnomusicology and a Ph.D. in Music Education from Universiti Sains Malaysia. Her research focuses on the teaching and learning of music using the Theory of Multiple Intelligences.

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Tsung-Te TSAI, Tainan National University of the Arts (Taiwan) 
Religion, Chant, and Healing: Ruqyah Medical System and Islamic Chant in Java    

There are two major medical systems in the Indonesian Islam: pesantren healing system of Sufi order and Ruqyah healing system of Islamic Salafi. The term Ruqyah in Islam always relates medical purpose and refers to the Quran recitation for refuge, remembrance, and supplication. This healing system based on Islamic recitation is also called Ruqyah Syar’iyyah medical system. In the broad sense, the term Ruqyah sometimes also covers non-Islamic religious chants including those of Hinduism and traditional Indonesian shamanism. To the viewpoint of authentic Islam, the Ruqyah medical system that uses non-Islamic religious chants is very difficulty to be accepted. Therefore, it is also called as Ruqyah Gadungan(Ruqyah imitation)or Ruqyah Syirkiyyah (Ruqyah paganism).
Because Ruqyah is the remedy based on Islamic recitation, all the recitation contents, healing time, chanting ways, and healing methods could influence the results of healing and make different viewpoints of Islamic groups. For understanding the Ruqyah medical system as a whole and relationship between Islamic recitation and Ruqyah, this paper will base on my fieldwork in Java and the concepts of related researches to have discussion and analysis on the following perspectives: an introduction to the Ruqyah medical system, the attitude and concept of Ruqyah healing methods, the uses and functions of Islamic recitation in Ruqyah, the healing case studies of Ruqyah.

Bio: Tsung-Te Tsai completed his Ph.D. in 1998 at the University of Maryland USA, with an analysis of muqam music in Chinese Turkistan. Now he is a professor and director of the graduate program of Ethnomusicology, Tainan National University of the Arts, Taiwan, and of the Research Center for Asia-Pacific Music of the university. Dr. Tsai is also a representative of ICTM Taiwan Committee and a Deputy Chairman of Taiwan Association of Islamic Study. In the past years, he has conducted research projects in “Sufism Healing and Religious Chant in Java: A Medical Ethnomusicological Study”, “Tradition and Modernity: A Case Study of Sufi Musical Culture in Indonesia,” “The Influence of Hinduism/ Buddhism on the Cultural Development of Islamic Sufism Rituals and Music in Indonesia,” “Syncretism and Conflict of Islamic Religious Ritual in Central Java Indonesia:A Case Study of Development of Sufism Dhikir.” Having conducted field research in Indonesia, Iran, Uzbekistan, China and Taiwan, he has published three books namely “ Tradition and Modernity of Islamic Music Culture in Indonesia,” “ Music Culture of the Islamic World,” and “Music and Dance of Silk Road.”

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Christine Yun May YONG, University of Malaya (Malaysia)
Monkey Business: Interweaving Stories into Contemporary Gamelan Performance

This paper explores the idea of interweaving stories into contemporary gamelan performance, encapsulated in the staging of Monkey Business, a gamelan production conceptualized by the contemporary Malaysian gamelan ensemble Rhythm in Bronze. This production, which was staged in 2005, experimented with the idea of weaving personal stories to form new contemporary gamelan compositions, a construct that was inspired from Javanese Panji tales that were once incorporated into traditional Joget gamelan performance. This highly experimental staging marked the beginning of Rhythm in Bronze’s exploration into the realm of Gamelan Theatre, which saw the ensemble move beyond its usual concertized-style performances. This paper therefore attempts to examine how the staging of Monkey Business, while seen as a manifestation of Rhythm in Bronze’s exploration into Gamelan Theatre, also paralleled the constructs of the traditional Joget gamelan; inadvertently positioning Monkey Business as a contemporary attempt of creating gamelan performance that was rooted in its traditional past, but with contemporary possibilities that responded to its time and space. 

