Meijendel

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Meijendel
The history of the dune Meijendel Berkheide and shows how humans over time in different ways has made use of the dunes. In the Middle Ages were the dunes largely owned by the nobility. The inner was used for hunting, so the vegetation could develop here virtually undisturbed. The present forests were used as a scrub. In the central parts of the dunes were a lot of sprays, partly caused by the use of the dunes as pasture for livestock. In order to limit this spray was Helm (Ammophila arenaria) planted. The coast in this part of our country is highly vulnerable to erosion and a series of storms resulted in large areas of dunes along with parts of the villages of Katwijk and Scheveningen in the sea disappeared. In the 17th century the dunes used as a breeding place for rabbits. In the 18th century, parts of the dunes that are fit under cultivation, arable and forest plantations. In 1874 (in Meijendel) started dune water extraction, which is an important mark on the field would fall. Like other continental dunes of Holland was the dune strip above Hague rich in wet dune valleys. Are the famous stories that in severe winters could skate through the dunes of the Hook of Holland to Den Helder (no doubt with many Kluning). The abstraction of drinking water (by digging called jumps) resulted in a considerable drying that as more water was extracted (through different drinking) is becoming increasingly clear assumed. In the second half of the 20th century, when the demand for drinking water rose further, was transferred to river water infiltration. This was done desiccated valleys put under water, with infiltration ponds as a result. In purified form, the water back to me. Although this was - in part - surface water and Meijendel Berkheide reduced, but not the proposed water quality. So were the pools surrounded by bush and reed belts with many herbs. The valleys between the lakes and the sea verruigden, the influx of nutrient-rich groundwater. Today, through Open Infiltration New Style (OINS) abstraction and nature better coordinated. Not only is the sound of purified water infiltration, but also by improving the design of infiltration ponds and their surroundings and nature is a more appropriate quality of vegetation greatly improved the bush herbs have largely disappeared. After several decades of seeping of infiltration water of good quality, in an area of 400 acres parallel to the coast's natural fluctuation of water levels reduced. All in all plays of the dune and Meijendel Berkheide present various functions for water, as nature, as well as coastal protection, recreation.
Landscape
Location of Doing: this landscape is the landscape or Alandschap Helm said. This narrow area, mainly planted with pioneer communities with much open Helm, a coastal protection function and is therefore actively managed. Behind it lies an approximately one kilometer wide zone with parabolic dunes and uitblazingsvalleien, the Dewberry Rlandschap or Landscape. The dunes are located in southwest and northeast to thirty feet high. Grassland on the slopes is found, while the valleys are covered with thickets, wet meadows, sedge marshes and wet strooiselruigten small. In this zone are the most infiltration ponds.
The third area includes a mile wide to the middle dunes, the landscape is called buckthorn. This part consists of large, geparaboliseerde dune complexes with large extinct secondary valleys. The dunes are mostly overgrown and superficial decalcification with relatively low permanent thicket. The valleys have been used for agriculture and bear distinctive names and Kijfhoek Bierlap, the aforementioned valley Meijendel is also an example of an old farm valley. The valleys are mostly covered with thicket, but they are also the domain of the birch forests and dunes - on the edge - sea oaks.
The fourth area concerns the dune within a half mile wide strip, the torches Grass or Klandschap. The dunes are steep and high and forms a sharp transition to the underlying beach copses. The sand is generally stable and has an open and lime, moss and lichen-rich vegetation. Locally in this area pine table and planted forests. The beach is largely outside the copses Natura 2000gebied. It is in most places cultivated and includes a number of estates. A small part of this was recently withdrawn from agriculture and has been a natural feature, with dune riots (streams) are created.
Finally, around Katwijk a separate landscape type found the zeedorpenlandschap. As in other areas described, this is a small local landscape that is leached of nutrients and enriched by centuries extensive use of the dune for activities such as farming, mending nets and bleaching linen. Scheveningen In this landscape the buildings largely disappeared.
In the area Berkheide is an impervious layer of clay in the subsoil, that here in the old mouth of the Rhine was disposed. This package provides a high altitude of the terrain, and relatively high water tables. This large valleys are not extinct, so the area of small valleys.


Natural
Among the important natural values in the area are undoubtedly the grasslands (priority habitat type 2130) and dune slacks (H2190). As regards the first: they are in individual capacity in different landscapes found. Is taking a central role occupied by the species-rich TaraxacoGalietum veri, in the dunes of Meijendel and Berkheide particularly rare dune dandelions as big houses and beautiful particularity of the Cross Gentian Journal. This association thrives best at what flatter parts of the dune, which dry to slightly humid, relatively rich in calcium and preferably be grazed by rabbits. Also, the species-rich grasslands of the AnthyllidoSilenetum and Sileno-Tortuletum ruraliformis, both the most developed in the zeedorpenlandschap. The Anthyllido-Silenetum, together with the Taraxaco-Galietum part of the covenant-Polygalo Koelerion, grows best on calcareous north slopes and is known as the "chalk grassland in the dunes. Some notable species in this community catchfly (Silene nutans), Picris herb (Picris hieracioides) and its parasite Bitter Herbs broomrape (Orobanche picridis), vetch (Anthyllis vulneraria) and mosses as Etagemos (Hylocomium splendens), Pleated sikkelmos (Drepanocladus uncinatus) and Rozetmos (Rhodobryum roseum). When the slopes are not sufficiently grazed, could creeping willow (Salix repens) and Polypodium (Polypodium vulgare) dominate. Meijendel is the southernmost place in the coastal dunes of our country eikvarenrijke north slopes over a large area to prevent. The more open but also very rich herbal Sileno-Tortuletum is the counterpart of the Anthyllido-Silenetum on southern slopes. This association is related to the Dune Asterisks Association (Phleo-Tortuletum ruraliformis) and belongs to the same covenant (Tortulo-Koelerion). Particular species in this community include Duinaveruit (Artemisia campestris subsp. Maritima), Knol meadow grass (Poa bulbosa) and the very rare seeds Alyssum (Alyssum alyssoides).
