C. Analysis

Analysis of Methods

One of the methods we are going to use to determine differences between EMS and Hadronic air shower events involves the evaluation the series of plots and graphs that were produced by CORSIKA and our own coding. We are going to use these graphs as a means of determining the differences between Hadronic and Electromagnetic air showers. Through our research we have discovered that the methods we have employed, evaluating daughter particle distances from the center, and evaluating daughter particle types produced are effective ways of determining the differences of Hadronic and Electromagnetic air showers.

In one of our graphs we are comparing the distance of daughter particles from the center of the interaction from both proton and gamma showers. We intend to determine similar qualities between similar particles in order to produce a means of particle identification.

In another one of our graphs we are comparing the daughter particle spread of both Hadronic and Electromagnetic showers. This method helped us determine the different types of daughter particles that will be produced between both Hadronic and Electromagnetic showers in one interaction.

In our plots we are comparing the images of the Hadronic and Electromagnetic showers. Some visual differences we need to analysis in the plots are high amounts of energy or low amounts of energy, if the energy is more compressed or more spread out, and weather or not the interaction produces daughter particles or not.

If the air shower is produce by particles that have a mass and a charge then visually the plot will reveal high amounts of energy, the energy will be more compressed, and there will daughter particles like muons present. If the air shower is produced by particles without a mass and a charge then there will be lower amounts of energy, the energy will be more spread out, and there will be no daughter particles.

CORSIKA Simulation

The computational model we are implementing in our project is written in the FORTRAN and C programming languages and is known as CORSIKA version 6900. CORSIKA is a Monte Carlo program, meaning it sets random values for simulation, hence it looks at a wide array of simulations and interactions at different energies and altitudes. Because of such we find that CORSIKA is non-limiting and useful for a wide variety of terms. Besides imaging gamma and proton showers, which are the focus of our project, CORSIKA also simulates air showers created by other subatomic particles, nuclei of certain elements, and photons.

Physical Model

Our physical model is based on a wire array detector known as a Geiger Muller detector and consists of several arrays of thin wire, approximately 250 micrometers in diameter, which is laid out and charged with high voltage. These detectors are assembled in an array and are designed to have several layers of wire arrays. The physical properties of these detectors allow particles with a charge to be counted because when these particles encounter the array they interact with the voltage carried through the sense wires and change the overall voltage running through the system, which initiates our counter to consider this small change as a particle interaction. We must allow for arrays to be layered in order to effectively determine a particle’s origin. The reason for such lies in the fact that background radiation interacts with the detector and can cause changes in voltage within one array although if data from layered arrays is considered we can consider background radiation ruled out. Such phenomenon exists because we find that background radiation has a low implicit velocity and charge, therefore it should cause a change in only one array although we find that particles resulting from cosmic rays and their daughter particles hold an inherit high charge and velocity and should likewise pass through multiple detectors easily. With the combination of a semi large array of particles we should be able to determine the pattern produced by several real air showers and compare them to data found through our simulations in CORSIKA and our original coding to determine the parent particle which initiated the shower.

At this point we have not been able to run our detector due to problems associated with the particle counter and power supply. This side project is still in progress and we intend to complete and run it in order to possibly compare data collected from this with our own coding and the CORSIKA models.