Bio: Christine Yun May Yong recently completed her Master of Art (Performing Arts) at the University of Malaya’s Cultural Centre. She currently works with Dr. Hanafi Hussin as a research assistant at the Department of Southeast Asian Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Malaya. 

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Theme III
New Research

Kristina BENITEZ, Philippines Women’s University (Philippines) 
Insights into Concepts of Melody and Tuning among Practitioners of Traditional  Musics in the Philippines

Concepts of melody and tuning are embedded in the musics and music-making of practitioners
of traditional music in the Cordillera of northern Philippines as well as in local communities across the southern part of the country.  Various interactions with these musicians on site and in conjunction with projects and events in Metro Manila over the past decades have provided the opportunity to accumulate information on gong tunings and related aspects thereof.  This study brings together my research into Philippine gong traditions focusing on insights into the juncture of instrumental and vocal music of the Kalinga and a perspective on the interconnections of various musical practices among the Teduray, Manobo, Maguindanaon and T’boli peoples of  Mindanao.

Bio:  Dr. Kristina Benitez is a Professor of Ethnomusicology at the Philippine Women’s University (PWU) where she is also Director of its Ethnomusicology Program.  Her doctoral dissertation on the musical innovation, transformation and the concept of binalig in the Maguindanaon kulintang and a master’s thesis on resultant melodies in the gong music of the Kalinga and Teduray reflect her ongoing interests on gong cultures.  Presently, she teaches courses in ethnomusicology, music history, music theory and composition at PWU School of Music.  

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John GARZOLI, Monash University (Australia)
Musical Consonance and Cultural Dissonance: An issue in Musical Hybridity 

Responses to the ‘problem’ of combining dissimilar tuning systems have implications which extend beyond the purely musical issues of pitch consonance and dissonance. The Western 12- tone equal tempered (TET) scale with its 100 cent semitone proportions shares no common note other than the octave with the theoretical Thai (classical) 7TET scale which has an interval of 171.4 cents. Musicians and composers who have combined these musical systems have typically retuned Thai instruments to the Western scale as a solution. Because of the important role pitch plays in signifying Thainess, alterations to the Thai tuning system are claimed to potentially compromise the identity of these altered instruments. The practice of retuning Thai instruments consequently elicits a range of responses from Thai stakeholders. This paper involves empirical analysis of pitch and interviews with musicians, instrument makers and scholars, and reveals that the practice of using the Western scale as the dominant reference remains contentious. Also contentious is the increasingly widespread use of a scale endorsed by the Fine Arts Department which is promoted as a ‘standard’ tuning and is considered by some a threat to the diversity of regional musical dialects. It also found that placing Thai Classical instruments in Western contexts potentially undermines their role as sacred icons and strips them of their important and revered status in Thai culture.  

Bio: John Garzoli is a PhD candidate in ethnomusicology at Monash University, Australia. His doctoral thesis is on musical hybridity in contemporary Thai music.  Other research interests include improvisation and creativity in musical performance, theories of stage development in the acquisition of musical ability, music education, Thai Classical music, instrumental performance in Mor Lam, and central Thai tuning.  Garzoli has spent nearly ten years working in Thailand. He has been a professional musician since completing his degree in music performance in 1991 and hold post graduate degrees in education.  He has lectured in harmony, aural training, and professional development at Monash Music School and in aural training, and research methods at Chulalongkorn University, Thailand.  He was awarded the Prime Ministers Asia Endeavour Award in 2011 which supported 12 months of field work in Thailand during which he was based at Chulalongkorn University where he holds a Visiting Research Fellowship. 