In the mid-dune and fall within the Duinroos Fields, mainly in the sub Berkheide occur. This vegetation type reached this area in the south of the country. It is a large area found on weakly sloping terrain. The Dune Rose (Rosa pimpinellifolia) dominates the vegetation which is further characterized by a closed mosdek and species Flare Grass (Koeleria macrantha) and Luzula campestris (LUZULA campestris). Depending on the accompanying species, the vegetation included in Polygalo-Koelerion or Corynephorion canescentis. Grasslands of the latter covenant, and the vegetation-Plantagini Festucion, especially present in the decalcified middle and inner dune. Where the vegetation does not have too much lead in recreational pressure, are several species of the genus Cladonia lichens Cladina and on.
By a decrease in grazing pressure by rabbits (due to myxomatosis and the disease VHS) and nutrient enrichment from the reflection in many grassland species such as sand sedge (Carex arenaria), Small-reed (Calamagrostis epigejos) or Helm dominate. From the sixties of the last century, the species richness of grasslands thus greatly deteriorated. By setting grazing, since about 1990, occurs over large parts of the former species recovery. The promotion of drifting spots contributes to the restoration and conservation of grasslands.
In the past, many dune valleys fallen prey to agriculture or turned into infiltration ponds. Examples of the former are the valleys Kijfhoek, and Bierlap Meijendel. The long stretch, and Waterdel Violendel are examples of valleys that have been put under water. However, in some Meijendel nutrient-poor, calcareous dune slacks with species-rich vegetation spared. For example, in Good Housekeeping Valley are well-developed communities of the Caricion davallianae with species Parnassia (Parnassia palustris), Flesh Orchid (Dactylorhiza incarnata) and marsh helleborine (Epipactis palustris). This valley has been the source for many species in the restored valley parallel to the coast have been established.
The valleys with an agricultural past are now largely occupied by buckthorn and hawthorn thickets of birch dune pants. The thickets in the valleys are part of a large area of shrub in the area: less than 40% of the dune surface and Meijendel Berkheide is occupied by shrubs, with dune thicket (H2160) predominate. Other notable species in the dune thickets are Wild privet (Ligustrum vulgare), red flowering Common Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) and many kinds of roses, that Dog Rose (Rosa canina), Rosa rubiginosa (Rosa rubiginosa) Hedge Rose (Rosa corymbifera), Rosa nitudila and Rosa obtusifolia. The dune birch forests, belonging to the Association Crataego-Betuletum pubescentis AlnoPadion of the covenant, Meijendel are particularly well developed and diverse, especially in the more humid parts of old agricultural valleys. Part of these forests has long been able to develop spontaneously, and thicket species such as Buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) to tree height growth. The birch forests develop at many locations in oak forests of the alliance Quercion roboris, as in most inland dunes are found. The birch forests and oak forests belong to both the habitat type Wooded dunes of the Atlantic, Continental and Boreal region (H2180).
Like many other dune areas, the fauna (birds excluded) and in Meijendel Berkheide less intense and less systematically studied the flora and vegetation. Yet there are at least two species of attention, both represented in the Annex II of the Habitats Directive. First, in recent surveys in a number of dune valleys close to the hive snail found in large numbers. Natura 2000gebied Meijendel Berkheide and is one of the most important habitats for this species in our country. They are relatively often found in litter of poplar. In addition, several bunkers in the area after the Second World War have not been cleaned up and who now serve as a place for bats to hibernate. These include important for wintering of more Bat.

As already noted knows the systematic Vogelonderzoek Meijendel in a long tradition. It is perhaps the area in the Netherlands with the longest time series for breeding birds, which already began in 1958. From Berkheide have been available since 1954 censuses, though the systematic investigation since 1976 until arrested. All these data provide an impressive picture of the changing dune bird community, a model for change throughout the Holland dunes. Obviously it speaks about the reaction of the world on the change in breeding system (construction and development infiltration ponds), use (increase recreation) and condition of vegetation (increase thickets and thicket grow to forest). And the establishment of the Fox has put forward, including in the predation of ground nesting gulls.