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Made Mantle HOOD, The University of Melbourne, Australia
Musical Invasives: Hybridity and the Forces of Diatonicization in Balinese Children’s Music

Gek Amanda, Dek Sri and other ‘stars’ in Bali’s post-Suharto media explosion not only proliferate through their childrens’ music videos, idealized notions of pan-Balineseness, but inadvertently reorder the intervallic structure and tonal nuance of Bali’s many and diverse tuning systems.  As with other artists in modern urban Southeast Asian soundscapes, Bali’s child stars adapt traditional folk songs to western diatonic scales.  In this music, composers write harmonic progressions for folk melodies on Yamaha keyboards that accompany songs such as the Maharani and Rick’s Records hits ‘Dadong Dauh’ and “Goak Maling Taluh’.  Keyboards also produce computer samples of diatonically tuned bronze gongs and bamboo flutes that simulate, but do not replicate, local tuning systems.
Yet despite its tonality, Balinese children’s music successfully reinforces local identity within the national music industry: songs are sung in Balinese not Indonesian; video imagery promotes island life while avoiding national rhetoric; and song texts teach local values such as respect for elders and devotion to Hinduism.  But as local as the industry may appear, it standardizes pitch reference.  For generations, pitch reference and intervallic structure have been sourced from locally tuned gamelan, individually crafted bamboo flutes, or the spontaneity of an accapella singer.  In this paper, I explore the contested sonic space between equal temperament and the diversity of micro-tonal Balinese tuning systems. Depicting diatonicization as a ‘musical invasive’, I interview musicians and record producers and analyze scales to see how local tuning systems are being marginalized in the formative genre of children’s music.

Bio: Made Mantle Hood is a Research Fellow at The University of Melbourne. He finished his doctoral dissertation (summa cum laude) at the University of Cologne in 2005 on Balinese temple music before becoming a lecturer in ethnomusicology and Indonesian Studies.  In 2010, his book, entitled Triguna: A Hindu-Balinese Philosophy for Gamelan Gong Gede Music, was published by Lit Verlag Press in Muenster.  The book incorporates ethnography, context and musical praxis of Bali’s largest gamelan orchestra of bronze gongs and percussion. He is Secretary of the International Council of Traditional Music’s Southeast Asian Performing Arts Study Group and the Program Chair of this Group’s 2012 meeting in Manila, Philippines. Recently he has presented research papers on musical diversity and the negotiation of traditions at international conferences including the Society for Ethnomusicology, the Association for Asian Studies and the Musicological Society of Australia.

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Neal MATHERNE, University of California at Riverside (U.S.A.)
Remembering Maceda: Ugnayan and National Memory in the Philippines

On January 1st, 1974, residents of many metropolitan areas of the Philippines assembled with their transistor radios to participate in Ugnayan, a musical work by ethnomusicologist and composer Jose Maceda. Ugnayan featured Filipina/o folk instruments on twenty separately recorded audio tracks, intended for broadcast on twenty radio stations. Encouraged by the news media, local bosses, and Imelda Marcos herself, ordinary citizens joined together at their designated local Ugnayan center and tuned their radios to one of many assigned stations in order to share in a unique musical experience by listening to the sounds of bamboo zithers, buzzers, whistle flutes, and other indigenous Filipino musical instruments. Jose Maceda envisioned Ugnayan as a musical experiment in technological, spatial, timbral and social interaction in the early years of the Marcos Martial Law Era.  My paper is an archival and ethnographic investigation of Ugnayan and the ways in which both composition and composer have been commemorated. By consulting primary sources at the Jose Maceda Collection (Center for Ethnomusicology), I describe the intentions and media hype that surrounded the first performance. Through interviews with participants and performers of Ugnayan, I describe a composition whose attributed meanings have changed over time. I am currently conducting research on music and national memory in the Philippines and exploring the subfield of historical ethnomusicology by borrowing theory and methodology from historical anthropology and memory studies while expanding both fields with a consideration of expressive culture. By considering how Ugnayan is remembered and re-figured in the early 21st Century, I discuss the possibility of separating Ugnayan from the context of its original performance.

Bio:  Neal Matherne is a Ph.D. student (ABD) in Music at the University of California Riverside. His scholarly interests are music and nationalism, memory studies, historical ethnomusicology, and Southeast Asian Area Studies. He is currently conducting dissertation research in Quezon City, Philippines for his forthcoming dissertation: “Naming the Artist, Composing the Philippines: Listening for the Nation in the National Artist Award.”

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Leo Eva REMPOLA, University of the Philippines (Philippines)
Metaphors of Power and Propaganda in Lucino T. Sacramento’s Ang Maharlika   and Ang Bituin Concertos for Piano and Orchestra

Lucino T Sacramento’s second and third concertos for piano and orchestra entitled Ang Maharlika (The Noble) and Ang Bituin (The Star) are two examples of the classical works that the former First Couple Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos commissioned for the purposes of propaganda within the New Society they sought to establish during the Martial Law regime in the Philippines.  
This study makes a connection between how power and propaganda are metaphorized in the programmatic ideas found within the titles, program notes, and the music of Ang Maharlika and Ang Bituin. It looks into how the New Society’s propagandist tactics of mythification and mystification of the First Couple through allusions to noble figures from an imagined past is carried out in Ang Maharlika and Ang Bituin. The important role that the concerto has played in Philippine music history and the defining principles that enabled it to serve as an ideal genre for metaphorizing power and propaganda are discussed briefly along with the manner by which culture, arts and music were employed by the Marcoses to assert power and promulgate their ideology for the New Society under Martial Law. This study also analyzes how power and propaganda are transacted in both the music and materiality of Ang Maharlika and Ang Bituin.

Bio:  Leo Eva Rempola obtained his Bachelor of Music in Piano performance from the University of the Philippines College of Music. He is currently a candidate for the Master of Music degree in Musicology in the same university. Mr. Rempola also holds a Master of Divinity degree with honours in Cross-cultural Studies from the Asian Theological Seminary. He is a full time minister and church musician of the United Church of Christ in the Philippines and has taught courses in music and liturgy in various seminaries within Metro Manila and neighboring province of Cavite. 

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Lawrence ROSS, City University of New York (U.S.A.) 
For the Sake of Religion, Race, and Nation: Articulating Malay-ness through Silat in Malaysia

Silat is a form of stylized hand-to-hand combat by adversaries, often armed, with or without musical accompaniment. In Malaysia’s multiethnic society, comprised of Malays, Chinese, Indians, and other groups, silat is perceived as a cultural heritage of the Malays, with a long history dating to pre-colonial, twelfth- through fifteenth-century Malay royal courts and linked to the earliest propagation of Islam in the region by religious teachers from Arabia and Persia. Silat provides Malays with an exclusive space to express shared religious ideology, allegiance to king and country, and to promote a collective Malay identity, one that is often expressed by its practitioners with the motto, “demi agama, bangsa, dan negara” (“for the sake of religion, race, and nation”). This study will demonstrate various ways in which silat has been a medium for articulating Malay-ness, religious identity, and political allegiances, and situate these concepts in evolving discourses that support and challenge the meaning of the term ‘Malay.’ It will examine these issues in the contexts of a weekly rural silat training session-cum-religious lecture hosted by the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), nightly gendang silat (silat drumming) sessions held in rural communities, annual scholastic silat and gendang silat competitions, and periodic appearances of private silat militias in Malaysian history. 

Bio:  Lawrence Ross received his doctorate in ethnomusicology from the Graduate Center, City University of New York. His research has focused on folk performance practices in Malay- and Thai-speaking communities on the Malayan Peninsula.