The increase in water and associated wetland vegetation in the dunes is reflected in a surge of marsh and water birds. Waterfowl as the Little Grebe, Black-necked Grebe, Grebe, Tufted Duck and Shoveler have from the beginning of the nineties of the last century, another important part of the profit to make. Recent newcomers include Cormorant and Bluethroat. Of the cormorant, which in 1991 drew Meijendel are several hundred pairs present. The Bluethroat settled in the early years of 1990 and is now represented by a few dozen pairs. In the breeding season of 2006, both of the rare bittern as a territory in Woudaap Meijendel noted. The Krooneend also seems hard to get a foothold, though at the moment only a few couples. By grazing of wetland vegetation has a majority of ordinary marsh birds such as Reed Warbler, Marsh Warbler and Reed Bunting, difficult. The thinning of the cane (the reduced nutrients in the water) plays tricks on marsh birds.
The Grey Goose and appropriate exotics have recently penetrated into the dunes: Egyptian Goose, Canada Goose, Ruddy Shelduck and Indian Ringneck. For the Egyptian Goose is Meijendel the dubious honor from here that the now flourishing Dutch population started its march. In 1967 the first breeding event here in the Netherlands this type in Africa. It was undoubtedly escaped from captivity birds. Subsequently, the number of couples like the slick quickly began to increase.
Many types of open dunes are disappearing, especially the brothers and the types of soil dust dunes. Thus, the gulls coming to the Fox almost disappeared, while in the eighties thousands of pairs of silver gulls, gulls and small jacket gulls were found. Gull brooding presence of a few pairs in the crowns of hawthorn. Shelduck, Wheatear and Curlew are also decimated. The population development at the Lark Tree shows a moving image. Presumably they came only towards the end of the fifties into the brood dune. Subsequently, the numbers increased to the late sixties and then again to fall sharply. Only in this century came recovery and reached a level that not even reached them. Currently, dozens of pairs breeding annually. The general's traditional Tree Pipit take in recent years to clear, and once again heard the Nightjar.
On the whole, show the numbers of the thicket birds a significant increase and the highest increase of forest birds. But here is the picture different from species to species and especially the last decade the numbers of many species again. Examples include Linnet thicket birds for forest birds such as Green Woodpecker and Golden Oriole and raptors such as Hobby and Kestrel. Many other species show fluctuations in numbers. Thicket birds whose numbers have greatly increased his Stonechat, Grasshopper Warbler, Lesser Whitethroat and Nightingale. Woodland still (strongly) increasing, Buzzard, Great Spotted Woodpecker, Blackcap, Bullfinch and Glanskop and conifer lovers and Crested Tit, Coal Tit and Goldcrest. Some types of woodland is particularly in recent years has fallen sharply, including Turtle Dove, Green Woodpecker, Redstart, Spotted Flycatcher, and Matkop Small redpoll. For Wood Pigeon, Magpie and Jackdaw would ever be due to the establishment of the Hawk in the dunes. As more parts of the dunes in Holland Meijendel recent years during the summer wasps thieves noted. Thus, in 2005 only two juveniles seen, which in a breeding event within or near the field points.

The history of the dunes and Berkheide Meijendel shows how humans over time in different ways has made use of the dunes. In the Middle Ages were the dunes largely owned by the nobility. The inner was used for hunting, so the vegetation could develop here virtually undisturbed. The present forests were used as a scrub. In the central parts of the dunes were a lot of sprays, partly caused by the use of the dunes as pasture for livestock. In order to limit this spray was Helm (Ammophila arenaria) planted. The coast in this part of our country is highly vulnerable to erosion and a series of storms resulted in large areas of dunes along with parts of the villages of Katwijk and Scheveningen in the sea disappeared. In the 17th century the dunes used as a breeding place for rabbits. In the 18th century, parts of the dunes that are fit under cultivation, arable and forest plantations. In 1874 (in Meijendel) started dune water extraction, which is an important mark on the field would fall. Like other continental dunes of Holland was the dune strip above Hague rich in wet dune valleys. Are the famous stories that in severe winters could skate through the dunes of the Hook of Holland to Den Helder (no doubt with many Kluning). The abstraction of drinking water (by digging jumps so-called) resulted in a strong dehydration, which conversely, as more water was extracted (through different drinking) is becoming increasingly clear assumed. In the second half of the 20th century, when the demand for drinking water rose further, was transferred to river water infiltration. This was done desiccated valleys put under water, with infiltration ponds as a result. In purified form, the water back to me. Although this was - in part - surface water and Meijendel Berkheide reduced, but not the proposed water quality. So were the pools surrounded by bush and reed belts with many herbs. The valleys between the lakes and the sea verruigden, the influx of nutrient-rich groundwater. Today, through Open infile tration New Style (OINS) abstraction and nature better coordinated. Not only is the sound of purified water infiltration, but also by improving the design of infiltration ponds and their surroundings and nature is a more appropriate quality of vegetation greatly improved the bush herbs have largely disappeared. After several decades of seeping of infiltration water of good quality, in an area of 400 acres parallel to the coast's natural fluctuation of water levels reduced. All in all plays of the dune and Meijendel Berkheide present various functions for water, as nature, as well as coastal protection, recreation
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