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Mayco A. SANTAELLA, University of Hawai’i (U.S.A.)
Nationalizing Kakula: The Works of Hasan Bahasyuan in Central Sulawesi

The archipelago of Indonesia consisting of over 17.000 islands is a nation-state that encompasses both varied and vibrant dominant and marginalized cultures. After the proclamation of independence in 1945 and following the national motto of “Bhinneka Tunggal Ika” (roughly “Unity in Diversity”), the government has had a continuous role in the construction of a national cultural identity. Following this national project, composers throughout the country began creating new works that included traditional instruments from their region. In Palu, Central Sulawesi, the works of the composer Hasan Bahasyuan have represented the province and instigated the legacy of the new genre of kreasi baru (new creation) in the region. This paper analyzes the use of traditional instruments in the works of Hasan Bahasyuan, and through them the manner in which Central Sulawesi becomes part of Indonesia’s national cultural identity.
In order to analyze the newer compositions, this paper will look at the traditional form of the gong-row tradition known as kakula in Palu. Understanding kakula as participatory and kakula kreasi baru as presentational this paper analyzes differences in repertoire, style, and function. Rather than conceiving the newer form as an “invented tradition” (Hobsbawm, 1983), it becomes the result of developing the traditional ensemble into the new Indonesian genre of kreasi baru. As it is also the case in South Sulawesi (Sutton, 2002), with varying circumstances and contexts, this process is still part of a Dutch colonial rule and later of Indonesian rule with a Javanese-dominated hegemonic culture.

Bio:  Mayco A. Santaella completed his BA and MA at the University of Hawai’i as a teaching assistant, East-West Center fellow, and FLAS recipient. His focus of study is the gong-row tradition of Central and North Sulawesi as part of the gong culture of the extended Nusantara region. Currently, he is conducting research in the region of Central Sulawesi as a Fulbright recipient.

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Ricardo TRIMILLOS (Panel Chair/Discussant), University of Hawai’i at Manoa (USA)

Bio:  Dr. Ricardo D. Trimillos is Professor Emeritus in Ethnomusicology and Asian Studies at the University of Hawai’i at Manoa, where he served as Chair of Asian Studies and of the Music Department and as Director of the Center for Philippine Studies.  His research concerns expressive culture of the Christian and Muslim Philippines, Native Hawaiian culture, traditional Japan, and the Asian diaspora.  His thematic interests include gender, identity, and public policy.  Dr. Trimillos is an internationally recognized resource for music in public policy, including consultant for the governments of Hong Kong, the Philippines, Malaysia, Poland, and the former Soviet Union.  He has been active in bringing minority voices to national and international platforms for cultural policy, safeguarding heritages, and decolonization of public education.  He lectures regularly at universities in Germany, the Philippines, and Malaysia.  He has designed courses on world music, American popular music, gender and the arts. He publishes in three languages and lectures regularly at universities in Germany, the Philippines, and Japan.  He has appeared internationally as performer of the Japanese koto (zither). A California-born Filipino-American, Trimillos has origins in Kalibo and Iloilo.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR CULTURE AND THE ARTS
Felipe de Leon, Jr. Chairman
Emelita Almosara, Executive Director
Marichu G. Tellano, Division Head, Plan/Policy Formulation 
   & Programming Division (PPFPD)
Bernan Corpuz, Head, Planning and Policy Office of the PPFPD
Susan C Dayao, Chief Administrative Officer
Mimi Santos, Gallery Supervisor
Ethel Buluran, Gallery Manager
Joel Templo Jr., Building Administrator
Glenn Ababat, Audio Video Technician
Miller Lopez, Audio Video Technician
Dan Guera, I.T. Technician
Ryan Malimata, Building Maintenance
Gerry Arcino, Building Maintenance
Rafael Santos, Gallery Utility

PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY
Dr. Francisco B. Benitez, President
Marilou Mirasol, Vice President for Administration
Dr. Kristina Benitez, Director for Research & Development 
    and Ethnomusicology Program Coordinator

UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES COLLEGE OF MUSIC
Dr. Jose Buenconsejo, Dean

BAYANIHAN, THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL FOLK DANCE COMPANY
Suzie Benitez, Executive Director

THE PHILIPPINE MADRIGAL SINGERS
Mark Carpio, Choirmaster

THE FIREWALKERS OF ALFONSO
Florito Hernan, Group Leader

MADUKAYAN TURAYAN ARTISTS OF TABUK CITY
Jose Pangsiw, Group Leader


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